The Artifacts Produced on the Images during CT Scans

The following are the types of artifacts that can occur in a CT scan: streaking, rings, distortion, and shading. Streaking is usually due to a single measurement inconsistency. rings are due to individual detector calibration errors. distortion is due to helical reconstruction, and shading, which is due to the gradual deviation of a group of channels or views from the actual measurement (Barrett and Keat 2004).The causes for the origin of artifacts can be based on the following causes: physics-based artifacts, patient-based artifacts, helical and multisection artifacts, scanner-based artifacts, and artifacts due to other causes.1. Physics-based artifacts are related to the processes involved in CT data acquisition.a. Beam hardening is the preferential absorption of lower energy photons leaving only the higher energy photons during the passage of photons through a dense object (Anschel, Romanelli, and Mazumdar 2007). It is seen as a dark area immediately near an object of high attenuation (Gay and Woodcock 2007). Beam hardening gives rise to two types of artifacts: cupping artifacts and dark bands or streaks (Barrett and Keat 2004)b. Photon starvation-as the x-ray beam travels horizontally, a great deal of attenuation occurs and only few photons reach the detectors. The image, therefore, has horizontal streaks (Barrett and Keat 2004.)c. Undersampling is the presence of a large interval between projections. View aliasing is radiating fine stripes from a dense structure. Ray aliasing is stripes occurring close to the structure (Barrett and Keat 2004.)2. Patient-based artifacts occur when the patient moves during the CT scan or if the patient has any metallic objects (removable or non removable) in their body. Metal objects cause streaking artifacts (Barrett and Keat 2004) because x-ray absorption results in incomplete projection profiles (Bushong 2000). Patient movement results in shading or streaking.One of the most prevalent artifacts in CT scanning is due to respiratory motion. This artifact occurs when there is a discrepancy between the chest position on the CT image. As a result, curvilinear cold areas can occur, and this is the most common type (Sureshbabu and Mawlawi, 2005). Streaking or shading artifacts can also result if any part of the patient lies outside the scanning field (incomplete projection) (Barrett and Keat 2004.)

To What Extent Is Truth Different in Mathematics the Arts and Ethics

Now coming to the issue of mathematics, arts and ethics and to what extent they are related to the truth it is necessary to analyze each issue so that it becomes easier to justify the difference on merits. It may appear that truth is closer to one issue as compared to the others. However, it is better to assume that they are all inter-related and the differences only crop on the degrees of the scale of the different aspects of truth in relation to each issue.Truth can be treated as noun, verb, adjective and adverb. Truth can be personified, activated, used as reinforcement and described clearly. This is part of the comparison that will be used to analyze truth on the issues of mathematics, arts and ethics.Mathematics goes hand-in-hand with science. Mathematics is composed of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Mathematics is also composed of ratios, theorems, quadrics, quadrants, By themselves, these forms of mathematics are irrefutable because they have to do with numbers and present nothing but facts. Thus, they are closest to the truth or they are closest to perfection.“Judgments based on values must only be used in the emotion-based areas of knowledge such as the Arts and Ethics but must not be used in areas of knowledge based on the reason that includes the sciences, history and mathematics” (Discuss the ways in which way value judgments should and should not be used in different ways of knowledge, 2010).Emotion-based areas of knowledge such as Arts and Ethics will be dealt with later in this paper. Mathematics is based on areas of knowledge based on reason. Mathematics has less to do with emotion and is reason-based due to which it is center-staged on calculations and evaluations describing cardinal truths involving the various subjects of science such as physics and astronomy.Mathematics not only aims at perfection but also seeks to explain complex ideas lucidly. The brilliance with which numbers can be crunched and tied up with facts was revealed by Archimedes, Sir Isaac Newton.

Materialism and Dualism

It has been said to be an emphasis on the lower order needs for material comfort and physical safety when compared to higher-order needs like self-expression and quality of life and as a contrast to post-materialism.(Inglehart, 2000). Some researchers consider materialism as “a value that guides people’s choices and conduct in a variety of situations, including, but not limited to, consumption arenas” (Richins and Dawson, 1992, 307). Materialism therefore generally refers to the placing of a relatively high value on wealth and material goods.around the 6th century B.C. and in India and China at an even earlier period. Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato all had something to say about materialism. Christianity brought the concept of the spirit or supernatural into the subject. Rene Descartes, the Father of Modern Philosophy, proposed the Cartesian Dualism, which spoke about an irreconcilable dualism of mind and body in the 17th century. Materialism was brought back by Thomas Hobbes and it flourished duringthe 18th to the 20th centuries with advances in chemistry, physics, and mechanics. Charles Darwin furthered the materialistic view through his works which explained the evolution of every living thing on earth without any need for a supernatural power to do things.(1998). Organismic theories have been suggested for explaining the inverse relationship between materialism and quality of life. Researchers have said that those who believe in intrinsic goals without expecting external rewards or approval can reach a valuable and satisfactory quality of life. Those who believe that extrinsic goals like external rewards and approval tend to lower their well-being and have greater distress in the long run ( Roberts and Clement, 80). Other researchers believed that extrinsic goals like financial success, social recognition, and an appealing appearance were negatively related to a good quality of life which resulted in poor adjustment and poor mental health.

The Construction of the Humber Bridge

It was in the 1930s that plans for the bridge were drawn up but only in 1972 did work finally begin. Before the construction was the passage of the Humber Bridge Act in 1959, establishing the Humber Bridge Board for raising funds (Humber Bridge Board, 2009).There are two reasons for the construction of the Humber Bridge. The first of this is that a shifting bed and a navigable channel along which a craft can travel characterize the Humber, of which a suspension bridge without support piers in mid-stream allows no obstruction for the estuary. The second is that opting for a channel instead of a bridge (the Humber Bridge) would cost excessively due to the geology and topography of the area (Humber Bridge Board, 2009). The opportunity for commercial, industrial, and tourist development was given way through the construction of the Humber Bridge, which likewise saved several millions of vehicle miles between both sides of the Humber estuary (The Royal Academy of Engineering, 2003). These potential developments and financial savings serve as good justification for the construction of the Humber Bridge with huge cost investments, of which factored to such cost is the ongoing cost of maintenance and repair over the life span of the structure.It is important to mention that the Humber Estuary, across which now lies the Humber Bridge, had been a barrier to trade and development between the two banks whereby local interests were shown for over 100 years concerning the construction of either a bridge or a tunnel across it. It took eight years to finish work on the construction of the Humber Bridge project, during which several thousands of tons of steel and concrete were used with over a thousand workers and staff working on peak activities (ibid).The structural type of the Humber bridge construction is a suspension bridge that is gravity-anchored, asymmetric, and inclined-hanging with function/usage of a motorway or freeway bridge.

Cultural differences in nonverbal communication

The different ways of expressing nonverbal communication become pronounced especially in a multicultural context. Different cultures have different ways of expressing themselves nonverbally. However, it is worth noting that there are nonverbal communication ways which are similar across the board. One unique feature about nonverbal communication is that forms of expression used in a culture to express a particular message may not express the same message if used in another culture. Nonverbal communication forms can therefore be said to be the same across the board, but the ways they are used differs a great deal and hence the messages they communicate differ a great deal depending on how and where they are used. Because of these fundamental differences across the board, it therefore becomes possible for subjects to communicate different messages when using nonverbal communication forms in a multicultural context without their knowledge. This leads to a breakdown of communication and emergence of conflicts. This is the subject of this research paper. The paper will make a detailed discussion of cultural differences in nonverbal communication. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION A clear understanding of nonverbal communication is essential for a proper discussion of the objective of this paper. According to Martin and Friedman, nonverbal communication is a way of passing messages or/and emotions without using words. Ways in which verbal communication is expressed include “facial expression, gestures, gaze, touch and vocal cues” (Martin and Friedman 3). Davis describes nonverbal communication with more features and includes actions such as “rolling your eyes, how you look at someone, your posture, whether you move your hands, how close you stand, the tone of your voice and the speed at which you speak” (233). In the views of Prinsen and Punyanunt-Carter, nonverbal communication also includes touching and eye contact. Basically, it can be argued that nonverbal communication makes use of body organs to communicate. The manner in which the body organs are twisted or moved or altered can communicate differently. These movements of body organs are numerous and all of them cannot be mentioned in this paper. This is especially the case when different cultures are involved. Martin and Friedman argue that nonverbal communication is quite essential especially where “verbal communications are untrustworthy, ambiguous or otherwise difficult to interpret” (Martin and Friedman 3). Topan shares the same views and adds that nonverbal communication is more important than verbal communication. He argues that this is because “up to 93 percent of all communication takes place at a nonverbal and paraverbal level” (Topan 132). Davis equally concurs by saying nonverbal communication has more effect than words (233). Nonverbal communication has clearly been ranked top as the best means of true expression. Indeed, Topan argues that people will choose to take the message they see in place of the one they hear (136). This simply means if there is a contradiction between what one is saying verbally and nonverbally, then the message communicated nonverbally is taken as the actually intended message that is being communicated. With a good understanding of what nonverbal communication is and even more importantly its significance, it is therefore necessary to examine how different cultures express themselves nonverbally. At this point, it is

Marks and Spencers Corporate Identity

The explanations included in the specific section of the corporate website I came to the conclusion that the success of the firm is based on specific policies: the continuous update of the firm’s products and services, i.e. the enforcement of innovation throughout the organization, the development of the firm’s presence in the global market and the increase of the firm’s property portfolio (Marks and Spencer, corporate website, 2010). As for the performance of the firm’s strategic plans, this seems to be satisfactory leading to the further development of the firm’s activities – my view on this issue is based on the relevant statements of the firm’s managers. Indeed, in the corporate website – section referring to the firm’s – it is clearly mentioned that the firm’s current strategic plans focus on the following targets: ‘Increasing the pace of change and operational execution in the business. leveraging MS Direct by building more channels to market. building our international portfolio to grow our global customer base. and reinvigorating our brand communications’ (Marks and Spencer, corporate website, 2010). Using the firm’s financial results and the reports that have been published regarding the performance of Marks and Spencer in the British and the international market I’ve come to the conclusion that the firm has managed to achieve the targets set in its mission statement applying its Core Values (as included in its mission statement but also its Code of Ethics). However, I’ve noticed that there is no specific provision for the global recession. Despite the fact that a series of plans are presented for the development of the firm’s performance in general, it is not explained whether the firm’s policies have been affected by the current financial crisis or whether they are going to be alternated in the near future in order for the firm’s resistance to the global recession to be increased. I would like to refer – briefly –to the reports and the figures on which my views in regard to the firm’s mission statement are based.

Toyota Motor Corporation

Toyota is a company steeped in values, traditions, and a revered work ethic in its corporate culture among its officials and employees. It is guided by a code of conduct that seeks to create a “harmonious and lively work environment” in all its corporate offices, manufacturing sites, and affiliate companies. Japanese management style is a firm believer of the workplace being an extension of family life, hence, Toyota promotes a working environment where harmonious, friendly, and long-term relationships exist among its workers.Toyota manufactured vehicles have a reputation for high-quality and excellent workmanship. This reputation, however, was put on the line, when safety issues led to a massive recall of vehicles unprecedented in the entire auto industry of the world. The situation became worse when crisis management communications failed to shore up the confidence of the general public on the way management has responded to the controversy.How did Toyota’s corporate communication activities handle the recall crisis of 2010? As compiled and narrated by MacKenzie and Evans (Motor Trends, 2010), Toyota’s recall crisis began in August 2009 with a fatal car crash reportedly caused by involuntary acceleration, originally presumed to be caused by the car’s floor matting system, which interfered with the car’s gas pedal.After an investigation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and after being lambasted by several media outfit, particularly the Los Angeles Times, and exposing unreported incidents of a car crash of Toyota vehicles in the past, Toyota began sending letters to owners, sometime in October or two months after the fatal car crash in August, indicating a recall of the Toyota vehicles to deal with the “unintentional acceleration issues”, but without admitting any factory defects on its products.

The United Nations Organisations Effect On The Conduct Of Diplomacy

international security. development of friendly relations between nations. achievement of international cooperation by resolving international problems and by the encouragement of respect for human rights. and is a center where the efforts of nations are harmonized. With headquarters in New York, the United Nations Organization has a significant presence in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi, according to the Federal Office of Communications (2005).Various international organizations and agencies help the UNO in conducting world affairs more successfully among countries, and in preventing conditions of anarchy or disorder in all regions of the world (Thakur 2001). “One of the main purposes of the United Nations Organization is the maintenance of international peace and security” (Acuna 1995, p.1). Besides peace-keeping, the United Nations Organization is also responsible for the maintenance of diplomacy among the different member countries. One of the key components of the United Nations is the Security Council which is conferred with wide-ranging powers by the United Nations’ member countries.The United Nations Organization is at the legislative and normative centre of numerous international organizations that influence the everyday life of people across the globe, in several different ways. The United Nations Organization heads several Subsidiary Bodies, Programmes and Funds, Functional and Regional Commissions, Standing Committees, Expert Bodies, Specialized Agencies and, other organizations. Specialized Agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the World Bank group, and other international bodies (UN, 2012).In the new millennium, with the birth of a new era in world affairs, “the United Nations is the focus of hopes and aspirations for a future where men and women live at peace with themselves and in harmony with nature” (Thakur 2000, p.2).

American Telephone and Telegraph Company Citizenship and Sustainability

The current clientele of theATT company is divided into the ‘Signature Client Group’ (SCG), in which it has 300 accounts in collaboration with Global multinationals and spends $ 5-10 M (million)in the telecom sector on it, the ‘Premier Client Group’ (PCG), in which it has a stupendous 22K+ (thousand plus) accounts composed of the Enterprise, mid-market and acquisition sectors where the total telecom spend is $ 1M and the small business (SMB) sector, wherein it covers the national and the regional business markets, spending $100K-1M $50K-100K on each respectively (Kalata, 2011). The SMB currently has 125K accounts. Besides these three major groups, it has global ramifications which it labels as ‘Most of World’ (MOW) which incorporates the non-US based clientele, where the projected spend is $500K, and also offers government solutions in the local government, educational and medical sectors’ (Kalata, 2011). ATT offers network, devices as well as applications’ to its consumer base. Focus Strategy ATT has developed its product lines for its varied customer base by focusing on differentiation and cost leadership which can be illustrated with Porter’s Generic Model.ATT subsidiaries and affiliates provide a wide array of network resources for their consumers within the US as well as internationally (Stephenson, 2008). Keeping abreast with technology, it is currently the exclusive provider of the fastest 3G network within the United States with eyes on progressing towards 4G as and when it acquires the capability for it through its constant focus on innovation. In addition, it claims to provide the fastest wireless, wifi, internet broadband and voice services within the US. It has also diversified into the TV broadcast (DIRECTV) and yellow pages business, offering multimedia local search solutions. Their IP (Internet Protocol) based business communications services are considered the most advanced in the world. The company offers tailor-made solutions for the different cultural groups within the United States, never forgetting what is important for the consumers, shareholders, business associates and employees. Key Success Metrics In the highly competitive global environment, survival and sustainability of a company depend upon the level of its adaptability to the continuously changing consumer demand, ability to come up with affordable and technically abreast products for its market, good employee management and judicious expenditure of resources. In terms of its financial infrastructure, ATT is a giant amongst its competitors and its workforce is one of the best in the telecommunications sector. ATT has diversified its business and focused on aspects in which it can really excel. It has kept its primary focus on developing GSM wireless networks which occupy the envious position of being 88% of the currently prevalent global networks. It is, therefore, the largest US operator in the global market. Being the best provider of 3G networks, it is gradually focusing on transitioning towards the 4G technology, although its global deployment may take some years. The latest technology in communications known as LTE is already undergoing trials under the aegis of ATT. The company has invested billions in its wireless networks around the world. In 2009, ATT invested $17.3 billion and intended to increase the amount further in subsequent years (Kalata, 2011).

Situations in Which a Search Without Obtaining a Warrant

The need for warrant usually arises when law enforcement officials confront situations in which they need to respond to a myriad of ‘crisis’ under which police encounter might involve serious criminality (Decker, 1999).There are two types of warrants, arrest warrants and search warrants, although arrest warrants are rarely used or required. Although search warrants are often used, especially in cases where there is an extensive investigation, the Court has broadened the circumstances under which the police may conduct warrantless searches. This consideration is reflected in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure 41(c), which states, “It shall command the officer to search, within a specified period of time not to exceed 10 days” (Bloom, 2003, p. 91).In order to allow search warrants, judges or magistrates base their probable cause determination on sworn affidavits signed by police officers. This provides a written record if it is necessary to review the probable cause determination. A reviewing court will only review that information that was presented to the magistrate at the time the warrant was issued. Some jurisdictions, including the federal system, permit the issuance of a warrant on sworn oral communications, even if communicated by telephone. In this situation, the judge will place the person applying for the warrant under oath and record the conversation when possible and if it is not possible to record the conversation then the judge will create a longhand verbatim record. According to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure 41(c), the recording or the longhand record must be filed with the court (Bloom, 2003, p. 91). Since the government has to respond to the burden in hearings on warrantless searches, the police officers testimony serves as the beginning point for a trial courts consideration of the constitutionality of the police action (Larry, 1999).Although traditional search warrants are supported by probable cause, lower courts have supported the issuance of anticipatory warrants.