However, attention should be given to the different types of advertising that have proven to be the most effective. The debate continues as to which approach is most effective. There are many approaches a company can take to their advertising, including a general emphasis upon informing their customers regarding their product’s strong points, features, or other information. Recently, though, more and more companies have been focusing upon the concept of brand building, attempting to form an emotional bond with their customers that becomes associated not only with the individual product but also with the overall brand to which this product belongs. To determine what creates the most effective advertising – informing consumers about the product’s features or creating an emotional bond with consumers – it is necessary to examine the available literature regarding these issues as they have been addressed in consumer studies.The debate between whether advertisements should concentrate on building emotional bonds with consumers or should focus on brands has been held since the advent of scientific application to the field. While ad agencies in America embraced the psychology of images to influence consumer choice reflecting an emotional appeal to the senses, businesses recognized the need to avoid the outrageous claims and voyeurism most commonly associated with the medical hawkers that worked to swindle people out of their money by selling contrived unproven concoctions to cure everything from balding heads to excess weight (Thomson, 1996). Meanwhile, the British market took the stance that it was the marketer’s responsibility to educate a previously unthinking public about the brands and products available, effectively providing all information necessary for them to make the ‘correct’ decision (Church, 2000). Despite this early emphasis on bringing product features to the attention of a viewing audience, recent scientific thought regarding the importance of relationship principles has led to what Deighton (1996) has labeled a tremendous paradigm shift in the world of advertising.
The normal animal response to danger is either flight or fight. When we get hurt, we either run away, or we try to beat what hurt us. When those fail, we are left helpless at the mercy of whoever is threatening us. There are many reactions to such a situation. It can range from rage, to tears, or even withdrawal. One of the most interesting reactions to helplessness is attachment to the captor. This is what happens in Stockholm syndrome.According to a news report by Jennifer Donelan (2011), an 11 year old girl named Jaycee Lee Dugard was kidnapped on June 1991. She was found through an investigation on August 24, 2009, 18 years later. She had been raped and held captive by a sex offender and his wife, bearing two daughters within the time of her capture. She admitted to feelings of dependence on her captors, and when her daughters were born, fear, which kept her from effecting an escape. One could argue that she was a child when she was kidnapped and that she was powerless to do anything about it. This is the main reason why Stockholm syndrome is prevalent in children. A child is powerless against an adult and is easier to convince of the kidnapper’s ‘goodness’ since children are dependent in nature. At first that was so, but as the abduction went on, she was given many opportunities to ask for help. She was allowed outside more than once and even had access to a telephone and email. During the initial questioning when Garrido was brought into custody, Ms Dugard (under the name Allissa) even said, he was a changed man and that he was a great person who was good with her kids (Allen, 2009)According to de Fabrique, Romano, Vecchi and van Hasselt (2007), Stockholm syndrome is a paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein a positive bond between hostage and captor occurs that appears irrational in light of the frightening ordeal endured by the victims (p. 12). There are many ways to do this, but essentially, four things need to happen to make the victim like the captor: The victim is given no means of escape and depends on the captor for basic needs as well as the victim’s life. the victim is cut off from the outside world with only the captor as a source of information and communication. the victim is threatened and most likely hurt to show them that the captor has the power to do so, making the victim come to the conclusion that making the captor less angry is safer. Usually, it involves deprivation, beating, death threats, rape or almost any show of force that can frighten the victim enough to be desperate. and lastly, the captor shows some degree of kindness to the victim. This is essential because it humanizes the captor and makes him out into something other than a bad man. In an isolated area where there is only that one person whom you rely on for everything, an act of kindness makes him look like a good person even though he was the one who kidnapped you. The whole process would leave the victim bruised and battered physically, emotionally and psychologically.Whether stockholm syndrome comes about as the intention of the kidnapper or not, the victim is still on the losing end of the deal. This is not just limited to kidnappings and children. Whenever there is a battered wife hoping that her husband will be nicer if she cooks right, or if a child starts to follow the orders of a bully, there is a shade of stockholm syndrome in all abusive relationships. When there is no where to go and no means of escape from pain, the mind tries to find a way to reduce the pain, even if it means becoming a slave to your abuser. It is never the victim’s choice. It is part of human psychology.ReferencesAllen, N. (2009, Nov 5). Jaycee Lee Dugard showed signs of Stockholm syndrome. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/jaycee-lee-dugard/6509828/Jaycee-Lee-Dugard-showed-signs-of-Stockholm-syndrome.htmlde Fabrique, N., Romano, S. J., Vecchi, G. M., Van Hasselt, V. B. (2007). Understanding Stockholm syndrome. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 76(7). Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/2007-pdfs/july07leb.pdf/at_download/fileDonelan, J. (2011, Jul 8). Jaycee Dugard recounts horror of 18 years in captivity. ABC News. Retrieved from http://www.wjla.com/articles/2011/07/jaycee-dugard-recounts-horror-of-18-years-in-captivity-63386.html
An employee may need rest from the place of work, but may not want to ask for it. As a manager, considering the poor output of the employee due to lack of rest, he will force him to get rest. In applying this concept, the manager must show respect to the employees, and balance the respect he has and the task at hand. This concept is characterized by the devotion of a leader to his juniors, and of his desire to assist them in a professional and personal manner. To practice tough empathy, a manager must show the attitude of a value-driven action and portray characters of being firm, tough and direct. He must understand the victim’s view, and thus develop trust. In my own analysis, I agree with this concept of tough empathy, because it builds a good relation and trust in an organization. This situation is effective in a military organization where soldiers are in combat, and one of them faces psychological disturbances, affecting his effectiveness on duty. For example, an officers duty may conflict with his spiritual beliefs on life, and to reconcile these beliefs, and his duty, this concept is necessary (Garner, 2009). A leader cannot build the effective and diverse relationship without depicting some elements of empathy. This is because the ability to see issues in another person’s perspective and identify with the person’s feelings and emotions creates a social atmosphere of building trust. The victim in question sees a sense of concern from the leader. The effect of this is that it produces a stronger sense of cohesion in an organization, strengthening the morale of the staff. It enhances better communication and increases the level of discipline in an organization. Empathy improves the ability of a leader to solve problems and make decisions. It enables workers in an organization to achieve their goals.
One pauses to question why this field is so much more interested in foibles rather than strengths?One reason is compassion. Those who are suffering are assumed to need more help than those who are fine. Another reason is that funding agencies prioritize research on the relief and eventual cure of mental illness. Still, another reason lies in our theories about psychological processes. Negative events seem to have more impact than positive events and that information about bad things is processed more thoroughly than information about good. (Gable Haidt, 2005)The realization that Psychology has had more emphasis on the negative than on more positive topics like the character-building. happiness. implications of a pleasant childhood. well-being. achievement, etc has paved the way for the emergence of Positive Psychology.Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, the founders of Positive Psychology put together a special issue of the American Psychologist in 2000 dealing with various aspects of the new area of Psychology, giving impetus to its further development. Over the years, it has gained much attention, research, and application in many disciplines. In hindsight, people were realizing that many were already practicing it even before it was given an appropriate name because it addressed a basic need – the human need to feel joy and be in a state of well-being. Motivational speakers and inspirational writers reaped much adulation from their audiences and readers who view them as dispensers of wisdom. Andrew Matthews, a cartoonist, writer, and a much sought-after speaker wrote a book entitled Being Happy, which became a worldwide hit not only because of his hilarious cartoons interspersed in his meaty text, but more because his simple, direct and often humorous approach to dealing with life’s challenges.
The Descastes’ Method of Doubt Rene Descartes is one of the most significant philosophers in history based on his contributions to science. He is referred to as the Father of Modern Philosophy with renowned works such as Meditation on First Philosophy, the Cartesian coordinate system, the Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy (Williams 1-17). One of the most important philosophical views presented by Descartes is the Method of Doubt, which part of his views. Descartes’ Method of Doubt began with his view that knowledge is private and that everything is constantly in doubt. With this he expressed that there is a continuous quest for disproving doubts about knowledge which can only be acted upon through a man’s reflective thought, thus, man can only trust his own reflective thought. Though his views can be considered subjective, the drive to seek knowledge and to prove different concepts had been recognized related to doubt (Gillespie 761). Descartes manner of seeking knowledge was corresponding to the scientific method which starts with a problem. His scientific queries started with doubt, but not with self doubt. He stated that ideas that had been reflected from his mind were presented and simply stated without prejudice. Then the questions were divided into specific questions that can be clearly answered. The reflective process was then applied to each query on the basis of difficulty or the preset order. Upon the completion of specific ideas, the generalized views were then achieved (Williams 18). Descartes trust on reflective thought is the first principle where he based the subsequent views (Gillespie 761). In his First Meditations, he raised grounds for doubting beliefs in everyday existence. Examples of the arguments presented by Descartes are lunacy and God arguments which raised doubts on opposing groups of believers (Broughton 1). In the process of raising doubts, his main objective is to achieve absolute certainty. In addition, he focused on the method of inquiry because he believed that if doubts on the method of seeking knowledge were eliminated, certainty can be achieved (Broughton 1). In Descartes’ Discourse he presented the Method of Doubt as the method used in the investigation of the foundations of philosophy (Broughton 1). The application of the said though was not limited to philosophy since he also used the method in mathematical research and queries (p. 5). What then is the main aim of Descartes in the establishment of the method? The Method of Doubt is the method of Descartes in the conception of knowledge. His views mean that knowledge should be uncertain and it should lack any form of doubt. For that matter, he raised doubts and uncertainty to be answered and to be eliminated (Broughton 7-8). His main aim then is to achieve concepts that cannot be doubted and refuted. Descartes’ skepticism is another point of query because of his view on raising doubt and the application of skepticism in scientific and philosophical inquiries. Based on his view though, his intentions of proving knowledge by raising doubts and skepticism were not because he was a skeptic. Based on the researches on the Method of Doubt by Descartes, the skepticism can be considered as a positive element since it can make scientists face the doubts associated with the quest for knowledge. Instead of moving away from the doubts, they were tackled head-on and resolved (Perin 52). Conclusion The Method of Doubt by Descartes had contributed significantly to the method of scientific, mathematical and philosophical inquiry and research in modern era. Being a skeptic or not had been an important element in Descartes achievements into becoming the Father of Modern Philosophy. Works Cited: Broughton, Janet. Descartes’s Method of Doubt. Princeton University Press, 2002. Gillespie, Alex. Descartes’ Demon: A Dialogical Analysis of Meditations on First Philosophy. Theory Psychology 16.6 (2006): 761-81. Perin, Casey. Descartes and the Legacy of Ancient Skepticism. A Companion to Descartes. Ed. Janet Broughton and John Carriero. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2008. 52-65 Williams, Bernard Arthur Owen. Descartes: The Project of Inquiry. Routledge, 2005.
My observation of the instructional approaches and the effects of the specific approach adopted upon the students had great value in relation to the course learning l had. Thus, it was an evidently useful project and it was done at an 8th Grade Mathematics Class. My observation class contained thirty students and the teacher in charge of them was Mr. John. The class started at 10 O’ clock in the morning and it was necessary for the teacher and the students to come to good rapport with each other as it was a fresh day and the effectiveness of the class depended mainly on the nature of relation between the instructor and the learner. The strategy adopted by Mr. John in establishing a good connection with his students as well as the special way of grouping had very captivating effect on me. It was interesting as the activity for introduction to the class was purely based on the psychological approach of teaching. The strategy adopted by the teacher was important for they looked into the needs of the students from a psychological outlook. Every type of student was given detailed attention from the beginning of the class and the teacher was careful about special attention to the ones required in the rapport building activity. Accommodations made by the teacher for the students with special needs were part of the preliminary observation result. All these factors suggested how useful the observation results that I gathered were and this also pointed out the implication of such a case study report.The instructional strategy seemed to be highly relevant in the case of the class atmosphere as the type of grouping, the teacher’s approach to individualized instruction, and technology integration, etc were evidently suggesting the quality of the instructional approach which addressed the need of diverse students.
Scientific methods or tricks are often used to understand or know another person’s thoughts. In this paper, some basic techniques of mind-reading will be presented to show how mind reading can both be scientifically intriguing and mentally entertaining. For the first kind of mind reading that mainly involves scientific procedures, one needs a basic understanding of both the verbal and non-verbal cues that a person gives off. There are no materials needed to do this kind of mind reading other than knowledge of scientific theories that govern how people behave and communicate. Knowledge in the fields of communication and psychology greatly helps in this matter. Additionally, knowledge in effectively using the senses is also necessary (Mind Reading 1723). On the other hand, the other kind of mind reading that involves tricks might need a couple of materials before one can actually perform the mind reading process. Some of the most basic things to use are paper, pencil, scissors, ruler, and stapler. In addition, one needs an assistant to do the mind reading trick. This trick should be done in a place where the mind reader can be safely isolated from the others at certain times during the mind reading process (Clark 75-6).While both mind reading techniques require the skill of the mind readers, they are done differently. The serious mind-reading process first requires the mind reader to list a series of questions to ask the participant. Second, one should observe the participant keenly in order to take note of the verbal and non-verbal replies and reactions.Third, the mind reader can then throw in suggestive remarks that will elicit more hints from the participant.
The complicated theories developed by Sigmund Freud became highly controversial especially in the era they were presented due to the fact that it involved psychosexual issues considered taboo at the time. Still, because it attracted much interest and debate, it gained a prestigious distinction in the field of Psychology to merit a great deal of influence, intensive study, modification, and application.His idea of the three systems of personality, the id, ego, and superego being in constant battle within a person makes sense to me, as I liken it to a person’s continual debate of what is right and wrong, and then behaves according to his moral decisions. Such decisions are affected by what society dictates as well as what the person truly desires for himself.Although the Freudian view of psychosexual stages of development coincides with other contemporary theories on human growth and development, I find it too degrading. It demeans a person’s capacity to make sound judgments because he is viewed as enslaved by his biological fixations and primal needs. It is as if it implies that a person is imprisoned by his past experiences and that his horrible past determines his woeful future.To survive to live with negative experiences that may have marred a person’s personality or life views, he develops defense mechanisms that aim to keep those traumatic experiences repressed in the unconscious. These defense mechanisms are usually practiced by everyone in their daily life not knowing that they are applications of Freudian thought. An example of a defense mechanism commonly used is ‘rationalization’. If a person has strived hard to reach a goal like applying for a certain job position and does not get it, he would rationalize to his family that he was not so interested in it after all. It is much like the fabled fox sour-grasping.
It is from this point that Cognitive Psychology came into being.In 1879 a laboratory opened at the University of Leipzig in which, for the first time, scientific methods were being used to study human behavior and its antecedent, the origins of thought in human beings. This was the laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt. However, even before Wundt began his experimental studies, others were setting the stage for applying scientific methods to thought processes, most notably Gustav Fechner.Gustav Fechner was a physician who early in his career suffered (while doing research) a painful injury to his eyes which left him temporarily blind and changed the direction of his studies and research into the realm of thought and perception. In 1848 his first work in this area was published, Nanna, oder Über das Seelenleben der Pflanzen. In Nanna, and in his subsequent work, Zend-Avesta (1851), Fechner proposed a mind/body view that, while it retained some dualism of mind and body, proposed and developed the unity of mind and body working together for processes such as thought and perception to occur. 1 In his Elemente de Psychophysik (1860),he articulated for the first time science of the relationship between physical and mental phenomena in which he attempted to demonstrate that mind and matter are different means of the conception of the same reality.2 And Fechner also had a contemporary Von Helmholtz who along with him was laying the foundations for what would eventually become cognitive psychology.Another Prussian physician, Hermann von Helmholtz, a contemporary of Fechner, was also investigating the relationship between the physical and the mental. However, he was specifically focusing on the process of perception. From 1856 to 1866, his Handbuch der physiologischen Optik was published in several parts. His theory of perception was that an automatic and unconscious process of sensation and a conscious, logical process of inference of external characteristics are both needed for perceptions to occur.
Although the roots of Positive Psychology go back to the twentieth century with the development of humanistic psychology involving the holistic approach, the fruit of that development has appeared in a much larger focus since 1998, when Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi put together a comprehensive approach that focuses more on positive human functioning, personal growth and development, and a positive way for humans to relate to their journeys through life. Prior to that, most of the psychological theories and approaches had been at finding a way to relate human behavior to mental illness and disease instead of finding a way to encourage and identify personal strength, resilience, and emotional well being. In 1958 Maria Jahoda developed six criteria for mental health, which included: accurate attitudes toward self, growth and self-actualization, an integrated personality, autonomy, an accurate perception of reality, and environmental mastery. In 1985, Carol Ryff went on to develop that further to construct six criteria for psychological well-being which include: self-acceptance, personal growth, positive relations with others, autonomy, a purpose for life, and environmental mastery.In general, happiness is relative to many factors, yet I cannot buy happiness. the amount of happiness does not increase with the amount of money I have once my survival needs have been met. The Hedonic Treadmill of beauty, fame, and money can never bring me lasting happiness as there is always another goal to conquer if I compare myself to others and continue the rat race. This was also discovered to be true for cultures around the world. The greatest indicator of happiness was not wealth, although if survival needs were not being met, wealth certainly played a role. however, the amount of happiness increased to the degree that they were interconnected in positive, healthy relationships, felt they were able to make a contribution to the world around them, and felt confident that they could depend on each other for survival.