This approach originates from the concept of self actualization that is concerned with psychological growth, satisfaction and accomplishment in life. However, the concept has been approached in different ways by Rogers and Maslow, in terms of the manner in which human beings can achieve self actualization. This paper makes a critical analysis of the Humanist Approach and the Person-Centered Therapy by examining the related concepts, theory and scientific basis on which they are based. Main Body The fundamental aspects of Rogers’ and Maslow’s theories pertain to the subjective and conscious experiences of people. It is argued by humanistic psychologists that an individual’s subjective perceptions and understandings of the world are more important than objective realities. In view of such beliefs, Rogers and Maslow focused a great deal on scientific psychology, particularly in the context of using psychological concepts to explore human as well as animal behaviors. The humanistic approach clearly rejects scientific methodologies such as experiments and focuses on using methods of qualitative research such as unstructured observations, un-structured interviews and open ended questionnaires. This approach is very useful in conducting research at the individual level to determine the ways in which people think and feel. Human beings are viewed as being entirely different from animals in view of human consciousness that allows people to think, reason and to use language. The humanistic approach rejects rigorous scientific approaches in psychological studies because they are perceived to dehumanize and to be incapable in capturing the strength relative to the experience of the human conscience. The humanistic approach begins with making assumptions that all human beings have their own unique individual ways of understanding and perceiving the world and all human actions take shape in keeping with such perceptions and attitudes. Hence the questions asked by humanists are different from those asked by psychologists using other approaches. It is known that other theorists assume objective views about people while humanists prioritize on understanding people and their subjectivity. Consequently, they discard objective scientific approaches as a means to study and understand people. Humanistic psychologists are clearly in favor of endorsing ideas that people have a free will and are thus competent to choose what actions they will take, although this may not be done consciously always. They also believe that human beings tend to grow and achieve satisfaction in keeping with their potential. Most of the research in this regard has focused on the ways in which people can be assisted to achieve their full potential and to live satisfied and contented lives. The humanistic approach on behavior focuses on the self, which is the individual’s consciousness relative to his or her own identity. Humanistic psychologists believe that individuals can achieve their full potential of growth only if they have a positive viewpoint about themselves, which is possible only if they are able to command absolute and positive respect from others. They should feel they are respected and valued by others without any reservations. Humanistic psychologists feel that most people do not have perceptions about
It means that law is biased and black women are treated unfairly. It becomes very hard to retain familial bonds and their children are brought up by foster mothers. Such children are not brought up the way they should be. They become victim of complexes as they are called children of criminal mother. Incarcerated women become victims of different physical and psychotic disorders and are not given a proper treatment. After their incarceration, they cannot be settled in society as other members and there are numerous challenges which they have to face. Societal Norms However, societal norms are somehow different in women and men and both genders are stereotyped to be in their societal relations. Even the purpose of negotiation is different for both genders. Men are said to negotiate to achieve an upper hand in agreement but women are mostly trying to bring agreement (Robinson, Frost and Buccigrossi 2). We associate different gender roles with the personalities of men and women and those have become standards. However, in the United States women’s role has been emancipated and taken more like men. There is total work equality in the United States and both the genders balance out work (Burda 7). There is no compromise on professionalism and things happen at job in the same way for both genders. There is no relaxation and no privileges to women and they are not given time for their family lives. Professional life in mathematics, technology and other fields of both genders is the same in the United States. Companies are so much dedicated to fulfill their mission and vision that they cannot compromise on professionalism. Perks and privileges are somehow discriminating for both genders. female professionals are underestimated by men and this… This paper examines the role of a today’s woman in a society and the challenges she may face. She is not only responsible for bringing up a healthy family but also considered an important contributor of the economy of any country. The country I have selected is the United States of America which is known for its emancipation of women. Even in the United States, women are belittled and stereotyped to be cold and hostile. Even those women who are successful in professional life are considered more ruthless and their delicate impression is taken away from them (Dill 1). There are lot of issues and challenges being faced by women in the United States in terms of legal system, as well as in corporate lives. Women are encouraged to be of open mentality and they are given independence in choosing their priorities of life. However, gender discrimination still prevails at job because of the perception of society that women are more family oriented and they cannot work competitively. Even at workplace, there needs to be a realization of the fact that male and female employees need different leadership styles. Same leadership approach cannot work for both genders. Managers need to know about the gender differences and their different psychology, as well as communication style differences. In America, any woman is given this right to decide her life according to her wishes and no interference is allowed. However, when she enters professional life, she experiences discrimination which discourages her to a great extent.
The demand of the activists have bore positive fruits given that some states such Florida and Georgia allow the psychologists the right to prescribe medication and have even set up prescription training programs to equip the psychologists with these skills. Persons with privileges in prescription of drugs are defined by various Acts and licensing authorities and these groups were small compared to what they are today. Psychologists did not have practicing licenses but this has changed greatly following their licensing in some states. The debate on whether psychologists should be given privileges to prescribe has been met with mixed reactions with some opposing it while others welcome such a move. This paper will evaluate the benefits and the drawbacks of prescription privileges by psychologists. Prescription Privileges for Psychologists Overview The initial bill that sought to give psychologists privileges to prescribe psychiatric medication was first introduced back in 1985 in Hawaii. The bill aimed at giving psychologists within the state a right to prescribe medication to treat nervous, brain disorders and mental problems. However, for a psychologist to enjoy the privilege, one must have a doctorate and go through a certification and training program. Such bills have been introduced in various other jurisdictions throughout the country (American Psychological Association 838). … This was the first law of this kind in the country. Other states have similar bills under discussion and various national associations such as the American Psychological Association and Association of State and Psychology Board has supported granting of prescription privileges to the psychologists and has strongly opposed the regulation of the field of psychology by other professions (American Psychological Association 838). The America Psychological Association (APA) developed guidelines in 2011 which apply to prescription privileges and these guidelines touch on education, assessment, intervention and consultation. The general guidelines encourage psychologists to act within the limits of their profession as regards to prescribing medication such as by seeking consultation before they recommend some medications. Moreover, the guideline requires that a psychologist must evaluate the situation before prescribing drugs based on the own opinion and on the clients gender, health status, age and cultural factors (American Psychological Association 839). APA guidelines recommend that a psychologist must attain a certain level of education particularly in pharmacology before they can gain the privilege to prescribe. The guidelines recommend that psychologists prescribing drugs must be wary of the side effects of the psychiatric medications and should utilize the technological resources available for guidance. APA guidelines also recommended that psychologists must acquit themselves with the procedures available for monitoring the psychological and physiological impacts of such medications and must consider other health conditions which could affect the effectiveness of such medication. As regards intervention, the guidelines require that psychologist use
The events that took place in her life made her to develop the desire of becoming a nun. Her later experiences in life earned her more determination to become a health psychiatrist. It is from her experiences in life that made her to become the current leaning wall for most of the practicing nurses. Worthy to mention is the fact that she was the first nurse in world history to attain degree, masters, PhD and doctorate in the profession of nursing. Hildegard Peplau opted for nursing carrier by the nature of her family during her growth. Callaway (2002) mentions that Hildegard’s family was full of frustrations and unrest, which made Peplau dislike making a family of that nature. In the reports of Callaway (2002), Hildegard’s father was a tyrannical man who never let his family any chance for peace. Her mother was a homemaker who enjoyed little peace and comfort in her own family. Hildegard’s intelligence and ambition are among the factors that continued to award her confidence of making a difference from other girls of her age in the society. She was disturbed with the stereotypes of her society that let women to decide the way of life between education and marriage (Callaway, 2002). According to Callaway (2002), Hildegard worked as storekeeper, payroll clerk and a bookkeeper. All these functions she accomplished in her hometown Reading. According to Callaway (2002), Hildegard enrolled in a nursing school after completing her course in business where she trained as nurse. On completing her nursing course, Hildegard joined Bennington College as a nursing staff (Callaway, 2002). Being under the driving influence of curiosity and determination, Callaway (2002), confirms that Hildegard managed to get a sponsorship to carry on with degree studies in nursing. Upon graduating with degree in nursing psychology, Peplau used the World War II as an advantage to secure employment in the US Army where she operated as a nurse. Being a holder of degree in Nursing Psychology, Hildegard secured a chance in a military hospital in the war torn England where she worked as a psychiatrist. While in England, Callaway (2002), reports that Hildegard invented unique techniques of diagnosing and administering psychiatric health to emotionally frustrated and exhausted soldiers from war. Her great achievements in the military hospital made her to clinch additional higher steps in the profiling among successful healthcare providers. Luckily, Hildegard on returning from the war met a rare opportunity of continuing with her education to postgraduate degree under the sponsorship of G.I. Bill. According to Callaway (2002), Hildegard had to join Columbia University’s Teachers College in the New York. However, Callaway (2002) mentions that societal stereotypes stood on Hildegard’s way but she managed to ignore them and pursue her education. Callaway (2002) mentions that at the time Peplau had to join university for her postgraduate degree course in nursing psychology, she already had a child whom she cared for. Sociologically, being a single parent contracted the social orders and this posed dire threat to her nursing career. Callaway (2002) speculates that Hildegard lived a life out of wedlock and managed to bring up her child in line with pursuing further education. In addition, Callaway (2002) cites that even though Hildegard had no husband to support her,
Most people have heard countless paid advertising of what feels like yellow journalism, and Americans have been inundated with the media. When looking for an article for this essay, I found it surprising that Psychology Today would have an article on this topic. LaBier (2012) has as his premise, that there are two different views of success that are being suggested by each candidate. LaBier (2012) suggests that President Obama’s view of success is a more progressive view than Romney’s. President Obama has the view of whole life success (LaBier, 2012, 0. 1). President Obama sees success as something that is ongoing, to include an aspect of personal achievement, and it includes helping other improve their lives. In contrast, Romney supports an older, more conservative and narrowly focused idea of success. Romney sees success as having money, achieving power and prestige, and achieving this for an individual purpose (LaBier, 2012). LaBier (2012) makes an intersitng point and one that I think is a part of a central debate. Do Americans want a president who wants to help everyone, or do they want someone who only wants the wealthy to succeed? This seems like one question that Americans are being asked to answer. LaBier’ article also makes the reader think. … Romney suggests a very idealistic way of looking at the world and seems to speak from his perspective of an American, who has always had money. Romney also suggests that if people do not have the money for a business, they should borrow from their parents ( LaBier, 2012). Many people who are poor or middle class, do not have parents who have money to lend or give to them, in order to start a business. In this article, LaBier (2012) points out that Romney speaks from a position of wealth and has no understanding of others who are not wealthy. Another interesting point that LaBier (2012) makes is that Romney may be seeking the Presidency as the pinnacle of his career: He [Romney] appears to view it [The Presidency] as the capstone of his career, the final step: (LaBier, 2012, p. 1). To me, this is the height of arrogance. This reminded me of some of the media coverage that says that Republicans are upset with Romney for many reasons, but one reason is because he is not saying what he will do if elected President. Perhaps he feels he does not have to explain what he will do, because he is who he is, and all people need to know is that he will make changes. In contrast, LaBier (2012) quoted Michell Obama’s speech to the Democratic convention: Success isn’t about how much money you make, it’s about the difference you make in people’s lives (LaBier, 2012, p. 2). I agree. I think that today, success is about helping others achieve success, more than it is about singularly making your own success. In looking at these two philosophies, I am struck by how differently the two candidates see the world. Romney states many times htat he wants changes to be made, and he only seems to believe that wealthy people should
It is worthwhile highlighting that I found the above fact interesting because twin studies reveal that, for genes to be influential aspects, identical twins ought to be more alike compared to the fraternal twins. In addition, adoption studies reveal that for a shared environment to be influential, sibling brought up in similar families ought to be more similar compared to siblings reared separately. Consequently, the above fact has made me understand why my brother and myself, who are identical twins we are more alike than my cousin and his sister who are fraternal twins. Secondly, the fact has made me understand that since my brother was brought up in an urban environment, he is more advanced in inter personal communication skills than my sister because my sister was brought up in a rural environment. Consequently, from the lecture It has come to my conclusion that, urban environment has a profound impact on the language development due to the presence of a multilingual environment. Additionally, from the intelligence, I learnt from Robins’ ideas, there is no single gene for intelligence, personality traits, behavior, or even height (Robin 63). For instance, a certain chromosome accounts for the color of eyes and another chromosome accounts for the color of hair. Consequently, the environment has nothing at all to do in such traits. It is significant, noting that, I found such a fact interesting because one can broadly define Intelligence as a competence in problem solving. Lastly, from the same lecture I have learnt that, genetic variance is a critical variation constituent for every behavioral effect. however, a family’s variation is not a component for all the products of behaviors. The above fact is extremely interesting because, one can postulate that heritability is ubiquitous. hence, it has insignificant consequences for methodical appreciation of the process of development. Similarly, one can also argue that family environments are not significant causes of developmental products. However, one should not that genotype is significantly, a methodical variability source compared to the environment, although it is through substantive reasons. Notably, development is hardly a linear and interactive process. therefore, it cannot be controlled experimentally. Significantly, the above lecture has made me understand that, twin studies present a practical methodological approach. however, they do not illustrate the significant role of genes. In another lecture (memory), I learnt that, a person’s memory helps make him whom he is. Significantly, I got interested in the above fact because from lovingly recalling childhood activities to remembering where an individual left his phone, memory plays a fundamental role in all aspects of a person’s live. It endows in an individual a self-sense and makes up his recurrent life experience. Notably, one can reflect the memory as a filing cabinet for mental activities, storing away fragments of information until a person needs them. Certainty, memory is an outstandingly complex process that involves myriad brain parts. Memories can be sensory and long lasting, although they are also vulnerable to inaccuracies, as well as forgetting. In the topic motivation and emotion, I learnt that emotions are the stimulants towards the daily decisions made by an individual. Such a fact is highly interesting to me because it makes me realize why I perform excellently in languages than in mathematics. Significantly, I
Using results from several psychological and scientific studies on materialistic persons, Kasser argues that materialistic persons experience abnormal levels of unhappiness, anxiety, low self-esteem, and relationship problems. Kasser blames mostly the media and advertising industry for influencing individuals’ psychology into believing that pursuit of material goals will fulfill their necessity for sanctuary, self-esteem, community partaking and personal freedom. The main assumption especially that rendered to young people and teens is that, even though every person has needs to satisfy, a successful attainment of such needs results in higher quality of life. To Kasser, materialism is an inefficient means of attaining personal needs, since the act of buying and consuming products only brings about a feeling of goodness, and which lasts for a while leaving only a feeling of discontentment. As Kasser puts it materialism….more of eating junk food… it fills you up for a while. but doesn’t really meet your body’s need for nutrients in the right balance. so you feel like eating more and end up fat and unhealthy (Kasser, 2003, p 24). Hence, materialism turns out to be a vicious unfulfilling circle. Notably, they value wealth and popularity as their intrinsic objective, forgetting that these two are not founded on self-growth but are instead based on the self as epitomized by others. Furthermore, he asserts that the current strong projection of materialism is based on capitalism and cultural fracture, since the extensive projection of materialism by the media, advertising, and the economy and pushes a common theme of individuals expressing themselves by following other people interests instead of having ownership of individual behaviors (Kasser, 2003). In effect, materialism is not about having a sense of self-direction or being free but being controlled by needs. Impact of Materialism Kasser is right to assert that materialism interferes with authentic self-expression and intimate relationships (2003). This is more so because most people especially teens and young working class people judge each other value and success based on what they own or possess. In particular, a person is judged on the type of sport car he or she drives, latest smartphone or up to date fashion, instead of acumen, kindness and community contributions. It is about having more or better than what others have instead of having enough that can comfortably satisfy personal needs. My observation is that individuals who are already unhappy and suffering from poor psychological health turn into materialism as a means of meeting their psychological needs. Materialism has not influenced my life entirely but some of my friends and family members have, especially in the sense that they concentrate more on acquiring expensive items not because they necessarily need them but because they want to be part of the affluent. Such individuals have this strong tendency to envy what other people possess as they lack self-esteem or are not able to express themselves in relationships. They normally exhibit a strong sense of displeasure when other people possess items they personally desire. This is despite the fact that most normally goes through difficulties in trying to attain financial stability and social acceptance (Kasser, 2003).
How the Media Degrade African American Women The media has a role to inform the public about important occurrences and maintain the level of knowledge among people. However, the media has been criticized of degrading the African American woman. The media represent all available channels and technology that are used to convey information from the source to the audience. The African American women has been used by the media to represent negativity or the negative side of humanity particularly poverty. The modern generation media such as the Facebook and Twitter has also contributed to the degradation role played by the traditional media. This paper will therefore discuss how the media has degraded American women of African descent. Most media hold strongly to different stereotypes about black women. The media uses these stereotypes to pass its intended message to different audience with the aim of emphasizing their message. Firstly, the media use the black woman to represent poverty in the society. Although African American women are more affected by poverty than the men are, it does not justify the use of African American women to represent poverty and disasters. This phenomenon is mostly evident when the media is try to depict disasters such as famine (Rokeach, 1973), earthquakes and war using women. When representing such scenes the media use an African woman irrespective of the society under consideration. During the last earthquake in Haiti, most world Medias such as the BBC, and CNN mainly focused on the African women to show how devastating the earthquake was despite having been women from other races who were also affected by disasters. Similar scenes were witnessed in Japan despite the country having few African American women. The media has different reasons that make it rely on these stereotypes to emphasize its message. The first reason is that the media want to use the easiest way possible to inform the people. The media also wants to use little effort to inform the people about certain occurrence. In such case the media uses or apply what is already known by the people. Different representations about black woman are well known by the people. The media therefore relies on such stereotypes to reduce the effort required to pass a certain message. Although this aspect is useful to the media it contributes to the problems experienced by the black women particularly those who have international roles. The position of the African woman as created by the media hinders development among African American women by increasing cases of discrimination among them. In most societies, the issue of sexuality is not discussed openly. This is due to the evil factor attached to sex. The media to depict evil among Africans have long used the stereotype about black women and sex. Most media particularly the audiovisual media degrades the African woman by using her as a symbol of sex and evil. This is evident in most music videos and films that use the black woman to represent sex scenes and other scenes that are considered evil by the society. The print media also has the preference of using a black woman as a symbol of sex and evil behavior. It is believed that most sexual immoralities happen in Africa and therefore the relationship between the African woman and sex (Media Awareness Network, 2010). In addition, issues of sex are considered a taboo by most African societies who do not talk about the subject. This is a contradiction since issues of sex mainly affects the women. Issue of genital mutilation has also been common among African societies. This operation was mainly carried out to control the sexuality of the African woman as it is beyond that of other women. Africans are also associated with wickedness. The media has often used the black women to represent evil in both the entertainment and informative media. In entertainment the black women is used as a symbol of dangerous people. Particularly movies use the black women to represent the bad guys (USA Today, 1993). This gives the African American woman a negative image and portrays her as an untrustworthy person. Although the black American society is involved with most crimes committed in America, it is not right to associate the black American women with crime. This is because people from other races are also involved with crime (Smith, Bond, 1993). In addition, men are more involved with crime than women are. It has however been noted that most criminals, drug dealers and gang leaders always have female accomplices who are usually from African American societies. This portrayal of the black women has increased their chances of victimization by both the criminals and law enforcers. In conclusion, different media use the black American woman to represent different situation resulting into a disgrace of the African American women. Different stereotypes associated with the African women are the main cause of such degrades. Association of black American women with sex, evil, and crime by the media has contributed negatively to their credibility as American. This has made them to lose trust among people and increased their chances of victimization. References Media Awareness Network. (2010). Media Stereotyping – Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/ Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press. Smith, M. Bond, H. (1993). Social psychology across cultures: Analysis and perspectives. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. USA Today. (1993). Black women on TV still stereotyped. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_n2578_v122/ai_13196247/
In the Table Profile Characteristics of Disorganized Asocial Offenders it is evident that there are a number of characteristics, which are appropriate in the process of offender personality’s studies. The status of the personalities in their communities is determined with respect to the following features: they have a limited intelligence, are involved in unskilled work and have a few contacts with other members of the community. These persons show the following types of post-offense behavior, such as turning to the place, where the crime was committed. having a visual collage of criminal events etc. After that, when the crime was committed, a disorganized criminal can hardly change a place of his residence, because he is used to his familiar environment. It is possible to differentiate a disorganized asocial offender from the organized nonsocial offender. The former offender would commit his crimes at night, as a rule. For this type of offenders, it is very important to be understood and supported. Establishment of positive relationship with this personality is very beneficial in the process of investigation. Moreover, the interviews are more effective with these offenders at night, when it is their best time. The features of the organized nonsocial offender can be interpreted in the following way: this type of the offender would be more organized in his daily life. They are lonely persons and they do not want anyone else around them. These persons have an average level of intelligence and they can be active members of the society. These offenders can have his personal relationship and he can even make a good impression (Interview with S. Milena Halterman, 2010). This type of offenders can go to many other places, which are far away from their neighborhood. Post-offense behavior of the organized nonsocial offenders is as follows: he is interested in the consequences of the crime, committed by him. Moreover, organizedcrimescenesreflectahighlevelofcontrolbytheoffenderwhere restraintsareused.thebodyisdisposedofinathought outmanner, usuallytransportedtoanotherlocationfromwherethemurdertookplace (Holmes Holmes, 2009). During the interview sessions, it is relevant to confront these offenders directly, because they are afraid of direct facts. A single-interview strategy is one of the most appropriate for them. These offenders can tell everything sincerely during the interviewing. Therefore, it is appropriate for the criminologists to focus on the peculiar personal features of the offenders in order to determine possible options of serial crime prevention and a proper investigation conduct of every particular case. Thus, the modern paradigm of criminology should be focused on researches and studies, which are concentrated on the peculiar aspects of offenders’ behaviors. Question 2 In the modern paradigm, it is very important to know that there is a strong relationship between social and psychological issues of the criminals and the actions committed by them. Psychologicalprofiling has been developing since 1940 and this field was developed for investigation of serial crimes (Schlesinger 2009). The basic points, outlined in this field of study are: characteristics of theoffender,time factors, modusoperandi, offender’s.signature .staging (Holmes Holmes, 2009).There is a great need to take into account organized vs.disorganized
The easy explains how an ideal workplace should look like in the year 2020. It is about organizational and psychological perspectives in business management (Dunnette Hough, 1991).Business psychology is a scientific and critical study of how humans behave in their workplace (Bass, 1979). It is the application of psychological theorem and rules and principles governing organizational management. It aims at improving the success, performance, safety, and well-being and creates a good relationship between the seniors and thieves juniors in the organization (Bass, Ryterband, 1979).Workplace democracy is one of the organization’s psychological aspects that the organization will implement. Democracy in an organization means giving the workers their full freedom to choose their way (Welford Gouldson, 1993). However, workplace democracy does not mean that employees and the management team will not be supervised and guided in any way (Gouldson, 1993). However, supervision should encourage the workers to be self-motivated and not always be supervised by their seniors ((Welford, 2001).To add to the democracy, some of the benefits that the organization will draw from giving the employees freedom are: The first benefit is that the organization will be in a position to avoid future economic crises. This is accrued from the fact that the organization will be easy to achieve its objectives and goals. Secondly, the organization will be in a position to fairly distribute its resources without bringing any issue of inequality. Thirdly, democracy in a business workplace brings the issue of burnout. Burnout in an organization means being mentally weariness. Eventually, the organization will benefit as the employees will work ethically thus easing the work of the management in their efforts to make the organization perform ethically.The organization will also benefit from organization democracy as it will change its demographic choice.