ICT has proven its worth for providing economic developments, improving the quality of living, opening employment opportunities, and linking people no matter where they may be located in the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not one can argue that people live in an all-inclusive Information Society. Hence, it will dig into details such as the background of the network society, the definition and facts about all-inclusive information society, some issues that surround it, the influence of media and other communications industries, and the arguments, advantages, and disadvantages of the issue in focus. Background of All-inclusive Information Society The e-inclusion policy of Europe aims to lessen disparities when it comes to ICT usage among every single person despite social status. This policy wishes to create an all-inclusive information society, also known as the network society wherein everyone can create their own opportunities in business, education, and employment by being able to access reliable information through the different tools and services provided by ICT easily (International Telecommunication Union 2012). Manuel Castells (cited in Glass 2005, p. 9) once postulated that ‘in a new network economy, information becomes a key factor in economic productivity.’ For example, the flow of stocks in the market is based on relevant information regarding businesses and finances, as well as social and technological trends. Hence, information is made known through ICT and the relevant information is being used to improve businesses and increase economies. The all-inclusive information society is needed in order to balance development in a nation—both the urban and rural areas. The ICT tools and services must be fairly accessible and convenient to all citizens so that they will access information equally relevant for the improvement of their quality of living for all types of people including the disabled, old, and those living in remote areas where there used to be difficulties in finding good signals to access the net (European Commission 2007). In the advent of technology, only few people were able to make use of the internet especially the educated ones. These days, almost everyone can use and access ICT tools and services—even children can go online and be able to do e-learning. However, despite these advancements, studies have shown that factors such as education, age, employment, culture, and language may impede the e-inclusion policy because these are major drawbacks in the effective usage of information and communication technologies (Webster 2006). Solutions to these have constantly been researched and studied in order to realise the policy fully. Countries like Europe have implemented this and are close to around 80% of success in the e-inclusion. They still need to do a lot of work, though, and they are aware of it. Other countries, especially those belonging to the third world country will find this a difficult task because first and foremost the availability and affordability percentage of people in using ICT tools and services is quite low, but the positive side is that there are more and more people becoming more literate to these technologies little by little (European Communities 2006). In an all-inclusive network society, every ICT user will be able to express his or her opinion, which is a great way to make
But after only a couple of years, the company has already changed the profile of its activities – from the designer. it has gradually transformed into a full-fledged airline. The first flight was carried out in 1929, and in the 40s, the carrier moved its headquarters to Atlanta, where it, in fact, is located to this day. Soon, namely, in the early 1950s, Delta Airlines first swallowed another travel business carrier. The first airlines acquired were Chicago and Southern Airlines, and a bit later, Delta Airlines also took over the carrier named Northeast Airlines. The 90s were the most fruitful for this organization. The airlines were able to acquire customer’s flights to European destinations after the bankrupt of the Pan American business entity. As a result, Delta acquired the most significant transatlantic routes and became one of the largest carriers in terms of the number of passengers carried and the number of business customer travel flights operated. In 2000, this American company joined the SkyTeam model, and after 4 years, it began to face serious financial difficulties within the business travel airline customer management. Delta Airlines was forced to lower ticket prices, reduce staff, and close some hubs. In 2005, the business venture filed for bankruptcy, after which it began the reorganization. However, after 2 years, new shares of this carrier began to be sold to customers. Delta regained its former model logo and successfully resumed the air travel for customers. The marketing and advertising strategies of Delta Airlines provide the reach of the balance between the current and expected portfolio of customers of the airlines. International airline marketing and advertising are systems of planning, implementing, monitoring, and analyzing measures to influence a multinational business travel market environment and adapt to its conditions in a business venture that operates in more than one country. When entering the foreign travel business model market, the company uses various types of international airline business marketing, depending on the degree of involvement of customers in the system of international economic relations:Traditional customer airline marketing: the usual sale of travel goods/services abroad, when the exporter is liable to the buyer only until delivery.Export customer airline marketing: the exporter is engaged in a systematic study of the target foreign market and adapts its production/services to the changing requirements of this market.International customer airline marketing: the exporter deeply explores the market and penetrates it using a wide range of marketing tools.Global customer airline marketing: the company mainly operates in the international market model, using the entire marketing mix.The goals of international airline customer advertising and marketing for Delta Airlines, first of all, based on the results of the analysis of the business customer model environment and the risks associated with it. Economic airline goals of the airlines are the following:Providing targeted market share.Providing access to new markets.Getting the maximum profit.Increasing customer sales volumes. Psychographic airline goals (influence on purchasing behavior at Delta) are the following: raising the awareness of local people about the goods and service of the company. increasing customer satisfaction with the use of purchased travel goods/services. stimulation of decisions of customers on the purchase of travel business goods/services. Modern international marketing at the airlines is a system that provides strategic interaction between a company and the world economy in order to solve its own problems. One of the main tasks of Delta Airlines when entering the foreign market is to minimize its commercial risk and ensure economic (financial) success. The sequence of functions of Delta is as follows:Studying the intended customer market for their products. The use of the non-price model of competition that requires great organizational work from all of its participants and serves as an important incentive for an active and constant study of the situation on the market and the development of market development forecasts.At Delta Airlines, the forecast of customer market development is conducted primarily in relation to the assortment and sales volumes, competition, stability, analysis of favorable and unfavorable economic conditions.The evaluation of the opportunities at Delta Airlines implies the special customer attention of the company to a high scientific and technical level of the service, improvement of the range of products, improvement of maintenance of machinery and equipment.The development of the marketing strategy at the company includes setting the goals for the near and distant prospects, developing methods for achieving goals, scientific, technical and pricing policies, etc.The development of tactics at Delta involves the development of specific means to achieve the goals of the service.The activities of Delta Airlines should be based on a comprehensive customer analysis of the incoming information and control, which serves as the basis for the advertising activities of the marketing management system. When entering a foreign market, a company may use the following options in the frameworks of the selected model. The business is engaged in international marketing activities that must determine the degree of standardization of its plans and strategies. A standardized, or global, approach is to use a single marketing strategy for all countries in which Delta has its own interests. A non-standardized approach requires a separate marketing plan for each market, developed according to local requirements. A combined approach provides a mix of the elements of two approaches. The marketing management concepts at Delta Airlines are the starting points that characterize the active orientation of the customer market activity of an enterprise at various stages of its development. There are basic concepts on the basis of which Delta conducts its marketing activities for customers. If the production marketing concept assumes that demand exceeds supply. With the improvement of production, it becomes possible to increase the production of goods/services and reduce their cost, and hence the price for the consumer, which in turn will lead to an increase in demand. The main goal that the manager at Delta Airlines is guided by – the improvement of the model of the customer service, which contributes to an increase in the supply and almost automatically leads to an increase in sales and, consequently, to an increase in profits. The management of Delta, in this case, makes efforts to ensure the large serialization and sale of goods/services through a variety of outlets. This marketing model is in demand in conditions of the shortage of the service, which is observed with limited supply at the company. The basis of the product marketing model (product-oriented concept) at Delta Airlines is the assumption that the business customer will always be sympathetic to the service if it is of good quality and sold at a reasonable price. The emphasis at the business entity is on the development of new models of goods for customers, and the modernization of the existing ones, in order to improve the quality characteristics of products. It is assumed that the consumer is interested in such a service, knows about the availability of products – analogs, and makes its choice by comparing the quality and prices of similar products from other providers. The model meets the situation when there is an approximate balance of supply and demand on the market. the consumer is guided by the choice of the best offer from all existing ones. The concept of intensification of commercial customer efforts asserts that customers will not buy the service of Delta Airlines in sufficient quantities if it does not make significant efforts in the field of marketing, advertising, and customer promotion. The model of intensifying business efforts is particularly aggressive when applied to passive service, i.e., those that the buyer usually does not think about purchasing, such as flights at Delta Airlines. In these areas of activity, various methods have been developed and perfected for identifying potential business customers and “hard selling” service to them. The market (consumer) model at Delta Airlines asserts that the key to achieving the organization’s goals is to determine the needs and requirements of the target markets and ensure the desired satisfaction in more effective and more productive ways than competitors. The object of the market at Delta is the target customers of the business entity with their needs and requirements. The market concept reflects the firm’s commitment to the theory of consumer sovereignty: Delta produces what the consumer needs and makes a profit by maximally satisfying the needs of business customers. The concept of social and ethical marketing states that the task of Delta Airlines is to establish the needs and interests of the target markets for customers and provide the desired satisfaction in more effective ways while preserving or strengthening the well-being of the consumer and society as a whole. The concept of the socially-ethical marketing at Delta Airlines is generated by doubts: whether the firm, satisfying the needs of customers, always operates taking into account the long-term benefit of consumers and society as a whole. The concept of socially-ethical marketing at Delta Airlines requires the balancing of three factors: the profits of Delta, purchasing needs, and public interests. Currently, there are three more fairly new concepts:The concept of integrated marketing, the essence of which is that Delta Airlines itself must create a new product, new technologies, and, accordingly, the customers.The concept of strategic marketing, the essence of which is that it is necessary to focus on competitors, their products, product characteristics, prices, etc. This will allow customers to find the position of Delta Airlines in the market and be competitive.The concept of the goal settings.The marketing at Delta has been developing since the beginning of the present century, and this activity is constantly being modified and improved. The concepts discussed above show the development of marketing at Delta Airlines, although they can exist in parallel.The effective planning of the marketing activities of Delta Airlines at the international level forms a particular perception of planning in the enterprise and necessitates the intensive and regular monitoring and development of the plan. The principles of international planning at Delta do not differ from those used in the domestic market. And, the interaction between the main elements of the environment surrounding Delta, as well as the high level of complexity, make the implementation of planning to be difficult and expensive. The international planning at Delta Airlines can take place at three different levels:The global enterprise levelPlanning at Delta Airlines in this field is taken in the longest-term aspect, the general goals important for Delta are determined, which are perceived as a whole.Strategic levelPlanning is carried out at the Delta management level and gives an idea of long- and medium-term development options. Strategic planning is a formalized means of forecasting the future. The need for balanced assessment and foresight is especially great when Delta Airlines carries out its operations in a large number of markets.Tactical levelIn this case, planning focuses on determining the specific shares that should be carried out, and on resolving the issue of Delta Airlines channeling resources to achieve global goals in various markets where the enterprise operates. A simple and clear definition of goals is an important prerequisite for successfully entering foreign markets, as well as an accurate assessment of available resources at Delta. The market can promise attractive profits in the short term but have unstable prospects in the long term. Thus, it is necessary to clearly define the goals of Delta Airlines in order to prevent the involvement of the enterprise in losing situations. Following the objectives, Delta Airlines should give priority to comparing needs and existing resources. First of all, it is necessary that the responsible employees of the enterprise are appropriately interested in participating in the international activities of Delta Airlines. The lack of certainty or attempts to overcome the usual impromptu schemes at Delta adversely affect its activity. The random decisions may turn out to be successful, but the only constant and purposeful application of planning at Delta Airlines allows achieving optimal return on investment, which is always distant and inevitably lagging in comparison with the forecast. At Delta Airlines, the international planning process includes the phases of analysis and adaptation. The phase of analysis and selection of markets depending on the goals and resources of Delta. The enterprise should continuously strive to maintain a stable correspondence between the experience, services, culture, goals, and characteristics of various markets, whatever the degree of involvement in foreign economic relations. For this purpose, it is important to highlight the selection criteria, such as the minimum potential, the probable payback period of investments, a certain level of current profit at Delta Airlines, etc. These steps turn out to be effective only if, as foreign markets are developed, continuous efforts are maintained to obtain information and monitor the implementation of projects at Delta. These efforts allow Delta Airlines to have sufficient data to accurately assess the potential, risks, and opportunities, to adapt proposals and possible commercial decisions about the start of a campaign in this market.The adaptation phase of the proposal is to measure the degree of adaptation of various elements — services, prices, sales systems, communications — to determine the proper supply volume. One of the questions concerns the cultural environment of the proposed product at Delta Airlines: measuring the phenomenon of identification, the models of consumption, and the frequency of purchases. We are also talking about a thorough study of the very significant differences between countries in the field of marketing, in pricing and credit policies, and in general in the field of communications, including the media, the content, and nature of communications, the costs of advertising campaigns, etc. During this phase, Delta Airlines should be able to assess the feasibility of the proposals and the costs of adapting them to specific market conditions, which will allow for a second choice of market.The phase of developing a marketing plan at Delta. The results achieved allow us to develop a plan adapted to the intended market, specifying what needs to be done, who, how, and in what time frame will do it. The question of costs and means becomes central, as it determines the success or failure of the plan for Delta Airlines. The budget deficit or interruptions in supply will seriously affect the next steps and may even manifest in inconsistency and non-adaptation of actions at Delta.The phase of implementation and control. The implementation of the commercial plan for Delta in the foreign economic field is not limited to simply making a positive decision. It is important to carry out monitoring and control in order to justify the ongoing efforts and to detect possible deviations from market development plans as soon as possible. And for this, it is necessary not only to have clearly defined priorities but also to maintain the achieved distance in relation to current actions to assess distortions and develop corrective decisions for Delta Airlines. The strategic planning process for Delta Airlines is a closed system, the functioning of which is associated with the fulfillment of two conditions: observation and ensuring flexibility. Systematic observation makes it possible to measure results and detect deviations. providing flexibility allows for appropriate adjustments. Delta Airlines should strive to develop both of these qualities. At Delta, the control in international marketing includes a preliminary definition of policies that have precisely defined goals. Next, you need to measure achievements and costs, then make changes or set goals, the implementation of which is necessary to correct deficiencies. The control of international activity poses a number of problems for Delta Airlines, a list of which were compiled by the American researcher J. Welding. Here are some of them:difficulties in financial control of activities abroad.conflicts between directorates or branches due to clientele or territories.the development of foreign activities on an unforeseen path.double employment of staff or administrative services.underutilization of production or marketing opportunities abroad. In many ways, these problems are caused by a wide variety of markets, inaccurate information, geographical and cultural distances, as well as small unpredictable events characteristic of any complex activity. First of all, a choice for Delta Airlines should be made between centralization and decentralization of the control system.Centralization is appropriate for an extraordinary variety of situations. decentralized management is rather a guarantee of flexibility and sensitivity. After choosing one of these two principles for Delta Airlines, the enterprise can take a series of sequential measures to create a control system, as one of the researchers, has already presented. It is important to choose the control methods, determine the norms, based on which, possible deviations of the obtained results from the intended goals should be measured effectively for Delta Airlines. Further, it is necessary to localize these goals, i.e., to establish for each area of responsibility, which is a difficult task in the face of a multiplicity of levels and types of competence achievable for Delta.
The tools to manage could be manual or technological. Throughout the 20th century and particularly in the first decade of the 21st century, many technological products including many IT products were developed throughout the world, which had and is still having applications in all spheres of human lives. Out of the many technological products, a good number is being used in office management. That is, offices of today have used or integrated communications systems in every aspect of their functioning. From opening a simple door to carrying out advanced operations, technology has become an omnipresent entity in offices, with their entire operations hinging on the support provided by technology, particularly Information Technology.As mentioned above, the 20th century is the ‘gateway’ for the entry of many new technologies in all spheres of life. As the early 20th century saw the full effects of the Industrial Revolution, many new technological products made their presence felt in organizations or factories or offices. Particularly in offices, technology was at its fullest use. That is, only in the early 20th century, people ‘organized’ themselves into a structured setup like offices to carry out their duties. While carrying those duties only, the technological products came into the picture and started to aid them in the early part of the 20th century. The first of the new breed of technological machines, which started making a presence in the office environment, is the Adding machines. Adding machines carried out additions and other mathematical calculations and in turn, replaced many employees who were specifically employed for doing these calculations. That is, by carrying out various calculations, Adding machines minimized the number of employees, thereby changing the structure or the interior of the offices in many fields like banking and accounting.
Several production and engineering innovations were introduced by the Boeing Company. For example, one of the innovations was the construction of the 787 families of aeroplanes from a plastic resin of carbon fibre in place of aluminium that was traditionally used for the making of aeroplanes till then. This provided the Boeing Company with a way to increase the fuel efficiency of the 787 aeroplanes. The 787 aeroplanes have a communications system based on satellite installed in them to provide the passengers with access to the Internet, help improve the monitoring maintenance with the wireless networks, and make electronic flight bags accessible to the crew that consists of reference data and charts. The windows of the 787 aeroplanes are larger in size as compared to other aircraft made till then. The larger size provides the passengers with additional comfort by increasing humidity and air pressure. “With the 787, Boeing was dreaming big dreams. They wanted to create a next-generation plane – a plan that was everything a 21st-century airline could possibly want. And they wanted to slash the cost of production, as well as the cost of operation. It was a daunting challenge. But Infosys was up to the task, co-developing innovative solutions in Information Technology (IT)” (Infosys, 2006). The customers have responded to the Dreamliner enthusiastically. This can be estimated from the fact that in spite of certain cancellations, the Boeing Company received the orders from 55 customers for 850 aeroplanes in April 2009 (boeing.com, 2009).
A manager would be effective in his respective roles when he understands the strategic, technical and operational responsibilities he holds within the workplace (“Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial,” n.d.). What are the specific roles this first category consists? These set of roles are associated on how a manager will interact to his employees and the entire workforce in general. These are the first three roles out of the 10 roles of management by Henry Mintzberg – figurehead, leader, and liaison (Burgaz, 1997, p. 15). The first is a symbolic head. A manager is expected to perform routine duties legally and socially. He is like a father. The father is the head of the family. He is expected to initiate actions for the welfare of his family. In the same manner, if the organization needs resources to complete certain projects, he would initiate actions to provide these resources to ensure productivity. In a social gathering within the organization, a manager may send solicitation letter to sister companies and other organizations requesting them to participate and donate to the said event. He is also the leader of the workforce, which is the second crucial role of a manager. Mr A, for example, is responsible to motivate his employees. He is responsible to initiate and conduct training to enhance the skills of his subordinates. He is also in charge to fill vacant positions and activate the workforce to perform the tasks and duties as defined in their respective job descriptions. As a leader, he must learn how to follow the rules and protocols of the company or organization. As a leader, he must portray the right attitude in the workforce to become an ideal person and to strengthen his authority with his employees. Authority is not enough for a manager to become effective with his roles – he needs respect and he must learn to gain it from his employees. Mr A. acts as the liaison officer – that is the manager’s third role. He shall facilitate communications between organizations (“Roles and Responsibilities”, 2012). He maintains a self-developed contact to the outsiders and other companies for the benefit of the organization (Burgaz, 1997, p. 15). Mr A. needs to know the news outside which can affect his operation and decision-making factors. These outside contacts are expected to provide favours and important data to help him activate the workforce efficiently. In order to build a self-developed network between outsiders, he needs to build a strong relationship to these outside parties for them to entrust him with unbiased details. What are the informational roles? Mr A. is expected to monitor, disseminate and transmit information for the benefit of the entire organization. He seeks and receives different information that would help him develop effective techniques and strategies to make the entire workforce productive. Mr A. would monitor his subordinates’ performance and measures its productivity. He must exert extra effort to gather information from the outside – e.g. examining the competitor’s techniques. Most of the times, people reinvent ideas rather than building something from scratch. Competitors are spending millions of cash to enhance their management techniques and approaches – a wise manager can make use of these data and information as important resources to develop an approach suited for his management. Disseminating information to the organization is another important role of a manager that belongs to the second category of roles.
The challenges are many and leading publishing houses have adjusted their strategies to cope with these challenges. The Chronicle Gazette too has witnessed declining subscriptions and advertising revenue. Besides, competition in the industry has intensified. It is not merely disruptive competition but disruptive innovation that has affected the media industry (Sterling, 2008). This includes the network news, cable news and now the different forms of web news. Nevertheless, despite the advancement in internet and communications technology, despite the advantages that the internet has over the traditional system of obtaining news, despite the declining sales figures, the future of traditional newspapers remains bright. This report seeks to determine the best short-term and long-terms steps that this newspaper daily should take to make itself sustainable.It is generally believed that the American newspaper industry faces an uncertain future because of stagnant markets, increasing competition from other media for audience attention, and changes in advertiser media choices. The publishing houses are under pressure to maximize profits and company value as many newspapers have phased out of business. The number of afternoon papers and the secondary news appears has exited the American newspaper industry. As of 2004, 98 percent of American daily newspapers are the only daily published in their city of origin (Picard, 2004).News circulates every day of the “disruptive” changes taking place in the newspaper industry, that include disappearing readers, shrinking revenues, declining stock prices, or looming layoffs (Scott Clark, 2006). While 80 percent of the adults read newspapers in 1981, the figures declined to 58 percent in 1999 (Thad, 2004). The circulation volume has dropped by ten percent between 1974 and 1999.
QFD has been used as a significant portion of the product development procedure. QFD is an asset in people and in order. It uses a cross-useful team to determine client supplies. QFD is a methodical and logical technique for convention customer expectations. QFD is a preparation process for interprets client supplies (voice of the client) into the appropriate scientific supplies for each stage of product development and construct (i.e. marketing policies, preparation, product design and manufacturing, example assessment, manufacture process development, manufacture, sales) (Sullivan, 1986) and (Revelle, 1998).if we look upon the basic theories of this article then we come to know that new product foreword in today’s technology-driven marketplaces carries important risk. New product breakdown rates can be as short as one out of each three products (Antil, 1988) or as elevated as the 90 percent of new grocery products which are reserved inside a year of their foreword. New technology, better communications, greater than before income stress, and shorter product life rotations have extra to the intrinsic danger (Rosenau, 1988). Yet, with no the foreword of new products, worsening of the firm’s market place is predictable (if you discontinue rising, you start dying!). Without new products, the firm’s determination unavoidably idles. Initial or near the beginning admission of new products, on the other give, can consequence in new marketplace development, longterm market supremacy, and foreclosure of contestants’ answers (Crawford, 1988). Failure to react to spirited new product foreword with suitable speed can consequence in late advertise entry, an enduring loss of marketplace split, and dissolute proceeds (Kotler, 1988).Timely and receptive new product development has turn out to be even additional dangerous in the extremely spirited global surroundings. The need to reactrapidly to these lively global advertising forces needed the solid to integrate fast the viewpoints and needs of together product developers and possible customers.
With the advent of Information technology, marketing and advertisements have also become an integral part of services like telecommunications.Advertising comprises of a significant part of the American society. The principles of free speech, competition and democracy are duly considered in the role of advertising. Marketing communications have lead to advertisements as an important source of vital information about the open market economy. This brilliant way of communication moves parallel to the new stream of forces like innovative technologies, easy access to information, and entrepreneurial role, all of which are assisting towards a transformation of the nation.Advertising is a crucial engine of economic growth and it exists as a big industry by itself. Advertising is connected with democratic forces and runs at equal par with the forces that transform the society. America is undeniably intertwined with marketing communications, especially advertisings in order to positively affect the interests of consumers, businesses, and the country in its totality. Advertising leads to brand promotion and thus creates a healthy competitive environment in the economy.American consumers rely largely on marketing forces like advertisings for the necessary information about the different characteristics and benefits of a product and they spend a huge amount of dollars on goods and services, thus helping the open market survive. Advertisements also help in alerting the consumers to avail the right kind of products and purchase locations, acts as a counselor for pricing information and opportunities for promotion, and also helps them to save money by creating a downward pressure on the price movements due to the rising competition. It also promotes free entry and exit of new products and services in the market. Advertisings can become a true friend to a consumer by enhancing their confidence level and helping them in deciding on their purchases.
And a lot of corporations are making use of similar technologies to develop protected business-to-business networks, that are acknowledged as extranets. Thus, these technologies’ movements are building a significant business model, electronic commerce. Electronic commerce or e-commerce entails carrying out both internal and external business activities over the internet, intranets, and extranets. In addition, e-commerce encompasses the selling and buying of services, products and goods, the transfer of funds, and the generalization of everyday business activities throughout the communications. Since the e-commerce encompasses so many critical activities, thus trust is a critical factor of successful e-commerce (Whitten, Bentley, Dittman, 2000, p. 23. Laudon Laudon, 1999, p. 25. Lumsden MacKay, 2006). Palvia (2009) stated that the researchers in e-commerce have employed intention theory to recognize the value of trust of internet transactions. on the other hand, the majority has studied only a few elements of e-commerce, for instance, initial acceptance or continuance, and ignored the value of strong associations with the customer in making certain a successful continuous association. This research proposal presents the analysis of some of the main trust measures for e-commerce. This research will be qualitative research regarding the analysis and specification of the trust measures for e-commerce.Neill (2006) stated that qualitative research is a technique of appropriate examination of a lot of dissimilar academic disciplines. Additionally, the qualitative research is used traditionally in the social sciences. however, it could be used in marketplace research and further contexts. In addition, qualitative researchers intend to gather in-depth considerations of human behavior as well as the reasons that manage similar conducts. Furthermore, the qualitative technique examines how and why for decision making, not immediately where, what, when.
They span the radio spectrum in perfect sync with customer expectations. On March 24, 2008, the Justice Department approved the merger, thus clearing one of the biggest hurdles. Still, there was one hurdle though it is only of symbolic significance, i.e. the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) approval. Finally, somewhere by the end of July 2008, the approval of the FCC might be given, so that XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio will merge into one company with a subscriber base in excess of 17.3 million.Mergers and Acquisitions take place when companies use corporate strategy to broad-base equity participation and seek to merge two entities to achieve scale economies. A union of the employees of two companies to be merged will be formed to take care of the employee concerns such as voluntary retirement for some employees, redundancy, and even asset-stripping. A merger can be either horizontal, vertical, or lateral. In addition to these three types of the merger there are con-generic mergers in which two companies in a huge industry may merge but do not share their customer bases. For example, a bank may merge with a leasing company. The merger of XM Satellite Radio with Sirius Satellite Radio is an accretive merger, because already the acquired company, XM Satellite Radio, has experienced a rise in its share prices since the announcement of the merger.Potential mergers often raise concerns about the possible violation of antitrust legislation. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), named after Orris C. Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirschman is extensively used in Economics, but now it is also used to measure the size of firms in relation to the size of the industry. Above all it shows the degree of competition in an industry. The Index is defined as the “sum of the squares of the market shares of each individual firm”. This means the average market share is weighted by the market share of the individual firm. The subsequent result is expressed ranging from 0 to 10,000.