The different ways of expressing nonverbal communication become pronounced especially in a multicultural context. Different cultures have different ways of expressing themselves nonverbally. However, it is worth noting that there are nonverbal communication ways which are similar across the board. One unique feature about nonverbal communication is that forms of expression used in a culture to express a particular message may not express the same message if used in another culture. Nonverbal communication forms can therefore be said to be the same across the board, but the ways they are used differs a great deal and hence the messages they communicate differ a great deal depending on how and where they are used. Because of these fundamental differences across the board, it therefore becomes possible for subjects to communicate different messages when using nonverbal communication forms in a multicultural context without their knowledge. This leads to a breakdown of communication and emergence of conflicts. This is the subject of this research paper. The paper will make a detailed discussion of cultural differences in nonverbal communication. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION A clear understanding of nonverbal communication is essential for a proper discussion of the objective of this paper. According to Martin and Friedman, nonverbal communication is a way of passing messages or/and emotions without using words. Ways in which verbal communication is expressed include “facial expression, gestures, gaze, touch and vocal cues” (Martin and Friedman 3). Davis describes nonverbal communication with more features and includes actions such as “rolling your eyes, how you look at someone, your posture, whether you move your hands, how close you stand, the tone of your voice and the speed at which you speak” (233). In the views of Prinsen and Punyanunt-Carter, nonverbal communication also includes touching and eye contact. Basically, it can be argued that nonverbal communication makes use of body organs to communicate. The manner in which the body organs are twisted or moved or altered can communicate differently. These movements of body organs are numerous and all of them cannot be mentioned in this paper. This is especially the case when different cultures are involved. Martin and Friedman argue that nonverbal communication is quite essential especially where “verbal communications are untrustworthy, ambiguous or otherwise difficult to interpret” (Martin and Friedman 3). Topan shares the same views and adds that nonverbal communication is more important than verbal communication. He argues that this is because “up to 93 percent of all communication takes place at a nonverbal and paraverbal level” (Topan 132). Davis equally concurs by saying nonverbal communication has more effect than words (233). Nonverbal communication has clearly been ranked top as the best means of true expression. Indeed, Topan argues that people will choose to take the message they see in place of the one they hear (136). This simply means if there is a contradiction between what one is saying verbally and nonverbally, then the message communicated nonverbally is taken as the actually intended message that is being communicated. With a good understanding of what nonverbal communication is and even more importantly its significance, it is therefore necessary to examine how different cultures express themselves nonverbally. At this point, it is
The explanations included in the specific section of the corporate website I came to the conclusion that the success of the firm is based on specific policies: the continuous update of the firm’s products and services, i.e. the enforcement of innovation throughout the organization, the development of the firm’s presence in the global market and the increase of the firm’s property portfolio (Marks and Spencer, corporate website, 2010). As for the performance of the firm’s strategic plans, this seems to be satisfactory leading to the further development of the firm’s activities – my view on this issue is based on the relevant statements of the firm’s managers. Indeed, in the corporate website – section referring to the firm’s – it is clearly mentioned that the firm’s current strategic plans focus on the following targets: ‘Increasing the pace of change and operational execution in the business. leveraging MS Direct by building more channels to market. building our international portfolio to grow our global customer base. and reinvigorating our brand communications’ (Marks and Spencer, corporate website, 2010). Using the firm’s financial results and the reports that have been published regarding the performance of Marks and Spencer in the British and the international market I’ve come to the conclusion that the firm has managed to achieve the targets set in its mission statement applying its Core Values (as included in its mission statement but also its Code of Ethics). However, I’ve noticed that there is no specific provision for the global recession. Despite the fact that a series of plans are presented for the development of the firm’s performance in general, it is not explained whether the firm’s policies have been affected by the current financial crisis or whether they are going to be alternated in the near future in order for the firm’s resistance to the global recession to be increased. I would like to refer – briefly –to the reports and the figures on which my views in regard to the firm’s mission statement are based.
Toyota is a company steeped in values, traditions, and a revered work ethic in its corporate culture among its officials and employees. It is guided by a code of conduct that seeks to create a “harmonious and lively work environment” in all its corporate offices, manufacturing sites, and affiliate companies. Japanese management style is a firm believer of the workplace being an extension of family life, hence, Toyota promotes a working environment where harmonious, friendly, and long-term relationships exist among its workers.Toyota manufactured vehicles have a reputation for high-quality and excellent workmanship. This reputation, however, was put on the line, when safety issues led to a massive recall of vehicles unprecedented in the entire auto industry of the world. The situation became worse when crisis management communications failed to shore up the confidence of the general public on the way management has responded to the controversy.How did Toyota’s corporate communication activities handle the recall crisis of 2010? As compiled and narrated by MacKenzie and Evans (Motor Trends, 2010), Toyota’s recall crisis began in August 2009 with a fatal car crash reportedly caused by involuntary acceleration, originally presumed to be caused by the car’s floor matting system, which interfered with the car’s gas pedal.After an investigation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), and after being lambasted by several media outfit, particularly the Los Angeles Times, and exposing unreported incidents of a car crash of Toyota vehicles in the past, Toyota began sending letters to owners, sometime in October or two months after the fatal car crash in August, indicating a recall of the Toyota vehicles to deal with the “unintentional acceleration issues”, but without admitting any factory defects on its products.
international security. development of friendly relations between nations. achievement of international cooperation by resolving international problems and by the encouragement of respect for human rights. and is a center where the efforts of nations are harmonized. With headquarters in New York, the United Nations Organization has a significant presence in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi, according to the Federal Office of Communications (2005).Various international organizations and agencies help the UNO in conducting world affairs more successfully among countries, and in preventing conditions of anarchy or disorder in all regions of the world (Thakur 2001). “One of the main purposes of the United Nations Organization is the maintenance of international peace and security” (Acuna 1995, p.1). Besides peace-keeping, the United Nations Organization is also responsible for the maintenance of diplomacy among the different member countries. One of the key components of the United Nations is the Security Council which is conferred with wide-ranging powers by the United Nations’ member countries.The United Nations Organization is at the legislative and normative centre of numerous international organizations that influence the everyday life of people across the globe, in several different ways. The United Nations Organization heads several Subsidiary Bodies, Programmes and Funds, Functional and Regional Commissions, Standing Committees, Expert Bodies, Specialized Agencies and, other organizations. Specialized Agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the World Bank group, and other international bodies (UN, 2012).In the new millennium, with the birth of a new era in world affairs, “the United Nations is the focus of hopes and aspirations for a future where men and women live at peace with themselves and in harmony with nature” (Thakur 2000, p.2).
The current clientele of theATT company is divided into the ‘Signature Client Group’ (SCG), in which it has 300 accounts in collaboration with Global multinationals and spends $ 5-10 M (million)in the telecom sector on it, the ‘Premier Client Group’ (PCG), in which it has a stupendous 22K+ (thousand plus) accounts composed of the Enterprise, mid-market and acquisition sectors where the total telecom spend is $ 1M and the small business (SMB) sector, wherein it covers the national and the regional business markets, spending $100K-1M $50K-100K on each respectively (Kalata, 2011). The SMB currently has 125K accounts. Besides these three major groups, it has global ramifications which it labels as ‘Most of World’ (MOW) which incorporates the non-US based clientele, where the projected spend is $500K, and also offers government solutions in the local government, educational and medical sectors’ (Kalata, 2011). ATT offers network, devices as well as applications’ to its consumer base. Focus Strategy ATT has developed its product lines for its varied customer base by focusing on differentiation and cost leadership which can be illustrated with Porter’s Generic Model.ATT subsidiaries and affiliates provide a wide array of network resources for their consumers within the US as well as internationally (Stephenson, 2008). Keeping abreast with technology, it is currently the exclusive provider of the fastest 3G network within the United States with eyes on progressing towards 4G as and when it acquires the capability for it through its constant focus on innovation. In addition, it claims to provide the fastest wireless, wifi, internet broadband and voice services within the US. It has also diversified into the TV broadcast (DIRECTV) and yellow pages business, offering multimedia local search solutions. Their IP (Internet Protocol) based business communications services are considered the most advanced in the world. The company offers tailor-made solutions for the different cultural groups within the United States, never forgetting what is important for the consumers, shareholders, business associates and employees. Key Success Metrics In the highly competitive global environment, survival and sustainability of a company depend upon the level of its adaptability to the continuously changing consumer demand, ability to come up with affordable and technically abreast products for its market, good employee management and judicious expenditure of resources. In terms of its financial infrastructure, ATT is a giant amongst its competitors and its workforce is one of the best in the telecommunications sector. ATT has diversified its business and focused on aspects in which it can really excel. It has kept its primary focus on developing GSM wireless networks which occupy the envious position of being 88% of the currently prevalent global networks. It is, therefore, the largest US operator in the global market. Being the best provider of 3G networks, it is gradually focusing on transitioning towards the 4G technology, although its global deployment may take some years. The latest technology in communications known as LTE is already undergoing trials under the aegis of ATT. The company has invested billions in its wireless networks around the world. In 2009, ATT invested $17.3 billion and intended to increase the amount further in subsequent years (Kalata, 2011).
The need for warrant usually arises when law enforcement officials confront situations in which they need to respond to a myriad of ‘crisis’ under which police encounter might involve serious criminality (Decker, 1999).There are two types of warrants, arrest warrants and search warrants, although arrest warrants are rarely used or required. Although search warrants are often used, especially in cases where there is an extensive investigation, the Court has broadened the circumstances under which the police may conduct warrantless searches. This consideration is reflected in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure 41(c), which states, “It shall command the officer to search, within a specified period of time not to exceed 10 days” (Bloom, 2003, p. 91).In order to allow search warrants, judges or magistrates base their probable cause determination on sworn affidavits signed by police officers. This provides a written record if it is necessary to review the probable cause determination. A reviewing court will only review that information that was presented to the magistrate at the time the warrant was issued. Some jurisdictions, including the federal system, permit the issuance of a warrant on sworn oral communications, even if communicated by telephone. In this situation, the judge will place the person applying for the warrant under oath and record the conversation when possible and if it is not possible to record the conversation then the judge will create a longhand verbatim record. According to the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure 41(c), the recording or the longhand record must be filed with the court (Bloom, 2003, p. 91). Since the government has to respond to the burden in hearings on warrantless searches, the police officers testimony serves as the beginning point for a trial courts consideration of the constitutionality of the police action (Larry, 1999).Although traditional search warrants are supported by probable cause, lower courts have supported the issuance of anticipatory warrants.
ICT has proven its worth for providing economic developments, improving the quality of living, opening employment opportunities, and linking people no matter where they may be located in the world. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether or not one can argue that people live in an all-inclusive Information Society. Hence, it will dig into details such as the background of the network society, the definition and facts about all-inclusive information society, some issues that surround it, the influence of media and other communications industries, and the arguments, advantages, and disadvantages of the issue in focus. Background of All-inclusive Information Society The e-inclusion policy of Europe aims to lessen disparities when it comes to ICT usage among every single person despite social status. This policy wishes to create an all-inclusive information society, also known as the network society wherein everyone can create their own opportunities in business, education, and employment by being able to access reliable information through the different tools and services provided by ICT easily (International Telecommunication Union 2012). Manuel Castells (cited in Glass 2005, p. 9) once postulated that ‘in a new network economy, information becomes a key factor in economic productivity.’ For example, the flow of stocks in the market is based on relevant information regarding businesses and finances, as well as social and technological trends. Hence, information is made known through ICT and the relevant information is being used to improve businesses and increase economies. The all-inclusive information society is needed in order to balance development in a nation—both the urban and rural areas. The ICT tools and services must be fairly accessible and convenient to all citizens so that they will access information equally relevant for the improvement of their quality of living for all types of people including the disabled, old, and those living in remote areas where there used to be difficulties in finding good signals to access the net (European Commission 2007). In the advent of technology, only few people were able to make use of the internet especially the educated ones. These days, almost everyone can use and access ICT tools and services—even children can go online and be able to do e-learning. However, despite these advancements, studies have shown that factors such as education, age, employment, culture, and language may impede the e-inclusion policy because these are major drawbacks in the effective usage of information and communication technologies (Webster 2006). Solutions to these have constantly been researched and studied in order to realise the policy fully. Countries like Europe have implemented this and are close to around 80% of success in the e-inclusion. They still need to do a lot of work, though, and they are aware of it. Other countries, especially those belonging to the third world country will find this a difficult task because first and foremost the availability and affordability percentage of people in using ICT tools and services is quite low, but the positive side is that there are more and more people becoming more literate to these technologies little by little (European Communities 2006). In an all-inclusive network society, every ICT user will be able to express his or her opinion, which is a great way to make
But after only a couple of years, the company has already changed the profile of its activities – from the designer. it has gradually transformed into a full-fledged airline. The first flight was carried out in 1929, and in the 40s, the carrier moved its headquarters to Atlanta, where it, in fact, is located to this day. Soon, namely, in the early 1950s, Delta Airlines first swallowed another travel business carrier. The first airlines acquired were Chicago and Southern Airlines, and a bit later, Delta Airlines also took over the carrier named Northeast Airlines. The 90s were the most fruitful for this organization. The airlines were able to acquire customer’s flights to European destinations after the bankrupt of the Pan American business entity. As a result, Delta acquired the most significant transatlantic routes and became one of the largest carriers in terms of the number of passengers carried and the number of business customer travel flights operated. In 2000, this American company joined the SkyTeam model, and after 4 years, it began to face serious financial difficulties within the business travel airline customer management. Delta Airlines was forced to lower ticket prices, reduce staff, and close some hubs. In 2005, the business venture filed for bankruptcy, after which it began the reorganization. However, after 2 years, new shares of this carrier began to be sold to customers. Delta regained its former model logo and successfully resumed the air travel for customers. The marketing and advertising strategies of Delta Airlines provide the reach of the balance between the current and expected portfolio of customers of the airlines. International airline marketing and advertising are systems of planning, implementing, monitoring, and analyzing measures to influence a multinational business travel market environment and adapt to its conditions in a business venture that operates in more than one country. When entering the foreign travel business model market, the company uses various types of international airline business marketing, depending on the degree of involvement of customers in the system of international economic relations:Traditional customer airline marketing: the usual sale of travel goods/services abroad, when the exporter is liable to the buyer only until delivery.Export customer airline marketing: the exporter is engaged in a systematic study of the target foreign market and adapts its production/services to the changing requirements of this market.International customer airline marketing: the exporter deeply explores the market and penetrates it using a wide range of marketing tools.Global customer airline marketing: the company mainly operates in the international market model, using the entire marketing mix.The goals of international airline customer advertising and marketing for Delta Airlines, first of all, based on the results of the analysis of the business customer model environment and the risks associated with it. Economic airline goals of the airlines are the following:Providing targeted market share.Providing access to new markets.Getting the maximum profit.Increasing customer sales volumes. Psychographic airline goals (influence on purchasing behavior at Delta) are the following: raising the awareness of local people about the goods and service of the company. increasing customer satisfaction with the use of purchased travel goods/services. stimulation of decisions of customers on the purchase of travel business goods/services. Modern international marketing at the airlines is a system that provides strategic interaction between a company and the world economy in order to solve its own problems. One of the main tasks of Delta Airlines when entering the foreign market is to minimize its commercial risk and ensure economic (financial) success. The sequence of functions of Delta is as follows:Studying the intended customer market for their products. The use of the non-price model of competition that requires great organizational work from all of its participants and serves as an important incentive for an active and constant study of the situation on the market and the development of market development forecasts.At Delta Airlines, the forecast of customer market development is conducted primarily in relation to the assortment and sales volumes, competition, stability, analysis of favorable and unfavorable economic conditions.The evaluation of the opportunities at Delta Airlines implies the special customer attention of the company to a high scientific and technical level of the service, improvement of the range of products, improvement of maintenance of machinery and equipment.The development of the marketing strategy at the company includes setting the goals for the near and distant prospects, developing methods for achieving goals, scientific, technical and pricing policies, etc.The development of tactics at Delta involves the development of specific means to achieve the goals of the service.The activities of Delta Airlines should be based on a comprehensive customer analysis of the incoming information and control, which serves as the basis for the advertising activities of the marketing management system. When entering a foreign market, a company may use the following options in the frameworks of the selected model. The business is engaged in international marketing activities that must determine the degree of standardization of its plans and strategies. A standardized, or global, approach is to use a single marketing strategy for all countries in which Delta has its own interests. A non-standardized approach requires a separate marketing plan for each market, developed according to local requirements. A combined approach provides a mix of the elements of two approaches. The marketing management concepts at Delta Airlines are the starting points that characterize the active orientation of the customer market activity of an enterprise at various stages of its development. There are basic concepts on the basis of which Delta conducts its marketing activities for customers. If the production marketing concept assumes that demand exceeds supply. With the improvement of production, it becomes possible to increase the production of goods/services and reduce their cost, and hence the price for the consumer, which in turn will lead to an increase in demand. The main goal that the manager at Delta Airlines is guided by – the improvement of the model of the customer service, which contributes to an increase in the supply and almost automatically leads to an increase in sales and, consequently, to an increase in profits. The management of Delta, in this case, makes efforts to ensure the large serialization and sale of goods/services through a variety of outlets. This marketing model is in demand in conditions of the shortage of the service, which is observed with limited supply at the company. The basis of the product marketing model (product-oriented concept) at Delta Airlines is the assumption that the business customer will always be sympathetic to the service if it is of good quality and sold at a reasonable price. The emphasis at the business entity is on the development of new models of goods for customers, and the modernization of the existing ones, in order to improve the quality characteristics of products. It is assumed that the consumer is interested in such a service, knows about the availability of products – analogs, and makes its choice by comparing the quality and prices of similar products from other providers. The model meets the situation when there is an approximate balance of supply and demand on the market. the consumer is guided by the choice of the best offer from all existing ones. The concept of intensification of commercial customer efforts asserts that customers will not buy the service of Delta Airlines in sufficient quantities if it does not make significant efforts in the field of marketing, advertising, and customer promotion. The model of intensifying business efforts is particularly aggressive when applied to passive service, i.e., those that the buyer usually does not think about purchasing, such as flights at Delta Airlines. In these areas of activity, various methods have been developed and perfected for identifying potential business customers and “hard selling” service to them. The market (consumer) model at Delta Airlines asserts that the key to achieving the organization’s goals is to determine the needs and requirements of the target markets and ensure the desired satisfaction in more effective and more productive ways than competitors. The object of the market at Delta is the target customers of the business entity with their needs and requirements. The market concept reflects the firm’s commitment to the theory of consumer sovereignty: Delta produces what the consumer needs and makes a profit by maximally satisfying the needs of business customers. The concept of social and ethical marketing states that the task of Delta Airlines is to establish the needs and interests of the target markets for customers and provide the desired satisfaction in more effective ways while preserving or strengthening the well-being of the consumer and society as a whole. The concept of the socially-ethical marketing at Delta Airlines is generated by doubts: whether the firm, satisfying the needs of customers, always operates taking into account the long-term benefit of consumers and society as a whole. The concept of socially-ethical marketing at Delta Airlines requires the balancing of three factors: the profits of Delta, purchasing needs, and public interests. Currently, there are three more fairly new concepts:The concept of integrated marketing, the essence of which is that Delta Airlines itself must create a new product, new technologies, and, accordingly, the customers.The concept of strategic marketing, the essence of which is that it is necessary to focus on competitors, their products, product characteristics, prices, etc. This will allow customers to find the position of Delta Airlines in the market and be competitive.The concept of the goal settings.The marketing at Delta has been developing since the beginning of the present century, and this activity is constantly being modified and improved. The concepts discussed above show the development of marketing at Delta Airlines, although they can exist in parallel.The effective planning of the marketing activities of Delta Airlines at the international level forms a particular perception of planning in the enterprise and necessitates the intensive and regular monitoring and development of the plan. The principles of international planning at Delta do not differ from those used in the domestic market. And, the interaction between the main elements of the environment surrounding Delta, as well as the high level of complexity, make the implementation of planning to be difficult and expensive. The international planning at Delta Airlines can take place at three different levels:The global enterprise levelPlanning at Delta Airlines in this field is taken in the longest-term aspect, the general goals important for Delta are determined, which are perceived as a whole.Strategic levelPlanning is carried out at the Delta management level and gives an idea of long- and medium-term development options. Strategic planning is a formalized means of forecasting the future. The need for balanced assessment and foresight is especially great when Delta Airlines carries out its operations in a large number of markets.Tactical levelIn this case, planning focuses on determining the specific shares that should be carried out, and on resolving the issue of Delta Airlines channeling resources to achieve global goals in various markets where the enterprise operates. A simple and clear definition of goals is an important prerequisite for successfully entering foreign markets, as well as an accurate assessment of available resources at Delta. The market can promise attractive profits in the short term but have unstable prospects in the long term. Thus, it is necessary to clearly define the goals of Delta Airlines in order to prevent the involvement of the enterprise in losing situations. Following the objectives, Delta Airlines should give priority to comparing needs and existing resources. First of all, it is necessary that the responsible employees of the enterprise are appropriately interested in participating in the international activities of Delta Airlines. The lack of certainty or attempts to overcome the usual impromptu schemes at Delta adversely affect its activity. The random decisions may turn out to be successful, but the only constant and purposeful application of planning at Delta Airlines allows achieving optimal return on investment, which is always distant and inevitably lagging in comparison with the forecast. At Delta Airlines, the international planning process includes the phases of analysis and adaptation. The phase of analysis and selection of markets depending on the goals and resources of Delta. The enterprise should continuously strive to maintain a stable correspondence between the experience, services, culture, goals, and characteristics of various markets, whatever the degree of involvement in foreign economic relations. For this purpose, it is important to highlight the selection criteria, such as the minimum potential, the probable payback period of investments, a certain level of current profit at Delta Airlines, etc. These steps turn out to be effective only if, as foreign markets are developed, continuous efforts are maintained to obtain information and monitor the implementation of projects at Delta. These efforts allow Delta Airlines to have sufficient data to accurately assess the potential, risks, and opportunities, to adapt proposals and possible commercial decisions about the start of a campaign in this market.The adaptation phase of the proposal is to measure the degree of adaptation of various elements — services, prices, sales systems, communications — to determine the proper supply volume. One of the questions concerns the cultural environment of the proposed product at Delta Airlines: measuring the phenomenon of identification, the models of consumption, and the frequency of purchases. We are also talking about a thorough study of the very significant differences between countries in the field of marketing, in pricing and credit policies, and in general in the field of communications, including the media, the content, and nature of communications, the costs of advertising campaigns, etc. During this phase, Delta Airlines should be able to assess the feasibility of the proposals and the costs of adapting them to specific market conditions, which will allow for a second choice of market.The phase of developing a marketing plan at Delta. The results achieved allow us to develop a plan adapted to the intended market, specifying what needs to be done, who, how, and in what time frame will do it. The question of costs and means becomes central, as it determines the success or failure of the plan for Delta Airlines. The budget deficit or interruptions in supply will seriously affect the next steps and may even manifest in inconsistency and non-adaptation of actions at Delta.The phase of implementation and control. The implementation of the commercial plan for Delta in the foreign economic field is not limited to simply making a positive decision. It is important to carry out monitoring and control in order to justify the ongoing efforts and to detect possible deviations from market development plans as soon as possible. And for this, it is necessary not only to have clearly defined priorities but also to maintain the achieved distance in relation to current actions to assess distortions and develop corrective decisions for Delta Airlines. The strategic planning process for Delta Airlines is a closed system, the functioning of which is associated with the fulfillment of two conditions: observation and ensuring flexibility. Systematic observation makes it possible to measure results and detect deviations. providing flexibility allows for appropriate adjustments. Delta Airlines should strive to develop both of these qualities. At Delta, the control in international marketing includes a preliminary definition of policies that have precisely defined goals. Next, you need to measure achievements and costs, then make changes or set goals, the implementation of which is necessary to correct deficiencies. The control of international activity poses a number of problems for Delta Airlines, a list of which were compiled by the American researcher J. Welding. Here are some of them:difficulties in financial control of activities abroad.conflicts between directorates or branches due to clientele or territories.the development of foreign activities on an unforeseen path.double employment of staff or administrative services.underutilization of production or marketing opportunities abroad. In many ways, these problems are caused by a wide variety of markets, inaccurate information, geographical and cultural distances, as well as small unpredictable events characteristic of any complex activity. First of all, a choice for Delta Airlines should be made between centralization and decentralization of the control system.Centralization is appropriate for an extraordinary variety of situations. decentralized management is rather a guarantee of flexibility and sensitivity. After choosing one of these two principles for Delta Airlines, the enterprise can take a series of sequential measures to create a control system, as one of the researchers, has already presented. It is important to choose the control methods, determine the norms, based on which, possible deviations of the obtained results from the intended goals should be measured effectively for Delta Airlines. Further, it is necessary to localize these goals, i.e., to establish for each area of responsibility, which is a difficult task in the face of a multiplicity of levels and types of competence achievable for Delta.
The tools to manage could be manual or technological. Throughout the 20th century and particularly in the first decade of the 21st century, many technological products including many IT products were developed throughout the world, which had and is still having applications in all spheres of human lives. Out of the many technological products, a good number is being used in office management. That is, offices of today have used or integrated communications systems in every aspect of their functioning. From opening a simple door to carrying out advanced operations, technology has become an omnipresent entity in offices, with their entire operations hinging on the support provided by technology, particularly Information Technology.As mentioned above, the 20th century is the ‘gateway’ for the entry of many new technologies in all spheres of life. As the early 20th century saw the full effects of the Industrial Revolution, many new technological products made their presence felt in organizations or factories or offices. Particularly in offices, technology was at its fullest use. That is, only in the early 20th century, people ‘organized’ themselves into a structured setup like offices to carry out their duties. While carrying those duties only, the technological products came into the picture and started to aid them in the early part of the 20th century. The first of the new breed of technological machines, which started making a presence in the office environment, is the Adding machines. Adding machines carried out additions and other mathematical calculations and in turn, replaced many employees who were specifically employed for doing these calculations. That is, by carrying out various calculations, Adding machines minimized the number of employees, thereby changing the structure or the interior of the offices in many fields like banking and accounting.
Several production and engineering innovations were introduced by the Boeing Company. For example, one of the innovations was the construction of the 787 families of aeroplanes from a plastic resin of carbon fibre in place of aluminium that was traditionally used for the making of aeroplanes till then. This provided the Boeing Company with a way to increase the fuel efficiency of the 787 aeroplanes. The 787 aeroplanes have a communications system based on satellite installed in them to provide the passengers with access to the Internet, help improve the monitoring maintenance with the wireless networks, and make electronic flight bags accessible to the crew that consists of reference data and charts. The windows of the 787 aeroplanes are larger in size as compared to other aircraft made till then. The larger size provides the passengers with additional comfort by increasing humidity and air pressure. “With the 787, Boeing was dreaming big dreams. They wanted to create a next-generation plane – a plan that was everything a 21st-century airline could possibly want. And they wanted to slash the cost of production, as well as the cost of operation. It was a daunting challenge. But Infosys was up to the task, co-developing innovative solutions in Information Technology (IT)” (Infosys, 2006). The customers have responded to the Dreamliner enthusiastically. This can be estimated from the fact that in spite of certain cancellations, the Boeing Company received the orders from 55 customers for 850 aeroplanes in April 2009 (boeing.com, 2009).