Three Categories of Roles That Managers Play

A manager would be effective in his respective roles when he understands the strategic, technical and operational responsibilities he holds within the workplace (“Henry Mintzberg’s Managerial,” n.d.). What are the specific roles this first category consists? These set of roles are associated on how a manager will interact to his employees and the entire workforce in general. These are the first three roles out of the 10 roles of management by Henry Mintzberg – figurehead, leader, and liaison (Burgaz, 1997, p. 15). The first is a symbolic head. A manager is expected to perform routine duties legally and socially. He is like a father. The father is the head of the family. He is expected to initiate actions for the welfare of his family. In the same manner, if the organization needs resources to complete certain projects, he would initiate actions to provide these resources to ensure productivity. In a social gathering within the organization, a manager may send solicitation letter to sister companies and other organizations requesting them to participate and donate to the said event. He is also the leader of the workforce, which is the second crucial role of a manager. Mr A, for example, is responsible to motivate his employees. He is responsible to initiate and conduct training to enhance the skills of his subordinates. He is also in charge to fill vacant positions and activate the workforce to perform the tasks and duties as defined in their respective job descriptions. As a leader, he must learn how to follow the rules and protocols of the company or organization. As a leader, he must portray the right attitude in the workforce to become an ideal person and to strengthen his authority with his employees. Authority is not enough for a manager to become effective with his roles – he needs respect and he must learn to gain it from his employees. Mr A. acts as the liaison officer – that is the manager’s third role. He shall facilitate communications between organizations (“Roles and Responsibilities”, 2012). He maintains a self-developed contact to the outsiders and other companies for the benefit of the organization (Burgaz, 1997, p. 15). Mr A. needs to know the news outside which can affect his operation and decision-making factors. These outside contacts are expected to provide favours and important data to help him activate the workforce efficiently. In order to build a self-developed network between outsiders, he needs to build a strong relationship to these outside parties for them to entrust him with unbiased details. What are the informational roles? Mr A. is expected to monitor, disseminate and transmit information for the benefit of the entire organization. He seeks and receives different information that would help him develop effective techniques and strategies to make the entire workforce productive. Mr A. would monitor his subordinates’ performance and measures its productivity. He must exert extra effort to gather information from the outside – e.g. examining the competitor’s techniques. Most of the times, people reinvent ideas rather than building something from scratch. Competitors are spending millions of cash to enhance their management techniques and approaches – a wise manager can make use of these data and information as important resources to develop an approach suited for his management. Disseminating information to the organization is another important role of a manager that belongs to the second category of roles.

Strategic Planning in Every Aspect of Life

The challenges are many and leading publishing houses have adjusted their strategies to cope with these challenges. The Chronicle Gazette too has witnessed declining subscriptions and advertising revenue. Besides, competition in the industry has intensified. It is not merely disruptive competition but disruptive innovation that has affected the media industry (Sterling, 2008). This includes the network news, cable news and now the different forms of web news. Nevertheless, despite the advancement in internet and communications technology, despite the advantages that the internet has over the traditional system of obtaining news, despite the declining sales figures, the future of traditional newspapers remains bright. This report seeks to determine the best short-term and long-terms steps that this newspaper daily should take to make itself sustainable.It is generally believed that the American newspaper industry faces an uncertain future because of stagnant markets, increasing competition from other media for audience attention, and changes in advertiser media choices. The publishing houses are under pressure to maximize profits and company value as many newspapers have phased out of business. The number of afternoon papers and the secondary news appears has exited the American newspaper industry. As of 2004, 98 percent of American daily newspapers are the only daily published in their city of origin (Picard, 2004).News circulates every day of the “disruptive” changes taking place in the newspaper industry, that include disappearing readers, shrinking revenues, declining stock prices, or looming layoffs (Scott Clark, 2006). While 80 percent of the adults read newspapers in 1981, the figures declined to 58 percent in 1999 (Thad, 2004). The circulation volume has dropped by ten percent between 1974 and 1999.

Critical Analyse Global Markets and the New Product Development

QFD has been used as a significant portion of the product development procedure. QFD is an asset in people and in order. It uses a cross-useful team to determine client supplies. QFD is a methodical and logical technique for convention customer expectations. QFD is a preparation process for interprets client supplies (voice of the client) into the appropriate scientific supplies for each stage of product development and construct (i.e. marketing policies, preparation, product design and manufacturing, example assessment, manufacture process development, manufacture, sales) (Sullivan, 1986) and (Revelle, 1998).if we look upon the basic theories of this article then we come to know that new product foreword in today’s technology-driven marketplaces carries important risk. New product breakdown rates can be as short as one out of each three products (Antil, 1988) or as elevated as the 90 percent of new grocery products which are reserved inside a year of their foreword. New technology, better communications, greater than before income stress, and shorter product life rotations have extra to the intrinsic danger (Rosenau, 1988). Yet, with no the foreword of new products, worsening of the firm’s market place is predictable (if you discontinue rising, you start dying!). Without new products, the firm’s determination unavoidably idles. Initial or near the beginning admission of new products, on the other give, can consequence in new marketplace development, longterm market supremacy, and foreclosure of contestants’ answers (Crawford, 1988). Failure to react to spirited new product foreword with suitable speed can consequence in late advertise entry, an enduring loss of marketplace split, and dissolute proceeds (Kotler, 1988).Timely and receptive new product development has turn out to be even additional dangerous in the extremely spirited global surroundings. The need to reactrapidly to these lively global advertising forces needed the solid to integrate fast the viewpoints and needs of together product developers and possible customers.

Role of Government and Industry Agencies in Marketing Communications

With the advent of Information technology, marketing and advertisements have also become an integral part of services like telecommunications.Advertising comprises of a significant part of the American society. The principles of free speech, competition and democracy are duly considered in the role of advertising. Marketing communications have lead to advertisements as an important source of vital information about the open market economy. This brilliant way of communication moves parallel to the new stream of forces like innovative technologies, easy access to information, and entrepreneurial role, all of which are assisting towards a transformation of the nation.Advertising is a crucial engine of economic growth and it exists as a big industry by itself. Advertising is connected with democratic forces and runs at equal par with the forces that transform the society. America is undeniably intertwined with marketing communications, especially advertisings in order to positively affect the interests of consumers, businesses, and the country in its totality. Advertising leads to brand promotion and thus creates a healthy competitive environment in the economy.American consumers rely largely on marketing forces like advertisings for the necessary information about the different characteristics and benefits of a product and they spend a huge amount of dollars on goods and services, thus helping the open market survive. Advertisements also help in alerting the consumers to avail the right kind of products and purchase locations, acts as a counselor for pricing information and opportunities for promotion, and also helps them to save money by creating a downward pressure on the price movements due to the rising competition. It also promotes free entry and exit of new products and services in the market. Advertisings can become a true friend to a consumer by enhancing their confidence level and helping them in deciding on their purchases.

Developing and Validating Trust Measures for ECommerce

And a lot of corporations are making use of similar technologies to develop protected business-to-business networks, that are acknowledged as extranets. Thus, these technologies’ movements are building a significant business model, electronic commerce. Electronic commerce or e-commerce entails carrying out both internal and external business activities over the internet, intranets, and extranets. In addition, e-commerce encompasses the selling and buying of services, products and goods, the transfer of funds, and the generalization of everyday business activities throughout the communications. Since the e-commerce encompasses so many critical activities, thus trust is a critical factor of successful e-commerce (Whitten, Bentley, Dittman, 2000, p. 23. Laudon Laudon, 1999, p. 25. Lumsden MacKay, 2006). Palvia (2009) stated that the researchers in e-commerce have employed intention theory to recognize the value of trust of internet transactions. on the other hand, the majority has studied only a few elements of e-commerce, for instance, initial acceptance or continuance, and ignored the value of strong associations with the customer in making certain a successful continuous association. This research proposal presents the analysis of some of the main trust measures for e-commerce. This research will be qualitative research regarding the analysis and specification of the trust measures for e-commerce.Neill (2006) stated that qualitative research is a technique of appropriate examination of a lot of dissimilar academic disciplines. Additionally, the qualitative research is used traditionally in the social sciences. however, it could be used in marketplace research and further contexts. In addition, qualitative researchers intend to gather in-depth considerations of human behavior as well as the reasons that manage similar conducts. Furthermore, the qualitative technique examines how and why for decision making, not immediately where, what, when.

Merger of XM and SIRIUS

They span the radio spectrum in perfect sync with customer expectations. On March 24, 2008, the Justice Department approved the merger, thus clearing one of the biggest hurdles. Still, there was one hurdle though it is only of symbolic significance, i.e. the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) approval. Finally, somewhere by the end of July 2008, the approval of the FCC might be given, so that XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio will merge into one company with a subscriber base in excess of 17.3 million.Mergers and Acquisitions take place when companies use corporate strategy to broad-base equity participation and seek to merge two entities to achieve scale economies. A union of the employees of two companies to be merged will be formed to take care of the employee concerns such as voluntary retirement for some employees, redundancy, and even asset-stripping. A merger can be either horizontal, vertical, or lateral. In addition to these three types of the merger there are con-generic mergers in which two companies in a huge industry may merge but do not share their customer bases. For example, a bank may merge with a leasing company. The merger of XM Satellite Radio with Sirius Satellite Radio is an accretive merger, because already the acquired company, XM Satellite Radio, has experienced a rise in its share prices since the announcement of the merger.Potential mergers often raise concerns about the possible violation of antitrust legislation. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), named after Orris C. Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirschman is extensively used in Economics, but now it is also used to measure the size of firms in relation to the size of the industry. Above all it shows the degree of competition in an industry. The Index is defined as the “sum of the squares of the market shares of each individual firm”. This means the average market share is weighted by the market share of the individual firm. The subsequent result is expressed ranging from 0 to 10,000.

The Role of IS for The 2012 Olympics

Conclusions identified that there are risks associated with the public sector, especially in terms of visitor beliefs about potential privacy issues. Benefits to the private sector are enhanced business visibility and higher tourist/business revenues. It has been recommended to change the communications style about public sector surveillance projects and criminal databases to improve social and cultural standing with international visitor groups.On the advice of the module leader, the researcher was required to undertake a comprehensive research project to identify the requirements of various information systems in order to cope with the impending high volume of visitors that will be attending the London 2012 Olympics. This research effort was carried out so as to understand the impact of technology on business and gain an understanding of the problems involved in these large-scale IT projects.This report identifies the specific information systems requirements, in terms of usage and development, that will be included as part of the information technology infrastructure at the 2012 Olympics. The research provides how this technology impacts both the public and private sector and explores potential problems with their development, usage, and inclusion for various control agencies.Multiple databases are necessary for development and maintenance in different policing agencies that are entrusted with the responsibility of securing the public welfare and sustaining public systems. The UK police force, in anticipation of high visitor volumes, has been forced to re-examine their information systems capabilities and have improved their fingerprint identification systems. There are legitimate risks to public safety in any organized event from individuals who actively look for opportunities to commit crimes against others. The fingerprint identification database is linked with missing persons.

Military History Naval UUV Programs and NAVAL UGV Programs

Perhaps uniquely among the military department, the Department of Navy may eventually acquire every major kind of unnamed vehicle (UV) Navy and Marine Corps programs for UVs to raise several potential issues for Congress. Recent U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, Chapman (2001) stressed, have highlighted the potential of unnamed vehicles (UVs) to alter U.S. military operations and improve the capabilities of U.S. military forces. Compared to equivalent manned systems, UVs are viewed as offering advantaged in a number of areas, including the following: lower procurement and operating cost. reduced risk to U.S. personnel. low observability. and the ability to operate in placed inaccessibly to people or manned platforms. Chapan (2001) describes the major roles envisaged for military UVs include various forms of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). communications relay. detection and neutralization of mines and other hazards. targeting. and strike (i.e., attack) operations. UVs may multiply the effectiveness of the manned ships and aircraft that deploy them by extending their “eyes and ears” and by permitting them to perform multiple missions in varied locations simultaneously. As the U.S. military evolves toward more distributed and networked arrangements of forces, UVs are expected to be served as “nodes” (i.e., constituent elements) in the network (Chapman 2001). O’Rourke (2002, p. 6) told that there might be distinctively among the military departments, the Department of Navy (DoN), which includes the Navy and Marine Corps, may eventually acquire major kind of UV, including unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), unmanned air combat vehicles (UCAVs), unmanned surface vehicles (USVs), unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs ), and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). Various Navy and Marine Corps officers are involved in developing and acquiring naval UVs. much of the more basic development work is being conducted through the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

Forces and Interests that Lay Behind English Overseas Expansion

The British Empire covered one-fifth of the globe and ruled 400 million subjects belonging to various religious and ethnic groups. It acted as the “centre of the world” for trade, communications, migrations and naval-military power. In other words, it had become the Empire on which “the sun never set”. 1 The foundation for such exploits was laid in the early modern period, especially the late 16th and 17th centuries. The dynamics within the Empire continually evolved throughout the early modern period. It was also subject to external pressures, such as foreign rivals, wars, revolts and economic change. This essay explores the forces and interests that existed in those times.The history of the British Empire building has its roots in the individual evolutions of the Three Kingdoms – England, Ireland and Scotland. Both England and Scotland were composite monarchies that applied “colonialist principles of settlement, acculturation and economic dependency to civilize its territorial margins and their inhabitants”. They also exhorted overseas adventures into the Atlantic during the early modern period.2England’s reign over diverse annexes of territories during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries provides the first example of empire formation. The inhabitants of these lands were discriminated against and treated to military aggression. Even the indigenous pagan people, considered as barbarians, were coerced to convert to Christianity. So there is sufficient precedence to the British imperialistic endeavors that peaked during the 18th and 19th centuries.To conquer the world, the English first needed a vision of themselves as an imperial nation. This self-image as an independent and omnicompetent country, as well as one with the potential to control other countries and regions of the world, had to precede the acquisition of an empire and so the English needed an imperial ideology before they could begin toconstruct an empire indeed.

Advertising Sales and Promotion London 2012 Olympics

The marketing communications plan for the London 2012 Olympics is one that has to entail nearly every possible marketing and media vehicle, use up each bit of rating point, grab as much market share and chalk out huge media spend levels. Doing so would not only require clear hindsight but also fore vision and tact. Apart from this, a lot of amalgamated efforts have to be put in practice before the dream is realized. All said and done, the marketing communications plan has to comprise of just about every possible aspect of marketing and media usage available in the United Kingdom.There are scores of benefits that are available for the related businesses in the city as well as the whole nation for that matter. The need of the hour is to pinpoint how the small businesses can positively contribute towards the London 2012 Olympics and how they can in return be benefited from the very same. It has to be a mutual contact, one that looks after the rights of each party as well as shares the profits thus earned. The small businesses need to be assured that their message will be relayed back and forth during the duration of the Olympics and their schemes, offers and other plans would be met to dot. [Budd, 2004] However doing so could be a big hassle for the Olympics committee (of London). But then it is very important to take these small businesses along and ensure that they work in unison. A lot of forward planning has to make way for what has to happen ultimately. Six years down the road, the vision has to become reality and for that our actions have to speak louder than mere words. We have to stand up and be counted.The Olympics organization needs to understand that the agency will do its best to ensure that all marketing-related activities echo with the overall ‘feel’ of the whole extravaganza as well as guarantee that we would live up the challenge, in fact, do more than the expectations that they have with us.