As part of the international human resource management study, it is necessary for human resource manager(s) to be familiar with the national culture (McGaughey, Iverson, and De Cieri, 1997) and labor institutions of different countries in order to determine the work-related preferences of each nationality. The study of different national cultures is beneficial to both domestic and international HRM since a lot of these competent employees have been shifting from developing to developed countries since the twentieth century.As part of the study, the differences between the national culture of Australia and China including the labor institutions. the HRD Theory and Concept behind the national culture of the two countries. its current implications on the Local and Global Responsiveness in Managing Human Resources. and the assumptions and limitations of the study will be discussed.It is vital to deeply study the cultural differences between Australia and China since culture itself could highly influence the behavior of individuals within a group. Eventually, the changes in their behavior would result in the formation of a sub-culture.Culture forms the way in which social relations of a particular group are being structured and shaped (Clarke et al., 1976). Strong values represent stable, long-lasting beliefs that could greatly influence the perception and decision-making of an individual or employee. In fact, it is the culture that sets a standard to help us determine what is good from bad or what is morally right from wrong. (Sagie and Elizur, 1996) Since the culture and sub-culture of an organization shape the employees’ values, it is important for HR managers to know more about the cultural differences between Australia and China.A developed country such as Australia and developing country like China has contrasting characteristics in their socio-cultural environment due to their individual views regarding the nature of causation as well as the control over the outcomes in life.