Financial liberalization involves reduction of regulations and involvement of regulatory agencies in the financial system of a given country or region. It refers to the ‘deregulation of domestic financial markets and the liberalization of the capital account’ (Ranciere, Tornell Westermann, n.d, p.1). The financial system broadly refers to the lending system in a given country and includes the players like banking institutions, the central bank, the treasury in a country, or the money markets authorities. Financial liberalizations will have varying effects on the players in different industries at the national, regional, or international levels. While some economies may suffer the negative consequences of financial liberalizations, other players in the economy will benefit from the initiative. This paper focuses on the likely beneficiary/beneficiaries of financial liberalization. Some financial reforms Financial liberalization measures can comprise both internal regulations (imposed by the central banks within a country) and external regulations effected by the regional and international agencies or the regulatory agencies in foreign countries. Internal FL measures are many. … ludes a state’s withdrawal from involvement in financial intermediation (Ghosh, 2005), which is characterized by the transformation of development banks into regular financial institutions and privatization of publicly owned banking system. Financial liberalization also involves creating a relaxed environment for investors and firms to participate in the stock market through dilution of the listing conditions as well as relaxed regulation on the financial instruments to be used or acquired within a given financial system (Ghosh, 2005). A liberalized economy will also be characterized by better access to financial sources. Thus, internal financial liberalization also includes improving access to funds by the financial agents and firms and removing regulations on the kind of investments that can be made by these financial agents (Ghosh, 2005). External financial liberalization may include steps like allowing foreigners to own domestic financial assets, allowing domestic residents to own foreign financial assets, or allowing free trade of foreign currency asset within the domestic economy (Ghosh, 2005). Who gains from financial liberalisation? Financial liberalization has positive and negative impacts on the economic development in a given country. While it can promote financial deepening and increased economic growth of a country, it can also lead to financial crisis in other countries resulting from increased macroeconomic volatility and excessive risk taking (Ranciere, Tornell, Westermann, N.d). Financial repression, caused by governments’ interventions in the financial sector, leads to low economic growth and poor allocation efficiency in countries with negative interest rates and vice versa for positive interest rates (Caprio, Honohan Stiglitz, 2006, p.5).
The movement was founded with the intention of bringing to light some of the issues, which face the modern-day human beings (Walsh, 2011). These are majorly economic conditions, which are exhibited in a society, which is largely capitalistic in nature (Boxer, 2011). It is perceived that the Occupy Wall Street Movement is one, which is of North American descent. However, this is not the case. This movement is one, which has gained popularity to an extent that its presence is now felt in close to 82 countries in the world (Townsend, et al, 2011). In the recent past, income inequality has been seen to increase. This is majorly due to the experiences associated with stagnated economies and the unequal distribution of wealth. In this case, these impediments significantly undermine the developmental agendas, which some people in the society indeed have. In the 1990s up to the 2000s, there were significant economic inequalities in the United States. However, these issues were rarely discussed or brought to the attention of policymakers (Gelder, 2011). This was until the inception of the Occupy Wall Street Movement. …This is with the intention of alleviating the living conditions of some of the individuals in the country (Gitlin, 2012). This is especially in the case of low-income earners. The movement also aims at bringing relief to those students who suffer from huge amounts of debts that are related to their student loans. These are some of the goals, which this movement aimed at achieving after its inception. There are various ethical considerations which come into perspective for the purpose of supporting the actions of the Occupy Wall Street movement. It is very important to examine each of these and see how they come into play in relation to the activities that are associated with the movement. The first ethical implication, in this case, is in relation to utilitarian ethics. In this type of ethics, it is highlighted that the best and most appropriate course of action is the one, which will bring happiness on the part of the individuals who are taking this particular course of action. In the application of this type of ethics, the true moral worth is the case of an action taken is prescribed by its outcome. The main focus is on the outcome which will come to be realized. However, there is a significant debate with regards to the true consequences of the actions which people will take (Mannion, 2003). In its relation to the happenings associated with the Occupy Wall Street Movement, there is a semblance of happiness and self-gratification on realizing that some of the concerns that were aired out through the movement have come to hit the right ear. This is especially in relation to the case of the increased rate of income inequality in the United States over recent years (Valdes, 2011).
These fresh British measures were attributed to be the one apparent economic reason for the revolt. The economic cause which was the wish to break free from the British trade guidelines along with other causes led to the American Revolution (Stanley, 2012. Rockoff Walton, 2009).The American Revolution was caused as a result of two common movements. The movements entailed the fightback for self national independence as well as self-government along with the fightback between the people of America for the desire of increased democratic order. However, the revolution had a profound economic cause which was the unequal allocation of soaring levels related to the material welfare of the colonial Americans among the regions. The South was then considered to be the most affluent region as it surpassed the per capita earnings and wealth of the Middle colonies and also in New England. It was believed in his context that the income, as well as the wealth, witnessed a just and equal allocation till the early period of the nineteenth-century which marked the commencement of industrialization. However, it was observed that the prevalent disparities related to the income as well as wealth subsisted for long. For instance, 20 percent of the most affluent New Englanders had possession of about 66 percent of the entire wealth. In the case of the South, the topmost fifth affluent individuals possessed a wealth of around 70 percent. In other words, the South was referred to be the region that had the highest concentration of wealth whereas the least distribution of wealth was observed to be in the Middle colonies. The thick concentration of wealth in the South was principally attributed to the reason of domination and control about the wealthy plantations which benefitted greatly owing to the ‘economies of scale’ associated with production (Warren, 2008)
“The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale” are the two best among all the tales to highlight the feelings of people about their suppressed sexual life and the values they hold in their life. Chaucer especially made the reference of a woman with her prologue as he goes on describing her and the story she would narrate. He even goes on describing about her clothing in his General Prologue. She holds a unique position among the pilgrims but evidences suggest that though she was earlier assigned a different tale to tell as was told by Shipman yet fortunately for her she received her own tale to tell as her importance in the group increased.“The Wife of Bath” is a story foretold with the woman’s perspective and by the woman on the issues that were affecting her daily life. These issues were of marriage, sovereignty and virginity. Alison is described in the “Wife of bath” as a very strong and bold woman who can never accept defeat at any cost and attains whatever she wants to have. She believes this is how the things should be and wanted the men to obey her and not to be controlled and subjected by them. She treats marriage in economic terms and her body as commodity which is sold in exchange for wealth and money.In her own marriage, she feels threatened to be overpowered by her husband and believes that commodifying the sex in the marriage can only relieve women and exert her control over her husband. The story of her first three marriages is related to a language that creates a relationship between the sex and marriage. For her sex is a kind of payment for a marriage. In her defense of the male genitals she says, “set/ That man shall pay unto his wife his debt?/ Now wherewith should he ever make payment,/ Except he used his blessed instrument? (135-138)”. This thinking of hers is derived from the fourteenth-century idea of sex as a marital “debt” or, in other words, it becomes obligatory for the husband to pay his wife.
How did this come about and what are the chances of revival and survival? The first answer lies in the loss of competitive advantage and poor management strategies. The second lies in radical turnarounds again based on new strategic planning.It is well established that companies devise strategies for competitive advantage (Porter M.E., 1985). He further elaborates that Competitive strategy is about being different and offering a unique product or service (Porter, M.E., 1996). It means intentionally selecting a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value. In manufacturing, the activities remain the same, but their priorities and linkages are planned and routed differently to develop a unique set of values to reduce cost as well as to improve quality. It is this difference that is not imitable by competition that sets the company apart from its rivals and delivers a competitive advantage. This is what the Japanese did to dethrone their arch-rivals, the US Automakers.The external environment of the company plays a major role in constructing a competitive strategy. A PESTEL analysis shows specifically what is likely to happen in the markets in which an organization operates. The Five Forces model (Porter M.E., 1985) is used for analyzing competition within a particular industry. Environments have a great impact on companies. The strategy is the reaction or response to these external and internal situations. Ansoff et al (1976) state that, amongst other things, responsiveness to the problems is what strategy is all about.PESTEL Analysis measures the market potential and situation. These are external environmental factors that are beyond the control of the Management but have a marked bearing on growth and strategy. PESTEL stands for Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, Technological, Ecological, and Legal factors.POLITICAL factors cover Legislation andRegulation of transfer for capital and labor.
The economic crisis that swept across the globe also affected the United States in a big way. As early as 2000, the US had already started experiencing a financial crisis that no one took as seriously as was expected. The economic crisis has affected many aspects of the US economy. Although the worst part of the crisis seems to be over, there is no denying the impact it had on the whole of the US economy (Wolf, 2009).Companies have been forced to close down while thousands of people have lost their jobs and found themselves in bankrupt situations. Inflation has shot up and the national debt has risen to unprecedented levels (Moseley, 2009). This paper looks at the impact of the economic crisis on the economy of the US and the government’s budget situation.The housing industry was probably the worst hit by this financial meltdown. House prices dropped to unprecedented lows during the economic downturn. This had a profound impact on the GDP growth in the country. The slow economic growth has further resulted in high unemployment levels never seen before. Construction activities have slowed down considerably and there are thousands of unsold homes all across the country.The drop in home prices has affected the personal wealth of a lot of people. Most homeowners rely on their homes as the sole source of income. The equity for these homes also serves as the collateral that many people use to get home loans or any other loans. This means that since the value of homes has declined, most people cannot borrow loans when they need to. This has led to a reduction in consumer spending level, which has in itself slowed down the economic pace.The falling home prices also precipitated a crisis in the financial markets and a disastrous credit crunch. The foreclosure filings are increasing every single day and the situation does not seem to be getting any better. More people are filing for foreclosure.
The force driving the revolution is changing consumer characteristics. Speed, convenience, and fresh food – these are the benefits that consumers have been able to derive through shopping at retail supermarkets. Tesco is the biggest retailer in terms of market share and has ventured into several foreign markets. Tesco has two distinguishing features – it is the UK’s largest retailer in terms of market share and the world’s biggest e-grocer (Yoruk Radosevic, 2000). The market environment analysis of Tesco’s presence in China would demonstrate the strategic changes that Tesco may need to incorporate to attain maximum results.Since China has opened up for foreign direct investment in the manufacturing and financial sectors, it has experienced tremendous growth in every sector. Social and economic reforms have led to a rapid increase in consumer incomes and demand for products and services (Chan, 2005). In the first six months of 2004, the consumer retail sales of the nations were 2.5 trillion yuan. Two-thirds of the total retails sales have come from the urban consumers which comprise one-third of the total population. As the wholesale and retail services have been controlled by the state, it has been a barrier to the development of a nationwide market. China’s central government decided to open its retail market to foreign investors in 1992 to accelerate the country’s tertiary industry growth and to create more job opportunities (Wong Yu, 2002). This broadened the channels for foreign retail investors to tap into China’s 1.236 billion population. Change in the consumer pattern since reform is also responsible for the growth in the private sector (Chow Tsang, 1994).Although supermarkets were introduced in China in 1981, there are apprehensions about its growth (Mai Zhao, 2004). Chinese consumers still prefer to shop intraditional markets rather than supermarkets for their food and food accounts for more than half of the total household expenditure.
The importance of education in life is growing, and therefore it cannot be limited to the period of study. The urgent need for a constant increase in the level of knowledge and education has led to the emergence of such an interesting phenomenon in public life as continuing education. This process is accompanied by the search for new forms and methods of teaching that contribute to the proper formation of the scientific worldview, the need for a deeper understanding of economic and social changes taking place. Education is the oldest social institute, caused by the need of society to reproduce and transmit knowledge, skills, to prepare new generations, to prepare the subjects of social action to solve economic, social, and cultural problems facing humanity. In the modern world, education is a complex and diverse social phenomenon, the sphere of transfer, assimilation, and processing of knowledge and general social experience. Education is a system of educational institutions that carry out various forms of involving their experiences in the assimilation of cultural values of a student at higher schools. Education integrates different general types of educational and upbringing activities, their content into a single social system, orients them to the social order, to the social needs of mankind. Among the social institutions of the society of modern civilization, education occupies one of the leading positions. After all, human well-being, the position of culture and spirituality in society, the pace of economic, scientific, technical, political, and social progress depend on the quality and level of education. Learning, skills, and other concepts terms are used to support the learning process in the frameworks of education. The foundations of a person’s upbringing and education, diligence, and many other spiritual qualities are laid from an early age. The need for preschool institutions is great in this. However, its importance is underestimated. Quite often, it falls out of sight that this is an extremely important level of education, which lays the foundation for personal qualities. And the point is not in the quantitative indicators of "coverage" of children and satisfaction of parental applications. Kindergartens, nurseries, factories are not just a means of "supervising" a student. their physical, mental, and spiritual development takes place here at schools throughout their life. In a person’s life, learning takes a long time, taking away their productive creativity and years of education. Applying for a profession, a young person must study one or another specialty for at least ten to fifteen years for the education, and for a highly qualified profession – training reaches twenty years. Learning interferes with a person’s life since childhood. in fact, a person does not have a clear idea of the psychological consequences of such an intervention within the education. After all, a tradition has already been established: a child reaches the age of six or seven in the family, and then they are sent to a school, forgetting about their preparation physically, psychologically, etc. It is believed that the child should learn, acquiring knowledge, general, and responsible phases of learning fall on the period of social self-affirmation, the courage of man – professional, family, civic. Sometimes a child shows certain inclinations from an early age, but they are not noticed in the family, and they are not noticed at an educational institute. Meanwhile, the inclinations are suppressed, and the child’s interest and desire for certain knowledge do not fade. The importance of developing new cognitive abilities is high throughout the entire lifetime.
l critics of Tucker’s theories, arguing that despite all the apparent advantages, there would come a limit, a ‘ne plus ultra’, at which point, by begetting disadvantages, the progress of the rich nation would be halted. (p. 581) The fears of David Hume will be substantiated by the decline of the British Empire amid the imperialism of free trade.In order to present this paper’s arguments clearly, it is imperative to define imperialism in relation to free trade so parameters will be drawn. According to Richard Pares, imperialism in relation to free trade is, first of all, a process and policy aimed at developing complementary relations between the high industrial technique in one land and fertile soils in another. (p. 144) The new industrialism of the late eighteenth century created conditions that increased, substantially, the economic intercourse between countries at widely differing levels of social and economic development. This complemented the territorial expansion of the colonizers such as Britain wherein products and goods are freely circulating and traded within the empire. The British policymakers were able to transform Britain into a commercial and industrial state, tying the country’s destiny to manufactures and to foreign trade. They, in effect, created an informal empire wherein the colonies spurred growth by becoming both a market for England’s goods as well as a producer of goods that are traded within the realm. London was the center of this trade with the rise of the British Empire.Britain was a latecomer in terms of the conquest of colonies and the global power struggle. Spain, Portugal, and the Dutch have already established their own respective colonial empire and that it was particularly difficult for Britain to displace these European powers from their established positions at the crossroads of world commerce. What made things change, however, was when a new synthesis of capitalism and territorialism emerged.
Rationality will be the guiding principle for both the consumers and the producers in making economic decisions.This paper tries to examine the factors related to changes in the price of beef and the behaviours of both consumers and suppliers of beef towards it. In analyzing price elasticity of the demand and supply of beef, discussions on market price, determinants of price elasticity of demand and supply were also made. Related articles on demand and supply of food and grains like corn are utilized to achieve the goal of producing an intelligent analysis of the issues reflected in the article. And for better understanding of some of these economic concepts, illustrated graphs were also used to help in serving the purpose.One of the economic goals that are wide, if not accepted in our society and in many others is the price level stability (McConnell and Brue 1993). This goal aims to avoid the sizable upswings or downswings in the general price level. In a microeconomic perspective, this goal is reached when changes in the market prices are manageable and don’t hurt consumers and producers that much. As price is the quantity of money paid by the buyers or consumers and received by the sellers or producers for a unit of good or service, it is very important for it to be stable. We need to analyze market prices to extend our understanding of demand and supply and to see the relative efficiency of these in allocating resources.A rise or fall in market prices will have a corresponding effect or impact on the people in the economy. In the article, the rise in beef price inflicted by high corn prices, more exports to protein-hungry nations and the market forces of supply and demand, is causing a pain being felt by beef lovers nationwide. But since some customers like Beth Belling from Omaha are a carnivore, they have to have their beef even if hurts them a little more.