Analyzing the macro-environment [School Analyzing the macro-environment There are numerous elements involved in the macro-environment analysis that have an effect on the operational decisions of a company. The elements are beyond the control of the company but need to be identified because these items can impact the profitability of the firm. The goal of the macro-environment analysis is to discover potential opportunities and threats to the company. The company must determine how and why the macro-environmental elements have an effect on the company. Three of the factors that can affect the company’s operational decisions fall into the economic, social, and demographics categories. One of the economic factors involved in the macro-environmental analysis is the business cycle. The growth or the decline of the economy can have an effect on marketing and the top line revenues of a company. The 2008 recession had a drastic effect on the profitability of company’s because consumers may had restrictions on their budgets that will affect their spending habits. Target Corporation changed their marketing strategy to emphasize price in their “expect more, pay less” advertisements. The company wanted to gain market share from Wal-Mart whose marketing strategy, pervious to the recession, emphasized low price. A company must understand the direction of the economy in their in their macro-environmental analysis. Corporations must understand the sociological patterns of their customers otherwise, the corporation could lose market share to their competitors. Understanding the consumer’s wants and desires is a necessity for companies to be successful in their top line revenue projections. Failing to recognize current social trends could possibly result in a loss of market share for a company. During the 2008 recession when Target implemented a low cost advertising initiative, Wal-Mart began to emphasize quality to lure customers from Target. Because they already had the low price strategy in place, Wal-Mart wanted to address the sociological needs of the consumer who wanted quality items for less and consumers who wanted to shop in one place for all of their needs. When companies implement their marketing strategies, they must know the demographics of their shoppers. Companies advertise to their target market in order to attract market share from the competition. Demographics, such as age, education, and income levels are a vital ingredient to the marketing strategies of corporations. Wal-Mart’s and Target’s marketing efforts are geared towards their target market. Both companies utilize macro-environmental analysis to track the age, education, and income of their shoppers. During the 2008 recession, both companies understood that the income levels of their consumers may have decreased. Target stressed the low prices and Wal-Mart stressed the quality aspects of their products. There are various components in the macro-environment investigation that have an effect a company’s profitability. The company has no control over these external components. The goal of the macro-environment examination is to detect possible opportunities and warnings. The company must determine how and why the macro-environmental elements have an effect on the company. Three of the factors that can affect the company’s operational decisions fall into the economic, social, and demographics categories. References "PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment." Oxford University Press: OUP.COM Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2011.
The study examines the impact of incentives and education on changes in behaviour in pre-intervention and post-intervention periods among the subject groups of volunteers.Interventions through “go bike” and “bike it” programs at school level are intended to be incentive-based and education-based respectively. The efficacy of such interventions has often been questioned by both experts and laypeople on the ground that they do not produce the intended results despite the much-hyped positive impact on the society at large and the participants in particular. Those who support such programs argue that interventions of this nature necessarily produce positive outcomes in relation to the direct impact on the environment and the participants. However, those who are not in favour of such intervention schemes point out that there aren’t particularly impressive positive results arising out of them.Incentive-based cycling programs introduced at Go-Bike schools have been known to produce more positive outcomes in any society. In economically advanced societies, incentives have to be particularly strong to appeal to the core element of society. There are both pull-factors and push-factors behind such incentive-based intervention schemes. The former includes what’s offered by the authorities who are the implementers of the program while the latter includes the benefits of the post-interventionist period.Education-based cycling programs are intended to enlist the involvement of Bike-It schools that might go it alone. Education-based intervention programs minimize compulsion but place an extra burden on resources and the school curriculum. As a corollary education-based interventionist programs inevitably lead to a secondary phase of intervention in which policy issues have to be tackled to achieve desired outcomes of the program.
The growth of the ‘ Asian Tigers’ in the 1960s In the 1960s, the Asian tigers were very poor thus labor was cheap, and in abundance. They then made educational reforms and coupled this with the cheap labor to establish productive workforces. In order to improve productivity, they focused on improving education at all levels with more emphasis on elementary education and compulsory high school education. College and university system was also improved by setting aside some money for the same. For economic development, they pursued an export-driven model whereby they focused on the manufacture of goods for export to nations that are highly industrialized. They discouraged domestic consumption through government policies such as high tariffs. The economic growth of the Asian Tigers has been termed as the East Asian Miracle because of the supernatural increase of four economics. East Asia which comprises Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong has been the fastest growing area in the world. They have been termed as the models for achievement for other rising economies. There have been several factors that led to the success of the East Asian countries. These include the macroeconomic discipline, their outward orientation, high investment and saving rates and public policies which were good. Although these may vary from region to region, the experience of East Asia, supported by recent research on growth, has convinced many observers that an onlooking development strategy, particularly a dynamic export sector, is a conducive growth. The other factor that boosts their trade was greater openness which is conducive to growth and thus they embrace the policies that promote openness. They also used non-tariff and high tariff barriers to promote industrialization. Between 1965 and 1993, the real gap in the East Asian economies grew at an annual average rate of nearly 9 percent more than twice as first as their Latin American counterparts. They all had common characteristics which include focusing on exporting to rich and industriali0sed nations. They also maintained a double increment for years.
Situation analysis takes into account five important areas of marketing that are necessary for decision making. These five areas are consumer, company, collaborators, competitors, and climate.In this report, an overall situation analysis of Tesco will be executed with the help of SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s five forces analysis. Tesco is a U.K. based public company primarily engaged in the retail merchandising. Tesco, the largest retailer (supermarket) in the U.K has been operating since 1919 (Tesco Plc, 2010).Pestle analysis involves the scanning of an industry’s broader environment. Pestle includes six factors. these are political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legislation, and ecological (Sinclair-Hunt and Partridge, p.77). Tesco is the retail industry operating in the U.K. This particular industry is affected by these Pestle factors.The global credit crunch affected the U.K. very badly and the retail industry was one of the worst victims. The market however is slowly recovering and the government is paying special attention to this sector because of its ability to generate huge employment. As this industry is one of the fastest-growing industries, the influence of the political factors has also been increasing. This industry is one of the major industries that add value to the economy. Economic factors like GDP, purchasing power parity, etc have a huge influence on this type of industry. Per capita income of the nation is very important for this industry to operate, since retail consumers are its major revenue earners. The socio-culture effect on this retail industry is also very important as their local stores function within the society. Factors like age, culture, education etc are instrumental in shaping the trends of the retail industry. The use of the latest technology is imperative in the development of the modern retail industry.
IAP considers three overlapping phases of treatment – (1) pre-release and preparatory planning. (2) structured transition in which participation of both institutional and aftercare staff prior to and after release is involved. and (3) long-term follow-up for supervision and service delivery (Altschuler, D.M., et al., 1999). According to the chief components present in the IAP model, the program greatly aims at diminishing recidivism through intensive supervision and control measures, strengthening family and community relations with individualized case planning and reinforcing progress in the improvement of personal well-being by incentives and enthusiastic case management utilizing resources within the community (Wiebush, McNulty, Le, 2000).Failures however in meeting certain objectives of IAP result from implementation problems such as staffing vacancies, institutional crowding, and unstable program environments. Successful operation nevertheless takes into account the consistent adherence to the core characteristics of the model and that it is found to establish more strength for the institution is collaborating with the external support teams of aftercare and research.GROWTH, on the other hand, specifically provides intensive aftercare for high-risk female juvenile offenders. Managed by Boys and Girls Clubs of South Alabama, Inc. with the help of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, this program makes use of Network Aftercare System (NAS), an IAP adaptation. Principal components are inclusive of female-specific life skills, adventure therapy, community service, academic education, and Functional Family Therapy. Female offenders are administered a one-year aftercare monitoring and supervision upon release from detention. GROWTH keeps up with a similar goal to reduce recidivism as well as pregnancy rates and to increase job placements for GROWTH participants and these are all part of the programs documented success.No significant failure has been evaluated to emerge during program implementation as GROWTH promotes additional services such as individual and group therapy, substance abuse treatment, and mentoring.
Nevertheless, these crimes cannot go unpunished. The juvenile justice system in the United States involves children below the age of 18 years. in Ohio, each county has a juvenile court, which tries juvenile offenders. The Ohio department of youth service confines juvenile offenders and provides intervention programs among other juvenile justice services (Wonnacott Wagner, 2008, p.1). Columbus is the capital city of Ohio, which is the largest state in the United States, and where juvenile offenses are common. Columbus public schools offer education for the detention centers, which comprise of youths. These juvenile detainees are offered education and religious services as well as recreation programs (Henderson, N.d). This paper will discuss juvenile justice and policing at length.The main purpose of the juvenile justice system is to protect the public from offenders, hold the juvenile offenders accountable for their criminal activities, rehabilitate juvenile offenders, protect, and care for the juveniles, and protect the victims’ rights (Sartini, 2011). As a result, all the above factors must be balanced for justice to prevail. In 2011, the Ohio House of Representatives proposed some amendments to the juvenile system. The current laws require that some serious juvenile cases be transferred to an adult court for further prosecution. such cases involve murder and rape among others. However, the proposed policy will change the manner in which the serious juvenile crimes are handled. if the proposed legislation becomes law, then the judge has the power to decide which offenders should be tried in adult courts (Sartini, 2011). Needless to say, this proposed legislation brought about a debate, as Sartini argues that, the current laws provide fairness and justice to the victim. However, if the proposed legislation were made law, it would be unfair to some victims of serious crimes, for instance, murder and rape.
The society relies on the services on higher education institutions to develop future generations of responsible persons. Minus the services of higher educational institutions, society would be filled with persons with low professional and social portfolios (Brown Katz, 2009). For this reason, governments have put in place strategies that make access to the services of higher education much easier. Over the years, the ease of access to higher education has been made easier. These can be analyzed in terms of the number of higher educational institutions created and the reduced prices of servicing the institutions for educational purposes. In the United Kingdom, the situation is the same. The number of educational institutions in the U.K has increased significantly to cater for the rising demand (Howell, 2012). Additionally, the institutions have made it easier for the public to access the services. Government and educational bodies have also played a major role in creating a more accessible higher education sector. There have been measures in the United Kingdom that have ensured that higher educational institutions quote reasonable prices as fees (Andy, Jon Robert, 2010). For this paper, the main focus will be made in regards to the changes experienced by the Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom. The major change in the U.K. is the mandatory requirement by the institutions to reduce their charges on the tuition fees. From September 2012 universities across the United Kingdom are allowed to raise their tuition fees up to 9,000 annually. This change was protested by many educational bodies and stakeholder but at the gain of higher educational institutions. However, after the creation of these changes challenges started to arise on how this change could be managed. This is because students would aim to go to schools with the cheapest offering. In an argument by Levin (2012) the high demand for education limits the way in which institutions price their tuition fees. The author further points out that tuition fees in the United Kingdom would fluctuate differently in each institution in order to maintain competitiveness in the market (Levin, 2012). Additionally, due to the high fees, the government will offer bursaries to students. For this reason, an institution with the lowest fee quoted will be required to expand to cater for students who could not afford expensive institution. Institutions would also be required to quote cheaper tuition fees in order to capture the attention of the government in enabling them to acquire students benefiting from bursaries. Many institutions are now aiming at expanding their institutions by putting place mechanisms that would please both the government and the student population. However, other institutions in the United Kingdom remain reluctant to quote cheaper tuition fees arguing that quality offered requires more funds when compared to other institutions. The main change experienced by higher education institution in the United Kingdom is the fact that institutions have been provided a choice between enrolling more students and taking advantage of the raised maximum tuition fee range.
This paper seeks to how deep Oyono goes insofar as anti-colonialism and affirmation of nationalism is concerned. Essentially, the novel is a narration of the story of a young black boy. The boy runs away from his tribal village captivated by the lifestyles of the white, and ultimately adopted by a Dangan missionary white priest, Father Gilbert. He receives education from the priest, and begins recording all his experiences, thinks and sees vis-a-vis his life as a young black servant in colonial Africa. When father Gilbert passes on due to an accident in the bush, the boy becomes the colony’s “Boy” of the commandant (Assah, 2005:452). The Boy serves the whites at their opulent city, Residence, and lives in the Black Quarters (Quartier Noir), thus has a vintage point of observing all things around him, consequently seeing the truth about white. His illusion and admiration for whites slowly fades away. Oyono uses a transparent and simple incident where Toundi sees the Commandant naked, realizing he is not circumcised. This incidents act as an illustration of how the boy starts to strip away the grandeur and nobility o the whites. Through Toundi, the reader sees how different societies co-exist forcefully and blinded by the “other” stereotypes. … Une vie de boy is a recount of the tribulations of Toundi in his father’s house and later with colonialists in Dangan, an imaginary town in Cameroon. The novel exposes the violence of African fathers and the brutality of French colonialists in a realistic manner, particularly evident from the foregrounding the protagonist’s tragic trajectory. The author presents Toundi as a problematic and picaresque protagonist, prone to ‘ambiguous adventure’, dispossession, and lacking a sense rootedness as he transverses between the colonial ghettos and the colonial centre (Nnolim, 2010:13). Interestingly, he cannot appropriate in the colonial centres, and only spends precarious nights in the hovel of his brother-in-law. The population in the colonial slums has two principal division criteria: an illusionary western glamour and mythical traditional Africa. Moreover, the slums are susceptible to dispossession, exclusion, and night raid by colonial police officers. The characters struggle to retain remnants of their indigenous values while simultaneously working to sustain the colonial rule. For Toundi, his innocence paves way to shock, then disenchantment, departure and ultimately death, beyond the realms of locality. The novel, however, shows some appreciation of colonialism. This is especially with reference to the protagonist who acknowledges his indebtedness to Father Gilbert for his literacy and appropriation on the practice of keeping diaries (Assah, 2005:456). This is evident in the diary’s opening sentence. This introduces the issue of discursive and language formations, in which the postcolonial theory appropriating the discussion of the ambivalent and delicate power relations established by the author between imperial and local languages. Moreover,
Changes are inevitable. Nevertheless, a career change requires thorough and critical thinking. This paper explores the necessary credential in the success of my chosen career plan. Also, it tackles the steps in achieving my goal relative to time. Further, this paper discusses the pay ranges, career change, and support system characterized in the three positions that I have personally chosen. One of the reasons why people take up an MA/PhD degree is because it provides them with a greater advantage over others in the competitive job market. What Kaplan (2008) calls “career advancement,” persons who have a Master’s Degree possess the advantage of gaining career position and/or promotion against those people “with only a bachelor’s degree” (p. 4). The drawback, however, is that a Master’s degree is far from the assurance that one can land a good job or be promoted to a much higher position. Plus, pursuing a graduate program is a difficult and tremendous task. In fact, Peters (1997) compares the students in graduate school as adults who are “judged by the standards of the adult world” (p. 6). To my mind, the notion of the “adult world” as understood by Peters is far from the ideal, child-like, or Utopia-like realm. From here, I seem to perceive it as something monstrous and hideous. In time and with perseverance, nevertheless, I might be able to cope up the challenges salient in the graduate program. And I might land a good job of my liking. Pay ranges The three positions, which I have chosen as my alternative careers in the field of education, have different pay ranges. In primary education, on the one hand, a teacher receives an annual salary ranging from $30,719 to $54,000 (Bernstein, 2003, p. 466).
Chapter-10 Discussion Question-2 The current era has been recognized and referred as the era of technology in which there are number of things have been transformed and completed with the help of this particular thing. Environmental issues could be a vital one from the standpoint of a country which could be controlled through the effective utilization of technology in total (Samuelson, p. 20-40). Likewise other counties and states, California is one of those states which introduced new things and technology merely to decrease the environmental based issues completely. Joaquin Valley, in order to control the environmental based issues from California introduced new ways to decease environmental based issues from the state completely by applying fees and fines on new residential and commercial development authorities. The idea could be referred as a perfect one because it will enable the council to get and accumulate sufficient funds which could be used for decreasing the level of air pollution from the environment, but there is something which is missing from this particular strategy in total as the first thing to initiate the same is to aware the people regarding the same. Creating awareness among the people is more worthwhile than that of applying the fees and fines over the people. It would work for California but new and effective strategies like in awareness could also be initiate. Chapter-11Discussion Question-2Public Law of United States (US) 480 stated that United States sells the surplus gains to the developing countries, which pay them in local currencies. Later on the country transfer much of its grains in de facto, but not to sell the grains which is not a good sign for a country which is highly effective and powerful in gaining and maintaining foods in total. This could be in a perfect way and United States has to look forward to gain advantage by selling grains. Self test-1In Economics, the name of elasticity is one of the most important topics which have its own importance and recognition. If the prices of food items are increasing without increasing the quantity, then it is known as negative elasticity in which prices are increasing not the quantities for poor. Chapter-12Self test-1There are two different forests which need to be harvest accordingly. First forest would be harvest accordingly and it is left in the similar position, while the second forest has been developed into a house. In terms of efficiency Forest 1 would be remain the oldest harvest age because it will remain in the same position for a long span of time, higher than that of the years of Forest B. Self Test-2R has been referred as the hurdle rate in this scenario. When it moves to a level of 0.02, then present value cost would increase initially and then decrease accordingly because hurdle rate would decrease the discounted factor in initial years and then increase accordingly. Works CitedSamuelson, Paul A. Economics. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010.