The first thing that must be understood is how relevant this system of education to the political agenda of the countries asserting their independence. One thing that must be understood is that education is a tool to open the eye about the problems of the world and look for the solutions that are feasible and reasonable. However, this system of education by the colonizers became a tool to forward the deplorable political agenda and harsh practices by the Western powers in very problematic situations. Certain problems that occurred in these colonized systems of education. In Africa back then, education has been focused on the development of family and civilization. This would then result into the development of social roles that is being realized by the kids that complement the lifestyle of the particular group he or she belongs to. However, the advent of the colonized education not only distorted these notions of the family and other socialization processes but have forwarded Western Ideals and the religions, later on turning the system of education as a tool to serve the interests of the colonizer and the missionaries being supportive of the said colonial regime. How underdevelopment happens here? One thing that must be understood as well is that the concentration of education in cities has attracted people to acquire this certain education. In this case, people in the rural areas, wherein most of the economic activity of the African nations is being abandoned.
This concept of class does not refer to how bad or how good a person is, but it represents the social and financial status of a person. This book raises a big question that requires an answer: why in our modern, advanced society are we still bound with this problem? Surely we should be making it possible for everyone to rise up out of poverty and low wages, and find a decent, respectable job which can lead to the education and job opportunities that are available to the middle class. Ehrenreich tries an experiment and her book is the story of how she attempted to live like a low wage worker. She moved from state to state looking for any kind of job and trying to live in that place using just the money that she earned. All the jobs that she found were low status positions, including jobs like waitressing, cleaning and looking after old people. When reading this part of the book I was surprised that her greatest difficulty was in finding affordable housing. I was aware that this is a problem for people who earn very low pay, but I had not thought about the issue of seasonal costs. It is much easier to rent housing outside the tourist season, for example, but the jobs do not take any account of this problem. The pay for the workers is the same all year round. Housing is therefore one of the biggest barriers that prevents people in low paid jobs from success. They also have to move around a lot, because of the rising prices, and this means they lose their friends and they have to live a long way from their place of work. This brings us to another barrier for people who try to work in these low paid jobs: transport. The author of this book insisted on having a car to drive around in, and she took this with her at the start of the experiment. Most poor people only dream of having a car because they cannot pay for the insurance and the gas. This means that they have to depend on public transport to get to work, or on their friends and co-workers. Many workers have children to look after, or elderly relatives who need. Ehrenreich points out that “Most civilized nations compensate for the inadequacy of wages by providing relatively generous public services such as health care insurance, free or subsidized child care, subsidized housing and effective public transportation” (Ehrenreich, 2008, p. 214). America, on the other hand, does not offer these benefits and this means that people struggle to cope with family commitments as well as jobs. Lack of support systems is therefore another barrier that affects people on low wages. The theory of capitalism suggests that the markets will work everything out, and that it will balance in the end, but reading this book shows us that there is a big human cost in all of this. Rich people profit from the labor of poor people, and the market supports this system. I think education is a way out of this trap. Education is a known ladder to success, and the organization “Save the Children” believes that it is “one of the most viable pathways out of poverty”. I frequently ask myself the question: “Why would we spend at least fifteen years in school instead of doing something else or even working? Of course we are protected by Child Labor laws from getting into the labor force too early, but the main reason for schooling is so that we can gain the skills available from elementary to high school or even to college and doctorate level which we need to find a good job. We need those
Customers are significant for every business, however, for fast food companies, which offer food which is perishable, it is very important to retain customer, create customer loyalty and regulate customers to survive in the increasingly competitive environment, which has been elevated through the globalization of fast-food chains. Brink and Berndt (2004) found that many companies spent a lot of their efforts, money and time to recruit new customers but a few companies took appropriate steps to retain customer and customer loyalty.In 2011, the total revenue generated by the Italian fast food market was $2.1 billion, which represents a negative annual rate from 2007 to 2011. The demand for fast food was high till 2007 and the market performance also reduced during this time period. The market volume in fast food is classed as the number of visits the customer makes to the same fast-food restaurant. Fast food restaurant market can be broken down into: – Take Away.- Quick Service restaurant, – Mobile Food Street,- The fast-food restaurant at the leisure locations.The fast-food chains meet new competitors in the market and customer relationship is the marketing purpose which can keep customers from going to the competitors (Ramakrishnan, 2006). Customer retention is the method which helps to keep customers actively involved with the firm through optimal allocation of resources (Kotelnikov, 2006). Six economic benefits of customer retention as outlined by Brink and Berndt (2004): – It reduces the cost of customer acquisition and customer replacement.- It guarantees base profits as the customers may follow the minimum spend for a time period.- It promotes increased customer revenue. – It reduces the overall operating costs as the companies spread the costs over many customers.- It provides an easy referral to new customers from the pre-existing customers and the customer can be charged premium price as they do not wait for discounts or price reductions.The Italian restaurant operates a chain of 26 full-service restaurants close to shopping malls and high streets. The restaurant is known for excellent service and high-quality Italian cuisine. The restaurant is looking for expansion opportunities and the management wants to launch a new chain which will have the following features1. Low-cost food2. Limited menuThe main issue is that the new outlets may lead to poor customer experience which can tarnish the image of the well-established restaurant brand.Regardless of what the service industry perceive their service and customers, the service should function for customers properly. It should be as per the perceived notion of service by the customer, even if in case, the customers have not experienced it previously (Johnston and Clark, 2001). Through word-of-mouth, the customer has a perceived image of the type of service, and during and after the service delivery the service should meet customers’ expectations related to the duration, notion, and flexibility provided. Every organization should focus on delivering the service concept. The paper explains how service concept is the key driver in service design decision at various levels of planning. In the given case, managing customers is important and the process involves branding, recruitment selection, job analysis, education training, motivation, appraisal, and an ending.
Since the proper functioning of an economy is dependent upon the efficient operation of the domestic financial sector, so, a crisis-affected financial system of an economy needs to be attended readily. A robust financial sector can bail a nation out of many crucial phases which makes its well-being of prime importance for the administration of the nation. On the other hand, education is another factor which has the capacity to brighten the future prospects of the nation, through educating the national youth and training them with special skills, thus enhancing the quality of human capital. Vocational training which forms a part of secondary education in any nation is an integral source for the creation of employment opportunities for the national youth and thus slashing the unemployment rate in the economy. Apart from vocational training, secondary education also guides the national youth towards a path of better employment opportunities.For a developing nation, both aspects, viz., attending to the shock-stricken financial sector as well as framing policies for the betterment of the domestic education sector, have almost equal significance. The only difference lies in the time span necessary to enjoy the outcomes of their efficient operation. Stabilising the domestic financial sector will have a short-term impact as it can save other segments of the nation from subsiding as well. whereas, augmenting the prospects of the education sector will help to fight back future worries on account of growing unemployment and recessionary trends in the nation. The national youth will be capable enough to take care of their respective futures.Since sponsoring each of the factors will bring significant contributions towards economic growth and development aspects, it is a rather tricky situation that the national authorities have in front of them, given that the resources allotted for investment are limited, viz., US$ 2 million.
The world forever changed the morning of September 11th, 2001. The attacks on the World Center represented the most serious terrorist acts ever carried out on US soil. A watershed moment in world history, that fateful morning will forever be engrained in the American national psyche. From a political, social, and economic perspective, the hijackings of 9/11 were unparalleled in scope and sheer devastation. In a fascinating article entitled “Measuring the Effects of the September 11 Attack on New York City”, it was estimated that the direct cost of the attack stood at between $33 billion and $36 billion to the city of New York (Orr, Bram Rappaport 55). In addition to the direct economic costs associated with terrorism and the threat of further terrorism, 9/11 also had important political ramifications.Importantly, political scientists have been wracking their brains trying to make sense of the horrific violence undertaken the morning of 9/11 and further violence inspired by global jihadists bent on taking over the world. Psychologists sought to explore the psychological factors leading people to kill in the name of Allah, domestic-level theorists explored the domestic antecedents to terror including extreme poverty, a lack of education, and political repression. System-level theorists, however, were at a loss to explain the attacks of September 11th and the ensuing War on Terror. Although realism will have to evolve to take into consideration the changing face of the international order, particularly in light of the emergence of sub-state actors who wish to fundamentally destroy this present international order, realism is the best system-level theory to understand the global War on Terror.Realism, as an explanatory theory of international relations, provides perhaps the most concise and strongest definition of what constitutes state interest, behavior, and the establishment of the international order. Accordingly, realists argue that states exist within an anarchic geopolitical framework and this framework is an inherent component of international relations.
Additionally, based on the constitutional directive principles, the Ministry has to ensure, through reservations and quotas, an adequate representation of the scheduled classes and the scheduled tribes (those sections of Indian society that have been traditionally economically backward and were not allowed to get an education or participate in the economic growth) and the minorities (based on religious, ethnic or regional considerations) (DHE, 2010). All Universities in India have to follow the directives of the Ministry of government and the legislative framework in setting their missions and objectives.Notes: Most of the structure and legislative system of the Universities in India are drives from the mission of promoting equal opportunities to minorities and the special categories. However, there are certain objectives that are chosen based on the current needs of all Indians, and on the principles of a sound education. The higher education is not based on anyone theory of education but it’s a mix of several paradigms to attain what is best for the current needs of the students (Thomas, 2007)This is the reason, why there are several objectives, though not all of them are exclusive and may be linked to each other. The objectives of educational institutes are based on the concept of critical pedagogy – an approach that aims to develop students to have a critical consciousness and initiative-taking (Kincheloe, 2008).The objectives also reflect the need for inclusive education where all the participants are allowed to contribute towards the acquisition of knowledge and learning (Jorgensen, Schuh Nisbet, 2005). Additionally, education is expected to lead to a sustainable vocation and economic independence for the students in the future (UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century, 1998). Finally, there is a need for the students to have a rounded development, both in terms of skills and attitudes to become good citizens of the nation (Harman, 1992)
The first IB member schools were predominantly private international schools and included only a very small number of private national institutions or state schools. As the years progressed, more and more schools have been authorized to offer one or more of the IB programs and currently, over half of all IB World Schools are state schools (IBO.org, 2010). IB-trained teachers currently work with 2,823 schools in 138 countries to develop and offer three challenging programs to over 778,000 students across all programs (IBO.org, 2010).The phenomenal and rapid growth of IB schools worldwide stems from its idealistic mission to make students aware, accept, respect and celebrate cultures other than their own. This is highly significant in a globalized world. Its mission is eloquently worded as thus:“The International Baccalaureate Organization aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.To this end, the IBO works with schools, governments and international organizations to develop challenging programs of international education and rigorous assessment. These programs encourage students across the world to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand that other people, with their differences, can also be right” (IBO, 2006)Such a program not only fosters international understanding and appreciation of a variety of cultures but also encourages students to ask challenging questions, learn how to learn, develop a strong sense of their own identity and culture and develop the ability to communicate with and understand people from other countries and cultures (Cech, 2008). IB begins the broad-based learning process early, with the Primary year’s program placing subjects in six contexts such as “Sharing the planet”, “Who we are”and “how the world works”.
In Great Expectations, Dickens illustrates human nature as he chronicles the development of a young boy, Pip, from a commoner into a gentleman. The story begins with the boy at a very young age, living in the care of his older sister and her down-to-earth husband Joe. This memory includes his meeting with an escaped convict in a graveyard, which provides the foundation for the novel. Following this experience, Pip becomes employed by Miss Havisham and her adopted daughter Estella, using his money on education. Suddenly, he is lifted into the upper class through the intervention of a nameless benefactor. As he gains the knowledge suited for a gentleman, Pip’s attitude toward his family changes drastically. However, as he becomes aware of the true nature of his fortune, Pip is forced to reconsider these attitudes and ends the book on a much humbler note. Through plot developments and narrative elements, Dickens continues to invite his reader to make moral judgments about his characters even as they are permitted sympathetic involvement in the characters’ experiences.Dickens provides his first nudge in this direction with the first scene as Pip visits the family graveyard. Pip reflects on his “first most vivid and broad impression of the identity of things” (Dickens, 2000: 3). As the convict Magwitch seizes the boy, turns him upside down to shake out his pockets and then significantly places the terrified boy on a tombstone in order to threaten him, Dickens provides the reader with a hint of the deeper psychological import of Pip’s journey through life and the essential need for readers to understand this progression and adjust their lives accordingly. Pip’s true nature is then revealed through his life with Joe and his work with Miss Havisham and Estella before Magwitch again reaches into Pip’s life to turn it upside down. As he becomes ‘shaken’ by Magwitch’s invisible hand, Pip gains a ‘gentleman’s’ education, learning the customs and manners expected of a fine gentleman.
The traditional form of a family is a marriage between the opposite gender and having their own children. The family is tied-up by marriage and blood (Corbett 3). The concern of the third chapter is to analyze and study the family as an economic unit which is not limited to the neoclassical model of a family. The time changed and modernization brought about changes in the system. At present, some states in the United States allow same-sex marriage and the traditional model of a family is not the only family pattern that can be seen today. Afterward, several evaluations must be presented like the specialization and the economic capacity of a family in the present time. Some alternative models to the neoclassical models will also be tackled. Some aspects of time allocation to nonmarket work will also be discussed (Blau, Ferber, and Winkler 34).Under the neoclassical model, it is said that the adults have the responsibility to decide on how to maximize the utility and economic result. The neoclassical model is used to analyze the behavior of various members in the family-like division of labor, education, volunteerism, and work (Blau, Ferber, and Winkler 35). Specialization is analyzed by comparative and absolute advantage. Comparative advantage allows the husband or the wife in a family to be efficient at home and at work while the absolute advantage is specializing in just one whether it is at home only or at work only (Blau, Ferber, and Winkler 36-37).Even if the abilities at home and at work of both husband and wife are the same, they still have several advantages. Though the advantages may also be present outside of the family, the benefits are enhanced when the advantages happen within the family through strong commitment and long-term relationships. The advantages are economies of scale, public goods, externalities of consumption, marriage-specific investments, risk-pooling, and institutional advantages (Blau, Ferber, and Winkler 39).
In the United States, children with a disability receive protection by federal laws, which make sure that they are admitted to appropriate public schools free of charge.Under the federal laws, among other laws that protect the children with a disability, the two most vital laws are. section 504 and individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA). Section 504 deals with the rehabilitation act of 1973, which is a law on civil rights. This law prohibits any program and activities, be it, private or public that get the federal funds from any discrimination towards the children with disabilities. This law covers every public school district. Section 504 recognizes disability as any mental or physical hardship, which essentially affects either one or many primary life activities, may be known to possess that limitation, or possess a record of the said limitation. The other law of individuals with disabilities education act, which calls for early assistance services for preschoolers and infants who have various disabilities. This law has been amended a number of times with the recent amendment being in the year 2004 by congress.In determining the eligibility of the students to be the candidates, the students involved should fall into one of the 13 categories. This category includes the disability in learning. autism, intellectual impairment, the disability of behavior, developmental disability, disability in language and speech, visual and hearing impairment, brain trauma, and multiple disabilities among others. Parent with children with a disability is supposed to be actively involved in advocating for their children. The parents’ role as far as their children’s education is concerned is extremely vital. as such, they should be adequately informed on their children’s rights and the whole process of exceptional education. The parents have the right to be actively involved in the decision made by the school concerning the welfare of their children.