Breach of Constitutional Convention and Its Consequences

These conventions have been explained as “rules of constitutional conduct which are regarded to be attaching by and upon those who administer constitution but which are not put into effect by courts nor by the legislators in the house of parliament. This implies that conventions or customs can be disregarded with no legal impacts whatsoever ( E.C.S Wade,1993).Further, constitutional law in the U.K does not have any privileged status in British law as it can be repealed or changed in the same style as other laws. For instance, if an action has been pronounced as “unconstitutional” it does not imply that it is “illegal and it connotes only that such action is unenforceable in the courts. In contrast to the United States, power may be exercised on legal authority and it can still be regarded as “unconstitutional” in the U.K as it is more moral than a legal decision.The U.K has a unique legal system where House of Commons, is being voted directly by people at the same time the Crown retains certain unique powers that are prerogative in nature. These prerogative powers can be exercised by the Crown unilaterally but it remains only in texts since they had not been exercised in opposition to the decision of the House of Commons. However, the constitutional rules that restrict the style in which the Crown exercises its privileged powers are mostly “non-legal” or undocumented (H. Barnett, 2006).In the U.K , legislation passed by the U.K Parliament may be regarded as “unconstitutional” and hence it could not be implemented and it is to observed that limitation on the power of parliament is non-legal (Vick, 2002).The sanction which constrains the boldest political adventurer to obey the fundamental principals of… conventions… is the fact that the breach will almost immediately bring the offender into conflict with the courts and the law of the land. – A. V. Dicey, The law of the constitution (1931)The above is being considered on two grounds in this research essay. One is on the conventions and customs that form part and parcel of any constitution and another is the treaty and foreign convention entered into by a nation and how it affects or tries infringes its constitution and if so, which will prevail is being deliberated in this research essay.

Social Determinants of Health and Impact on Aboriginal Australians

In the course of the essay, we will see that factors such as socioeconomic status, poverty, perception of control of financial status that people have as well as underlying factors such as colonialism and its impact on landholdings and control as well as more subtle factors such as racism and discrimination all fit in together to form reasons contributing to the current health status of Australian aboriginals and hence leading to alcohol misuse. These factors will now be looked at in more detail.One of these determinants of health care is the socio-economic status. Dick (2007) discusses how there is a very strong link between the poverty faced by an individual or society and its correlation with poor health care, which in turn leads to social habits such as unhealthy amounts of alcohol consumption. The socioeconomic status that one has contributes in many ways to the health status of an individual. thus, poverty means low literacy rates and this in turn affects the ability of people to use health information to their advantage. Furthermore, poverty obviously leads to lower accessibility to healthcare services and facilities. Socioeconomic status impacts the kind of accommodation in which one is residing. hence poverty leads to one living in overcrowded houses that leads to greater chances for diseases spreading. Williams (2007) argues that the present healthcare is too expensive and can not be afforded by a majority of the Australian Aboriginals. thus poverty plays a major role in the kind of health status of aboriginals. Apart from affecting the physical health, low economic status also results in affecting a person’s psychological state of mind. This is because poverty means that a person has no or very little control over his financial situation, hence leading to anxiety and stress. In the National Aboriginal Health Strategy (1989), Australian Aboriginals said that the control that they had over their physical environment was very much linked to their health status. while it is true that basic health facilities are a very importantpart of healthcare, the perceived control one has over his financial situation and the environment is also really important.

How media artefacts affect our conception of reality

We are placed in a consumer society and media, which brings in the importance of learning how to interpret, understand, and criticizing its messages and meanings. They participate in contributing to educate us on what we feel, fear, think, desire, and how to behave. They also show us how to consume, look, dress, avoid failure, and be successful/ popular (Verbeek Slob, 2006). Cultural is one on itself that is focusing on the mass and media marketing. Due to extensive advertising and publicity, all the cultural products, which include human beings, are treated as commodities who share little to no meaning. This industry provides a reason to believe individual is an illusion manipulated by the authority of those in dominant class. Horkheimer and Adorno define cultural industry through its focus on the mass and media marketing. Technology, Monopoly, and Mass Production are three specific ideas of characterising cultural media. Horkheimer and Adorno addressed how big corporations control culture industry due to their large vertical and horizontal integration. Our society is representing a society which is heavily induced by cultural media and mass marketing. Cultural industry theory explains the concept of consumers selling out to the dominant cultures. In some aspects this is true but Adorno and Horkheimer gave much power to the class ruling and their abilities of producing ideal consumers. Media give us directions on ways to avoid failure, and conforming to various dominant systems of values, institutions, norms, and practices (Bishop, 2005). It is important to gain critical media literacy as a resource for citizens and individuals when learning to cope up with cultural environment. It is important to learn how to criticize, and read, socio-cultural manipulation to help in empowering in relation to the dominant culture and forms of media. It enhances sovereignty of individual as well as media culture by giving people power in cultural environment. The essay will feature most on contributions of cultural perspective to media literacy and critique. Recently, cultural studies have emerged as the best approach to study of society and culture. A project study was conducted in the University of Birmingham, which is the centre for cultural studies. This led to the development of various critical methods for the interpretation, criticism, and analysis of cultural methods. In 1960s and 1970s, there were internal debates and respondents to social movements and struggles. The group focused on interplay of ideologies and representations of gender, ethnicity, class, nationality, and race in cultural texts, which include media culture (Hillis, 1999). This group was among those who studied the effects of television, radio, film, newspaper and other cultural forms on audiences. The group also focused on the use of media culture and interpretation differently by various audiences. They analyzed on the factors, which made audiences respond to various media texts in contrasting ways. It is demonstrated by British cultural studies on how culture constituted distinct forms of the group and identity membership through the study of youth subcultures. Materials, which are used to construct views of identities, world, and behaviour, are provided by media culture for cultural studies. Those who follow the dictates of cultural media uncritically will mainstream themselves and thereby conforming to the dominant behaviour,

Functions of Trade Unions

Before the emergence of trade unions, it was difficult for employees to seek action against unfair treatment by their employers (Warner, 2012:133) Employees were having difficulties at work since the employers’ words were final, therefore, getting poor pays and working in poor conditions. With the emergence of trade unions, the employees were able to acquire better pays and their working conditions were improved. Trade unions represented the employees, protected them from exploitation, helped in the implementation of laws and policies that protected the employees, and campaigned for improved payments (Ewing, 2005:1). This essay will discuss the main functions of trade unions and examine how effectively they can achieve their goals in the modern-day employment relationship.The Employment Relations Act of 2008 describes a trade or a labor union as a registered or unregistered organization of people, whose main objective is to ensure the ordinance of employment relations between workers and employers (Employment Relations Act 2008, 2008:3). In the contemporary world, governments and employers are fully aware of the significance of trade unions, as failed negotiations can lead to various actions, such as, overtime bans and strikes, which stagnates development. Employers tend to avoid such situations as they lead to low productions, therefore, translating to unmet demand and losses. However, trade unions in the United Kingdom have experienced many changes that have arisen due to political and economic factors. This owes to the fact that employers have restructured the labour market, as many industries have been privatised, temporary employment and the use of contracts have increased and the workforce has been downsized (McKenzie, 2010:5). Globalization has also led to the changes experienced in the operations of many trade unions. Many companies have been internationalized, therefore, acquiring workers from foreign countries,which has also complicated the trade unions’ roles (Fernie and Metcalf, 2005:3).

Supply Chain Management for Zara

In a bid to ensuring that the relationship between suppliers, consumers and producers is one that yields profits, companies and organizations have to stay committed to the principles surrounding supply chain management.In a bid to understand the direct impact of supply chain management on the running and development of organizations, Zara has been chosen to be a focal point in this essay. This essay will critically analyze the supply chain system in place at Zara and how best it is working. It would also discuss the weaknesses of the organization’s supply chain system and how it can be improved. Zara as a fashion retail organization has been chosen by the writer purposely because of the organization is fast developing attention among reviewers who have supply chain management as their focus. Such reviewers as Kasra Ferdows, Michael A. Lewis and Jose A.D. Machuca of Harvard Business Review place premium on the recent successes that Zara is recording with its retail of fashion products. The cause of success has been linked to the company’s supply chain system. In the view of Ferdows, Lewis and Jose (2005), “Zara has hit on a formula for supply chain success that works.”One critical area of retailing, of which Zara as a retail organization is inclusive is the concept of make-buy decision. Make-buy decision would be especially useful for discussion as far as Zara is concerned because Zara is into retail of fashion products, of which it has the choice either to manufacture its products or to purchase them. According to the Encyclopedia of Management (2010), the make-or-buy decision is the act of making a strategic choice between producing an item internally (in-house) or buy it externally (from an outside supplier).” Applying the principles of the make-buy decision to Zara, it can be inferred that for the organization to make a decision whether to buy or make should be backed by carefully scrutinized strategic analysis. This is seen in the definition given by the encyclopedia, making mention of the word ‘strategic’.

Aspects of Immigration

The main idea, which is highlighted in this essay, is the positive and negative aspects of globalization over immigration. Along with this, the refutation statements are also offered against the topic. In addition, the essay also concludes with the individual perspectives of Douglas MurrayThe term globalization seems to be a buzz word, but in the actual scenario, it opened the barriers for the young individual to enter in different countries. As a result of which, it presented varied types of job opportunities for undocumented students that enhanced their economic status and living style. Not only this due to the presentation of such types of job opportunities the rate of gross economic product (GDP) and gross national product (GNP) of the nation may also be enhanced as compared to others. Moreover, due to such job opportunities, the rate of poverty and crimes of the nation might also be reduced to a significant extent thereby amplifying its prosperity in the entire globe.Apart from this, due to globalization, a wide range of individuals are migrated to varied states such as the United States, Europe, Germany, and many others. As a result of which, undocumented individuals attained the opportunity to achieve higher education’s thereby enhancing the opportunities of jobs. Due to the attainment of higher education, these undocumented students or individuals attained the scope to earn quite higher wages as compared to the authorized or documented candidates. As a result of which, the inner morale and motivation of the undocumented candidates might also get enhanced thereby amplifying their level of performance and efficiency. Furthermore, immigration alsohelped the students to attain scholarships as a source of financial aids that might help in the fulfilment of the inner dreams of numerous undocumented parents.

Globalization and Business Enterprise

According to the latest World Economic Outlook published by International Monetary Fund (IMF, 20), the world output (income) grew at the rate of 3 percent in 2008, which declined to -0.6 percent in the very next year. The decline in the output began from the last quarter of 2008 since when the subprime crisis surfaced in the US causing enormous panic amongst the major players in the financial market. The United States witnessed a sharp deterioration in its economic growth from 0.4 percent in 2008 to -2.4 percent in 2009. With a significant stake in the global economy, what has been the source of its ailments had unfortunately transmitted to the rest of the world causing a worldwide recession. However, the recent reports suggest that the global economy has recovered faster than anticipated, clocking a growth rate of 1.7 percent in the last quarter of 2009. It is projected that the growth rate in 2010 will substantially improve to 4.2 percent, with the US is expected to grow at the rate of 3.1 percent during the same period. The deceleration noticed in the global output has been a major worry for both political and economic policymakers across the globe. So much so, concerted efforts were made to ward off the ill-effects, a major point that will be addressed in the latter part of the essay.Coming to the story of New Zealand, the country recorded a negative growth of -0.1 percent even in 2008, and with the decline in the global output, its growth rate went down further to -1.6 percent. As it may be noticed in Chart 1, the growth rate of New Land somehow moved in tandem with global output, particularly in the recent years. Thus, any business enterprise located in New Zealand has to worry about their market prospects, depending upon in what direction the global output was moving. More so, these enterprises need to surely bother about the recovery process of the global economy too.The above narratives brought out the disquieting trend with respect to world output and national income.

American Unilateralism and the International Order

In addition to the direct economic costs associated with terrorism and the threat of further terrorism, 9/11 also had important political ramifications.Importantly, political scientists have been wracking their brains trying to make sense of the horrific violence undertaken the morning of 9/11 and further violence inspired by global jihadists bent on taking over the world. Psychologists sought to explore the psychological factors leading people to kill in the name of Allah, domestic-level theorists explored the domestic antecedents to terror including extreme poverty, a lack of education, and political repression. System-level theorists however were at a loss to explain the attacks of September 11th and the ensuing War on Terror.The War on Terror represents a total American foreign policy shift that advocates the concept of unilateralism and unilateral military action in the face of a global terrorist threat. Seeking to address this dramatic change in US foreign policy, this essay asks the following questions: How has the international order changed in the face of US unilateralism, and what are the global ramifications of this new foreign policy? Can international relations theory explain the War on Terror? If so, which explanatory theory best explains American unilateralism and the New World Order?Since unilateralism is integral to understanding the present international order, this essay will begin by defining the term unilateralism and explore how unilateralism became a principle foreign policy objective for the United States. We will argue that realism, as an explanatory theory of international relations, is the theory most applicable to the present international order. Realism, with its emphasis on state interest and behavior, best explains the present international order in which the world’s dominant power expresses its foreign policy objectives through unilateral action.

Relevance of Dantes Inferno in the Current World

Some of the issues the essay will discuss include the journey which even in the current world individuals do take as seen in Dante also the evaluation of worthy sins in the current world and how they were seen in Dante.Dante’s inferno is relevant in the current western environment, for it can be seen in the canto. In the comedy, it is seen that Dante is gone astray and regardless of the efforts made, he is unable to trace on how he can get to the way. Dante says, somewhere amid life one wakes only to find themselves amid what he refers to as dark wood-confusion (Dante, 1949, p71). This situation is well applicable to many people in the current world who in many times find themselves in situations that they are unable to explain. In the current world, a lot of people move on their own where they encounter challenges and difficulties which strengthens them in the continuity of their desired life. In a self-discovery journey, individuals are seen to be struggling which makes their life complicated. Similar to Dante’s encounter, it is evident that most people are unable to drive themselves from dark situations, for they will find going back-going back into places of darkness ever and ever again (Dante 73).As per the environment which Dante was, he was obliged to encounter situations that were challenging such as passing through fire and some difficult situations to pass the test and move out of the situations. Unlike most people in the current world, Dante was lucky simply because he had Virgil to provide directions to overcome challenging situations. Most people walk alone where they face a lot of challenges before they move from dark situations. In most circumstances, individuals move alone in times of despair where they face a lot of challenges before they get to the other end. According to Dante, the sin of the world can be well described by the journey he went to.At the atrium of hell, Dante narrates how he came across some ill-fates who had stayed in the hell for long.

Family and NonFamily Businesses Leaders

Leadership in the family business has been debated by countless people. However, it is alarming how the theme of leadership in the family business has been neglected. Most researchers and analysts focus on the ownership of the family business, ownership amongst others(Rouvinez and Ward, 2005). Family businesses are of varying models. This essay shall highlight the characteristics of leaders of the family business, and their difference from the leaders in nonfamily business.The major difference between the family business and nonfamily businesses is that family businesses need-oriented while the nonfamily businesses are goal-oriented. In this perspective, the types of leadership skills tend to differ. Unlike in nonfamily businesses, the leaders work on the grounds of need orientation. This is an interpretation of a democratic leader who does not work based on making their own decisions and imposing them on their employees, but act to please all family members who have contributed to the business. Ward (2004) argues that family businesses are driven by attaining the needs of the organization or an inward attempt to attain the goals of the organization. This is different from the leaders of nonfamily businesses who act in accordance with handling the opportunities that may come along the business. Since nonfamily businesses are opportunity oriented, the leaders tend to be authoritative, unlike democratic. This is about the fact that the leader needs not to impress the other board members, as they are not of the same family.Family businesses operate under the mercy of related individuals while the non family business operates without family ties (Rouvinez and Ward, 2005). In the family business, it is important that the leaders develop honest attributes in terms of human resource management. For the family business, it may be extremely difficult to fit in the global economy, unlike in non family businesses.