William of Ockham

This essay considers the foundational elements of Marx’s philosophical system, namely the transformation of money into capital. Marx philosophy considered the commodity production process, the creation of surplus-value, and argued that capitalism was an unhealthy social process that would lead to the self-destruction of the capitalist economic system. This essay considers the nature of these William of Ockham and Karl Marx philosophic systems.The most renowned element of Ockham’s philosophical system has come to be referred to as Ockham’s razor. Ockham’s razor is the belief that when there are several conflicting theories or hypotheses generally the simplest explanation is the most accurate. Ockham stated, “It is useless to do with more what can be done with less.” In this regard, he is referring to the nature of hypotheses in that the theories need to have as few assumptions as possible since they are meant to explain and predict events. While several logical arguments can be levied against Ockham’s theory, in great part its emphasis on simplicity functions to greatly simplify and support the theoretical process.One of the major problems in medieval philosophy concerned how to explain how things remain the same while constantly occurring in a state of universal flux. For instance, one philosopher stated that one person never steps into the same river twice. In a sense, this could be applied to all objects in nature. As everything is changing the very stability of reality is brought into question. St. Augustine and Plato disagreed with this assumption and argued that certain objects were universals and remained the same. They believed in universal essences that remained the same while outward physical qualities changed. this is referred to as metaphysical realism.Conversely, Ockham argued against the belief in metaphysical realism.

Impact of the International Trade on Economic Growth

International trade is promoted through appropriate strategies and strict observation of the trade patterns. This essay seeks to discuss the impact of international trade on economic growth. According to a study by the OECD in 2003, the elasticity of international trade was found to be significant. Results from 73 low and middle-income countries in developing economies indicated that there is a strong correlation between international trade and economic growth (Peacock 2013). Inward developing economies tend to grow at a slower rate compared to outward-oriented developing economies. The average growth rate is significantly higher after the liberalization of trade than the period before the liberalization. International trade involving imports of immediate goods leads to diffusion of technology in an economy (Berdell 2002). Most of the studies tend to support the positive effects of international trade on economic growth. The static impacts of international trade refer to the improvement in social welfare with a fixed resource supply. Opening up the global market offers the chance of trading at international prices (Peacock 2013). Domestic consumers can buy cheaper imported goods. At the same time, producers have the chance to export goods to other markets at higher foreign markets. The comparative advantage in international trade leads to specialization and improved quality delivery. This has caused an increment in social welfare and output. Another impact of international trade on the economy is the dynamic gain. This is the change in the structure of production that can be attributed to the adoption of new technologies (Peacock 2013). This has also led to increased scales of production. Expansion of production through international trade leads to the economics of scale and are mostly based on the comparative advantage. There has been an expansion in production which is a response to the demands in the global market (Berg Lewer 2007). This expansion has led to a decrease in the cost of production and accumulation of capital (Berdell 2002). This has had an overall effect of increasing employment levels. International trade has been known for its support in the technological spillovers among the economies involved. This has favored productivity. International trade transmits knowledge into the international market. A world renowned economist, Paul Krugman, through an article in The New York Times suggested that competitive devaluation in the 1930s was different from the modern of currency wars and international trade policies. Several countries were dependent on the gold standard at the time. In modern fiscal policies, mutual interventions are hard to accomplish. In the past, gold was worth more than the domestic currencies. The conventional liberal-market interventions are seen to have no effect. Currency interventions are perceived to be accomplishing very little. This has caused major economies to get tempted to devalue their economies by printing more money. International trade affects economic growth. According to Paul Krugman, international fiscal policies affect the incentives offered by the central banks which in turn affect economic growth. According to economist Milton Friedman, the most accepted measure of the fiscal policy is their economic effect and not interest rates.

A Nurse Mentor Reflection in Clinical Practice Using Gibbs Model

By nurturing novice nurses, expert nurses also get to rehash their skills and improve themselves in the process (see Kosier et. Al. 2004). A strong feedback mechanism between the mentor and the learner is also very important to facilitate the proper transfer of knowledge and skills.As a qualified mental health nurse (RMN) working in a community mental health team and a student mentor who is training to be a mentor, I had the opportunity to work with a learner who is third-year nursing student. In evaluating my experience as a mentor, I will use Gibbs Model (Gibbs 1988). Gibbs model of reflection covers the following aspects (a) description of the activity, (b) my thoughts about the activity, (c) my feelings about the activity (d) evaluation, (e) analysis, (f) conclusion and, (g) coming up with an action plan (Gibbs 1988).I believe that the Gibbs model is an effective tool for in-depth evaluation of my thoughts and feelings about a certain situation. As it is, I will apply the model to this essay to facilitate critical thinking, to document my learning experience and to use my learning experience in coming up with a personal development plan outlining how I can improve my mentoring skills.As a mentor, I taught my protégé how to give depot injection. Although she had given insulin injection to patients before when she as yet a first-year nursing student, she had not tried giving depot injection to a patient before. Since she has not given this type of injection before, I let the student observe the actual administration of the injection a number of times and asked her to practice on the hospital dummy that we have. After letting my protégé observe the actual administration of the injection, I told her that she can administer the injection to one of my patients. I selected a patient that my protégé has met before as her first patient. Luckily, the patient agreed to allow my protégé to administer his injection.

Training Professionals Increasing the Chance for Innovation and Change

Proper coordination between the training as well as the personnel roles is required such as recruitment and selection, employee relation, reward system, and performance appraisal (Center of Excellence, 2004).It is through training that the quality of the labor can be enhanced since the employees are equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge. Innovation can be of numerous forms that can assist the management at the organization to stimulate the capital services and thus enhance the efficiency of the processes of production.The main objective of the essay is to discover the role played by training professionals in innovation and change in an organization. Therefore, the essay further tries to explore the views of three different writers regarding the role played by training professionals in today’s business in order to deliver innovation. Furthermore, the essay will try to identify the ways through which the training professionals tend to approach the design as well as the delivery of the training and development programs. It will try to identify the two different Australian organizations that have developed an innovation in their training and development programs. The essay will also try to compare and contrast the approaches of training of the two organizations.According to Scott Brum, it has been identified that training is one of the significant aspects for companies that want to gain a competitive advantage. Professionals, as well as the scholars, have debated regarding the effect that training has in relation to the employees and also upon the objectives of the organization. While one school of thought has mentioned that the training is the prime reason for increased turnover rates, the other school of thought perceives that training may lead to high retention of the employees in an organization. Irrespective of the fact that where one professional or scholar falls in this debate, it has been agreed by the professionals that the most multifarious human resource practice impacting the success of a company has been the employee training (Brum, 2007).

Employee Voice Within the Workplace and Organisations

This essay will attempt to answer the topic question, along with its broader implications.Since business enterprises operate in the socio-political set up of nations, it is important to analyze the issue of ‘employee voice’ in this broad context. For example, a 1998 survey conducted in the UK involving 500 employees from various small business organizations reveals some telling statistics. It shows that racial minorities like Asians and Africans are less likely to find work in smaller firms. So is the case for women, irrespective of their racial background. Eligible workers between the age group of 25-45 are also less likely to find acceptance, especially in very small firms (Taylor Bain, 2007, p.32). There is a higher proportion of the uneducated personnel, many among those having not passed high school. Given the small business, the sector is only minimally legislated, it could be concluded that the free market setup in which such organizations function is not leading to a healthier society through provisions for greater employee voice. (Phillips, Estelle M., p.78)Scholarship on the UK business environment also suggests that the condition of women workers has only improved marginally over the last thirty years. For instance, the results published by the Equal Opportunities Commission give a factual description of the status and trends in this area of corporate affairs. It confirms that while managers projected themselves as professionals and advocated the concept of equal opportunities, there were definite cases of discrimination based on gender. Some measures are required toward ensuring that managers match their practices to policies. This further shows that concepts such as employee ‘involvement’ and ‘participation’ have not led to a fair and just workplace and also makes a case for expanding the scope of employee empowerment from what it is presently.

Understanding the Impact of the Systemic Global Banking Crisis on Economic Growth

The responses of the central banks present very important economic implications that helped turnaround the economy. The responses of the central banks present some very interesting points that may be very useful for us in the future. Note that the economy follows certain cycles and sooner or later, we will hit again some snags in the banking industry that could lead to another global recession. By examining and learning from the past experiences of the banking system, we may be able to help predict and prevent certain events that could lead to a serious financial crisis. Moreover, by analyzing the responses of the central banks, we can learn which responses are effective and which are not. In light of this, this essay will strive to analyze the problems and events that lead to the economic debacle and then discuss the responses of the central banks to the crisis.The main literature used in this paper is the IMF working paper entitled Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database by Luc Laeven and Fabian Valencia (November 2008) and Central Bank Response to the 2007–08 Financial Market Turbulence: Experiences and Lessons Drawn by Alexandre Chailloux, Simon Gray, Ulrich Klüh, Seiichi Shimizu, and Peter Stella (September 2008). The first document which is authored by Laeven and Valencia defined systemic banking crisis. It also presented a vivid picture as to how the systemic banking crisis often starts, how the crisis progress and how the central banks respond to the situation. On the other hand, the second document which is authored by Chailloux et al talked about the responses of the central banks to the banking crisis in 2007-2008. It provided an assessment as to how effective and how efficient are the responses of the central banks in resolving the economic problems brought about by the banking crisis.Aside from the two working papers of the central bank, this paper also used the speech of Ben S. Bernake, the chairman of the United States Federal Reserve.

The Assessment of Information System

It affects virtually all aspects of an organization, which distinguishes an organization from other organizations. Shafritz Steven (2001 p 374) observed that organizational culture comprises the collective fundamental assumptions that an organization has adopted through careful consideration of their usefulness in approaching and solving challenges that face it in its daily operations.Organizational culture influences organizational behavior which on the other hand is the manner in which individuals conduct themselves in an organization in relation to the organizational culture. The nature, role and impact of organizational information systems suggest that the development and introduction of Information Systems and IT need to combine both technological and human-centered methods within a framework or methodology informed from the social sciences since an information system is a social system by nature, whereas IT is meant to improve the effectiveness of humans. This essay is a critique of the human-centered methods, organizational culture, structure and roles, which are fundamental factors to be considered in Information Systems and IT development and management. The essay also presents how organizational culture and behavior impact the Information System development process.The socio-technical systems theory applies in this case, which explains the implication of the interaction between people and technology (Clarke Lehaney, 2000 p 61). In essence, technology is supposed to facilitate workers to be effective in accomplishing their tasks. Development of Information Systems, therefore, needs to be focused on assisting employees to accomplish their goals, rather than changing their values and believes to satisfy the requirements of the Information Systems and IT. Designing and development of the Information system need to consider the social aspect of the workplace rather than considering solelythe technical aspect.

Father Tribute Speech

From the first day I came into this world, he has been my side and never left. Despite all the things I have put him through, he still stood by my side as I grew up. He is the cornerstone of our home. In a family of three sisters and my mom, he is the pillar that holds us together.Every living creates from my dog to fish is female. The way he manages to hold us together goes beyond words. Despite the hell my other sisters and I cause at home, I just don’t understand how he still manages to maintain his sanity as a kind-hearted man. His kindness is not only to us, but he extends to other people. I just don’t know why he treats us in a loving and caring manner all these days.Despite living in a close neighborhood, he will still greet anyone he meets even when he does not know them. No matter the type of person or role you hold, he accords everyone with the same respect. At this age, I am becoming aware of the man he is and the person I am becoming because of him.It is becoming clear of the sacrifices he had to make for our family’s sake. His care and love have shaped me into the person that I am today. I just thank God for sending a dedicated and caring dad our way. It is through his daily actions that I have learned the meaning of love. I also understand the true meaning of making sacrifices, hard work, and success. Apart from being a loving dad, he has become a friend to rely on. My mission is to be half the parent that my dad has shown in my life. Our dad has been a shield in our life while accepting the person we are today. Since childhood, he has shown immense support for all the interests we take in our lives. He has been there throughout the journey from boxing, dancing to tennis. No matter the time of day, our dad will be right beside us as a guide.My dad played a critical role in developing my passion for golf. I just don’t know how I came to love the sport. As a child, I accompanied my dad on the golf course as I rode along with the golf cart. Each time I spent with my dad grew my passion for golf, which is the best golfer around. I saw how far he could drive the ball with each shot. At one point, while hanging with my dad at the golf course, I drew the ball farther than him. After taking his second shot, his show was still not close to mine. Despite my competitive nature, I will not let it happen again to give him pride. From that point, it was not about beating my father at his favorite sport. It was the moment I knew my dad was proud of me. I feel that my dad does not understand how much I appreciate him in my life, and all he has done for me. Every step of the way, my dad has been with me all through.He has been through thick and thin with me. My father is the one that taught me how to walk and talk. He also guided me on learning how to ride a bike and drive a car. My father kept me motivated through each phase of my life, proving how proud he was of me. Many mind find such words as plain, but it means a world to me. My goal in life is to ensure that my parents are proud of me and never feel disappointed. However, I feel that my dad does not understand the extent I am proud of him. The way he always put our family first makes me feel proud of him. My dad is always there to lend a helping hand when I need him. His sense of humor makes me proud of him and how he uplifts everyone around him. He makes the family pull through even during thick times.However, his childhood was not that rosy having to grow with a father only. Despite the challenges in his childhood, he still manages to be a kind-hearted man that supports his family no matter what. I am proud of the commitment to ensure every night I was tuck in my bed with a kiss on my forehead, wishing me sweet dreams. I just don’t know if he understands how much that feeling got me through the day. There are many reasons why I am proud of my dad with all the accomplishments in our life. Even with his age, I know there is much can achieve in life with each passing day. He did an incredible job of raising my other two sisters also. I want to thank him for all the love and support he has shown us each day, and thanks for being a wonderful dad.My dad, Rich, is one of the best worlds in the world. My father has been with me through thick and thin each day. Throughout our years, he has always taken care of me. He has shown me the level of respect by making important decisions. He has shown me a level of respect throughout my life, and I correspond to them. In case the world was ending today, my dad would drop anything for our family. Every day above the ground, I find it a blessing for my background and me. I feel heavily blessed and proud to be granted such a gift in my life. I feel that this father tribute speech essay is the best way I can show my love for my dad. Even if I had it another way, I could never choose another dad in my life. The person I am today is because of the care I receive because of my dad. I don’t think of another life from this one. Apart from being a dad, he also doubles up as a mentor, hero, and friend.

Immunity of Senior State Officials

Thus, heads of state, senior state officials, and diplomats were immune from any examination of their conduct by other states. However, it was also expected that heads of states and senior state officials who could do nothing wrong would present acceptable standards of conduct at all times. Within the relatively recent past, the concept of state immunity in international law has changed because sovereign states have demonstrated that they are capable of gross violation of human rights and massive wrongdoing. The First and Second World Wars present a historical testimony for what can happen when heads of state and senior state officials indulge in morally unacceptable conduct. This brief essay presents a discussion about state immunity from proceedings alleging jus cogens norms.Even in the nineteenth century, the principle of ‘Supremacy of State Sovereignty’ was recognized under the prevailing international law regime and despite the numerous wars the doctrine of ‘Equality of States’ was also well established. 1 International law considered a state as being inviolable and it had absolute jurisdiction over all persons and all things within its territory, with a wide-ranging right to pursue its interests. Thus, sovereigns were immune from criminal prosecution in the courts of another state because they represented the will of the state. It was not possible to charge heads of state with criminal conduct while they were in power. State actors and legal scholars considered the previously mentioned rules as being beyond controversy. Also, all states were equal regardless of the size of their territory or strength and this meant that their heads of state and senior government officials enjoyed the same immunities. However, even in the nineteenth century, the notions of sovereign immunity and protected sovereignty were being challenged by stronger nations and colonial powers.

Elaborating the Interconnectedness of the Numerous Global Crises

In addition to an environmental and political crisis, the economic crisis which enveloped the developed countries of the Western world raises questions about the sustainability of capitalism as the driving force of the global economy. Seeking to understand the shifts from economic globalization towards sustainability, the following will begin with a clear definition of the concept of sustainability as well as the interconnectedness between the sustainability crisis and the other manifestations of the crisis affecting our planet. Following this, an analysis of the concept of disabling will provide examples of this phenomenon and the interconnectedness of the numerous global crises will be elaborated. Furthermore, this essay will attempt to explain why humans have allowed their home planet to be destroyed and have acquiesced to the inequities and ideology involved in the capitalist economic system.Sustainable development is a concept which has become quite popular in recent political discourse but is not often properly understood. Accordingly, sustainable development refers to development which is possible of sustaining itself for future generations, thus meeting human needs but also preserving the environment. Utilizing the concept in an African context, sustainable development would refer to helping rural farmers develop today and provided them with the tools they need in order to harvest their crops but also give them the knowledge and skills they require in order to continue to innovate and develop their cultivation process. Sustainable development looks at long-term solutions while also emphasizing the immediacy of short-term action. According to Lester R. Brown in his Plan B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization, the present sustainability crisis that the world is now facing is directly related to the social and economic crises of the past and present. Accordingly, our planet is suffering from the ramifications of centuries of misuse and unsustainable development.