Number] Enhanced Learning Many teachers confronts difficulties in upholding academic levels in today’s bigger and more diversified learning sessions. The issue becomes more evident if learning results are considered as more a meaning of students’ activities than of their permanent traits. The teacher’s role is then to organize the leaning background so that all students are more likely to utilize the greater order learning procedures which academic students employ instinctively. This may be obtained when all elements are aligned, so that goals express the kinds of learning that is required from the students, the mentors motivates students to practice the enhanced learning activities likely to obtain those understandings, also the examination tasks express students what actions are needed of them. It also tells the teachers how well the goals are being met (Carneiro).
Additionally, the use of strategies throughout daily routine to remember numerous facts and concepts needed is important for all. Strategy builds an important area of enhanced learning experience. They help in organizing information into designs and motivate objective based learning. The intellect of a human brain is selective. It tends to recall information that creates an unforgettable design. The development of enhanced learning requires some critical aspects like:
Easy and prompt accessibility to information.
Permit students to nurture editing talents.
Motivates crucial thinking skills through offering additional information. One thinks beyond the obvious and may arrive at different types of conclusion.
Familiarizes learners with alternative procedures of communication required in the professional arena like discussion boards, forums, or emails.
Technology friendly enhanced learning programs can inspire motivation and interest (Xhafa).
The application of enhanced learning can be widely used in various fields, especially subjects which require substantial amount of research work and understanding of facts. For instance, the field of geology. Field trips are an important part in the study of geology as it helps the students to gain a complete understanding of the complexities involved in the study. For example, they offer the student with a practical perceptive of spatial geometrics of structural and sedimentary features. Some findings may require additional research work and may require visiting different areas as well. The structure of the earth, its origin and different types of buried fossils are found with research and exploration. Through enhanced learning practices which have been described above, field trips can be made more useful and supportive in the learning outcomes of the participants. Such as enhanced learning by the utilization of field simulators and documenting learning in the field trip.
As we all know geology is a field of exploration and experimentation. The more one investigates on the findings, the more interesting and adventurous the study becomes. Hence, enhanced learning procedures allow the students and all individuals in general to learn things in an interesting way. In depth learning paths are formed and one starts building conclusions on the various evidences found. This further allows the individual to publish their research and findings for other professionals in the same field.
Carneiro, Roberto. .Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments. Springer, 2011. Print.
Xhafa, Fatos. .Computational Intelligence for Technology Enhanced Learning. Barcelona: Springer, 2013. Print.
The Stone Mountain in Northern Georgia boosts a mysterious history with a lot of unanswered questions. Despite that, Stone Mountain is known today for its beauty and exquisite bas relief. Three figures from the Confederate States of America have been carved here. Stonewall Jackson, Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis. Stone Mountain is host to the Stone Mountain Park which is the major tourist attraction there at the site. In addition to that-it plays a major role in Georgia’s eco-system as well as its economy.
Georgia’s geologic formation is extremely fascinating and is suspected to have covered a billion year period. Influenced by different formations and erosions from mountain ranges and geologic events such as severe climatic changes, and volcanic eruptions and flooding -Georgia’s geology still sparks mysterious questions. The compilation of these geologic events has led to the formation of a historical landmark known today as the Stone Mountains. With reference to Larry Worthy’s article ‘Stone Mountain Natural History’ (exclusively for About North Georgia, 1994-2011) Stone Mountain at its highest point stands a mighty 1683 feet above sea level and sits on the western edge of a large belt of Lithonia Gneiss granite although the younger intrusive granite that comprises the mountain is entirely different from Lithonia granite.
Commonly referred to as a granite dome monadnock, Stone Mountain’s development disseminated through several counties and provides a significant amount of bas relief. The formation of the Stone Mountain is still pondered by many geologists with a lot of unanswered questions. However, based on reviewed literature it is safe to say. water, desert-like conditions and glacial features played a vital role in its formation. First up, the Stone Mountain in Georgia was formed during the last stages of the Alleghenian Orogeny which also created the Appalachian Mountains.
The first draft I believe in the religion view of life. This suggests and articulates that there is a superior-being known as God who created the universe.
Darwin perception of origin is widely known. However, there are renowned philosophers who disagree with Darwin.
Main points of the essay shall include:
The background of the scientists involved in the research.
The source of the philosophers’ views and arguments. Moreover, it shall be necessary to check how they came up with those philosophies.
The real argument of each scientist compared to other contrasting opinions.
The relevance and importance of the readings in this study.
An account of how I will interpret the readings.
Introduction to the topic shall be followed by the main points of the philosopher. Then interpretation shall follow, which shall involve a critical analysis of each reading. Check the example below.
Stephen Jay Gould was an American historian of science and a biologist who specialized in evolution. He lived between September 10, 1941 and May 20, 2002. He graduated with a degree in geology from Antioch College. He spent most of his career teaching geology and zoology at Harvard University and was one of the influential writers of popular science.
Gould argued that evolution and religion are different from each other. That did not mean that they are mutually exclusive. He argued that Darwin was profoundly influenced by a desire to challenge the western culture and attitudes when coming up with his theory of evolution. This is clearly seen when he argued that evolution has no purpose and that it does not lead to higher things, a view that was immensely popular in the west.
Darwin on the other hand argued that natural selection is the driving force of evolution. He argued that the organisms with the best adaptation survive. According to Darwin, evolution has no purpose. This assertion challenged the western attitudes and beliefs. He also argued that, organism does not develop into higher organisms but they just become better adapted. The other point he argued was that matter is the basis of all existence. That implied that mind, soul and God were just mere words to explain the results of the evolution process.
According to Darwin, organisms have undeniable variations, which are inherent. Secondly, organisms give rise to more organisms than can most probably survive. The third point he argued was that, the organisms with the best adaptations survive and increase in number through natural selection. However, for this to be true, the variations must be random. This is because they don’t have a predictable pattern of occurrence.
According to Friedrich Nietzsche, a German poet, cultural critic and philosopher who lived between October 15, 1844 and august 25, 1900, God is dead. He came up with this maxim, arguing that Christianity was demeaning and that there was only one Christian, and died on the cross. He then argued that for a human being to be liberated after the death of God must take a revaluation of the entire value system. He argued that human beings must be seen in view of their animal nature. Therefore, there is no way or bench mark to measure the human behavior.
Third was his theory of vestigial structures, stating that life started out as very simple and grew more and more complex.
Even though he was not a scientist, Malthus was the greatest influence on Darwin’s work. Multhus was an economist who understood the state of world population and his idea that population was growing faster than food can be provided fascinated Darwin. this lead to the theory of ‘survival of the fittest’.
Inheritable changes in an organism which occur spontaneously and randomly are called mutations. these may or may not be harmful. Mutations can also add new traits through new alleles or interchange the amount alleles present.
A biome can be defined as a large piece of land containing fauna and flora often defined by their abiotic factors such as climate, vegetation, geology, relief etc. A biome may be mistaken for a large ecosystem but this is not true. Biomes and ecosystems are two different things. The main difference is that organisms in a particular biome make many adaptations in order to be able to survive in that particular setting.
The aquatic biome refers to water bodies. Their adaptations include gills, fins, blubber, stream lined bodies and many other such adaptations. The aquatic biome is in turn divided into two groups: Freshwater Biomes including lakes and ponds, rivers and streams, wetlands and Marine Biomes including oceans, coral reefs and estuaries.
Although there are 5 major and different biomes, there may be features present within a biome that resemble those of another. We know that desert biomes contain little to no vegetations, with harsh weather conditions. however, it may occur that on a small area there may be as much vegetation as there is in grassland, not enough to be called grassland but enough to be called similar to it.
Two biomes that can be called similar are Desert and Tundra. Desert and Tundra biomes both face
Oil Wells have no specific design, but there are strict standards when it comes to the good design, drilling of the well, and their completion. Typically, oil wells are borings into the earth’s surface, which are designed purposely to bring hydrocarbons and petroleum oil to the surface. Various natural resources are obtained alongside petroleum oil, such as natural gas. This paper entails an oil well design. The paper concentrates on the design of an oil well from IPM coursework. From the viewpoint of drilling engineering, aspects such as casing setting points, drilling fluid density, fluid design, and the diameter of hole/casing for every section are considered.
Essentially, Drilling engineers need to design oil wells properly to manage possible intrinsic risks. Drilling programs are also essential in managing and reflecting the pole pressure as well as fracture gradients within the well at any predefined drilling location. Drilling an oil well uses various fluid characteristics depending on the nature of the reservoir. In this case, it is important to analyze and specify the kind of drilling fluid to be used including the type of casing strings to be used as well as their exact number. The casing strings need to be adequate and strong enough in such a way that they can extend from the earth’s surface to the well’s total depth (National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling). Drilling casing strings and fluids usually work together in order to balance the pole pressure within the rock formation and contain it perfectly without causing any fracture. For an effective oil well design to be created, adequate information about the geology of the surface should be gathered. Information about pressure variations from predictions regarding the actual pores should as well be established. This requirement is a necessity especially in the case of designing the initial well within a completely new field (Lamb).
Generally, designing oil wells in done to achieve three key objectives. These objectives include drilling safely, providing a fit-for-use well, and minimizing the overall well cost. Safety, efficiency, and cost minimization are the major drives for a well-designed oil well (Gekengineering.com). These objectives are achieved by observing all design requirements. These requirements include the drilling fluid density for each session and according to the required properties, hole/casing diameters, bit programs, casing properties, mud volume, capacity requirement, annular velocity, and pump requirements (Petroleumonline.com). The exact measurements and calculations are ensured to enhance effectiveness.
Typically, whenever drillers are circulating the fluids through the well, ECD surpasses ESD (National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling). This happens because the force needed to circulate the fluids put forth additional pressure on the designed wellbore. It is thus important to design a mud program when designing the well in order to keep the ESD and ECD below the fracture gradient of the rock. These parameters require close observation. At any given time, it is important to employ redundant barriers. Such barriers would prevent the flowing out of hydrocarbons from the well especially before the main production operations (Lamb). A proper design would be advantageous in both enhancing efficiencies and ensuring safe operations.
The American explorations have extended beyond the earth and now venture to delve into the interstellar space. But space adventure is insipid because it has more space for machines and the technicalities are
beyond the comprehension of ordinary men. Ronda thinks that the story of Lewis and Clarke is more palpable as it is still accessible. It is possible to follow the footprints of Lewis and Clarke and hence Ronda gives the directive, " to get off the boat, and get on the bank".
It is usual for American explorers to use casually terms like "wilderness" and "unknown" to describe homelands of native people. In fact these regions were the real milieu of Native American homes with their adjoining gardens and hunting lands. The journey of Lewis and Clark and their entourage, bearing the massive inventory of the expedition could not have completed the mission without co-operation and support of the natives. It is highly doubtful whether they would have survived in the rugged and hostile terrain without heavily relaying on the expertise of the natives for whom it was their home. The wealth of vital topographic knowledge about rivers, streams, hills, and passages might have been invaluable logistic support on their itinerary. Sacagawea epitomized in many ways the wide interaction between the natives and Corpse of Discovery. She was not merely a handy guide. her presence reassured the Native
Americans that the expedition was not a hostile military infringement on their domain. Her standing as the sister of Cameahwait, a Shoshone chief, who provided crucial assistance, which did contribute to the success of the expedition. In addition to that Sacagawea was a crucial link facilitating communication with her own people, the Shoshones.
The expedition of Lewis and Clark was a command exploration ordered by the then United States President, Thomas Jefferson. Why did he order it There are a plethora of motives that goad explorers to brave the tumultuous waves of perilous oceans, to confront the dusty heat waves of the desert and to scale the precipitous cliffs. But social historians have narrowed down the motives of the states man to the inordinate craving of man for gold and glory. Ronda’s book does highlight these motives found in this mission. The purchase of Louisiana in 1803 was an event that wet the American appetite for expansion. The U. S. Congress appropriated 2500 U S Dollars for this. The parameters of the exploration were set as the study of the Indian tribes, Botany, Geology, Western Terrain and wildlife and to evolve a strategy to contain the British and French-Canadian poachers who were some what well established in the region.
Another motive of the venture was to carve out a viable route and survey the possibility of opening up a fully operational waterway to aid the American expansion further westward. Though this objective could not be achieved, the first contact of Lewis and Clark
In the same way, surrounding vegetations also determines the acidity or alkalinity of the lake, such as types of trees, soil, and decaying leaves. Humus (layers of decaying leaves) has rich organic matter and they produce acids similar to vinegar.Another determinant of lakes is its location and natural bases, that is, answer lies in geology. If the lake has surrounding of rocks containing limestone contain bases, then acids will be reduced (neutralized) by the natural bases and the pH of the lake will remain nearly the same. Calcite (CaCO3) greatly mitigates the effects of acid rain. Calcite is the principal mineral that makes up the rock limestone. For example, the case of sulfuric acid falling on limestone can be understood by the following reaction:
The sulfuric acid is changed into mineral gypsum (CaSO4.H2O) and Carbon dioxide is released. Thus, lakes located on limestone terrains will not suffer the consequences of acid rain. On the other hand, rocks which contain granite contain has very little bases and is unable to neutralize the acidic ingredients. Eastern Canada is facing widespread acidification of lakes due to acid rain, and presence of granite rocks. In Ontario approximately 1200 lakes are dead.Acid rain refers to all types of precipitation – rain, sleet, fog, hail, snow that has a pH lower than the 5.6 average of rainwater. Note that the rain water is naturally slightly acidic due to equilibration with atmospheric carbon dioxide. The "pure" rain water’s acidity is between pH 5.6-5.7, somewhat pH readings vary depending upon place to place and amount of other gases present in the air, such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxide.
The pH scale refers to the free hydrogen ions (electrically charged atoms) in water and a number that ranges from 0 to 14. Seven is considered neutral, that is, neither acidic nor basic. Number less than seven are acidic and those higher it is basic or alkaline. The pH scale is logarithmic (base 10), and not linear. For example, pH 3 is 10 times more acidic than pH 4 and 100 times more than pH 5.
The formation of acid in the acid rain is due to two kinds of air pollutants – sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). These pollutants react with gaseous water in the atmosphere to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3). The two-step process explains the formation of acid solutions by SO2. First the sulfur dioxide molecules react with water molecules and forms molecules of sulfurous acid:
SO2(gas) + H2O(liquid) H2SO3(aq)
Then the Sulfurous acid molecules reacts with water and produces an equilibrium with H+(aq) and hydrogen sulfite. Because the Sulfurous acid only partially ionizes into H+(aq) so it is considered as a weak acid:
H2SO3(aq) + H2O(liquid) H+(aq) + HSO3(aq)
Sulfur dioxide also reacts with oxygen or ozone and form sulfur trioxide:
SO2(gas) + O2(gas) + 2SO3(gas)
SO2(gas) + O3(gas) SO3(gas) + O2(gas)
Then the sulfur trioxide reacts with the atmospheric moisture to form sulfuric acid:
SO3(gas) + H2O(liquid) H2SO4(aq)
The sulfuric acid which is a strong acid, completely ionizes in the atmospheric precipitation to release H+(aq) ions:
H2SO4(aq) H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq)
These aqueous hydrogen are responsible for the acidic effects in the acid rain.
In Canada about 60% of pollution is caused by transportation emission. Car engines uses gasoline, which burn using air as a source of oxygen. Nitrogen is the primary component of air and under high temperature inside the car engine it forms the pollutant nitrogen monoxide (NO). Under sunlight a series of secondary reactions takes place and
The reserve is also surrounded by human history as well as archaeology that includes clay pits, Joy’s Wood, Pond, and Victorian and Edwardian Garden. The wildlife reserve has been developed with the concept related to environment and ecosystem aspects from the 20th century. Over the years, the Urban Wildlife Group has emphasized wildlife movements with the intention of fulfilling the increasing need and desire of the public (The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited, 2014).
The objective of this report is to identify the fact based on which environment history has a role in the management of wildlife reserves especially in Moseley Bog. In this regard, this particular report highlights the physical background of Moseley Bog nature reserve in terms of physical geography, geology and major environmental aspects of Moseley Bog. Apart from this, the study concentrates on the human history of the Moseley Bog and its archaeological features and chronological aspects. Moreover, the study recommends the role of the human management landscape on the basis of woodland and heathland. Additionally, the report reviews the viewpoint of academic writers regarding the current management plan of Moseley Bog nature reserve.
According to the report published by The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited1 (2014), the government of Birmingham has concentrated on restoring Moseley Bog natural reserve as a sign of its heritage. Moreover, the report has described that Moseley Bog is a home for varied dry woodlands and species of birds. Apart from this, small animals can be also observed in the water mill (The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited1, 2014. Aung &. et. al., 2004).
Moseley Bog has a certain natural location based on the culture and history of the dam. .
Geography Erosion refers to the removal and wearing away of material from a wetted perimeter of a channel. Moving water uses its kinetic energy to erode surfaces. Erosion takes place through four processes. hydraulic, abrasion action, and attrition. An increase in velocity increases the operations of these processes and erosion occurs more effectively. There are three types of erosion that significantly affects the size of a river or stream. For instance, head ward erosion makes a river or stream longer. Vertical erosion on the other hand makes the river or stream channel deeper, while lateral erosion makes it wider. Erosion takes place hand in hand with transportation (Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack: 132).
Transportation of materials in a stream or a river starts when water overcomes friction. Material that has been set loose through erosion is then transported along the stream. There are three main processes by which water in a stream or river transports material. suspension, traction and saltation, and solution (Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack: 200). Suspension occurs when material composed of the finest particles such as silt and clay is lifted by the turbulence of water and transported away. Rivers that are more turbulent and fast-flowing carry more suspension. This explains why a stream or river gets muddy towards its mouth. The velocity of the water is greater here.
Traction and saltation occurs when larger particles are carried away. Saltation refers to when material such as gravel and pebbles that are too heavy to be carried away in suspension are bounced along by the water force. Traction on the other hand occurs when larger material like boulders is pushed and rolled along the river or stream bed by the force of the water. The third process, solution, occurs when materials such as minerals and dissolving rocks dissolve in the water and are carried along. This happens mostly in areas whose geology is limestone with water that is slightly acidic.
Stream capacity refers to the sum capacity of residue that a stream can move, transport, or carry. Water streams carry sediment. Different streams carry different amounts of sediment. This capacity depends on the velocity and volume of water that is being channeled. Stream competence on the other hand refers to the sedimentary particle size that a stream can move, transport, or carry (Gabler, Petersen, and Trapasso: 498). Again, each stream has its competency for the sedimentary particle size it can move by its velocity and volume. This competency changes with changes in velocity and stream volume. Such changes are caused by a variety of topography factors and seasonal flooding.
The difference between stream competence and stream capacity is that, while capacity gauges the quantity or amount of sentiment a river or stream can carry, competence gauges the size of sentiment particles (Gabler, Petersen, and Trapasso: 498). Sedimentary particles carried by streams include. boulder, pebble, rock, silt, sand, and clay. All these sediment particles vary in size. Normally, channelized rivers and streams are influence by gravitational force. The major factors that influence stream competence (size of sediment particle) and stream capacity (amount or quantity of sediment) is channel slope. Channel slope therefore, derives the measurements for stream gradient.
Gabler Robert, Petersen James, and Trapasso L. Essentials of Physical Geography. New York: Cengage Learning. 2006. 231-600. Print.
Rodrigue Jean, Comtois Claude, and Slack Brian. The Geography of Transport Systems. New York: Cengage Learning. 2013. 1-400. Print.
Life in 1600 BC was wonderful on the island of Crete. By all accounts, the Minoans that inhabited the island enjoyed a high standard of living. Many of the problems that plagued civilizations on the mainland of Europe and Southwest Asia did not affect the Minoans. Their boarders were secure because they were the world’s most powerful navy to protect their island. Their soil was fertile and their climate mild, so food surpluses were easy to obtain. Political stability added to the strength of the Minoans. But with the eruption of a volcano on the island of Thera, all of this changed in an instant.
Volcanoes are powerful forces of nature. According to Ritter et al., volcanism is simply the manifestation of processes that occur in earth’s mantle on the surface of the earth (1). Rocks and minerals are liquefied into magma in earth’s mantle due to heat produced by extreme pressure. Weaknesses in the earth’s crust allow vents to form that allow magma to escape. This magma can emerge through the crust under the sea or on dry land. These vents will create three possible types of volcanic landforms. The type of landform is dictated by the mineral make-up of the magma that is expelled through the vent (2). Shield volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands are made of magma that has low viscosity. It is mostly basalt and runs like water. Cone volcanoes are made of magma that is high in silica. The magma is sticky so it builds up making the steep sides of a cone shaped mountain. Similar to these are composite cones that are made of magma and ash. They are irregularly shaped volcanic mountains. A final landform created by volcanoes is called a caldera. This is a huge empty space in the volcanic mountain created by a massive eruption. This is a prominent feature that was created by the eruption of Thera.
The Greek island of Thera is located in the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the island of Crete. The island is known in modern times as Santorini. The geologic shape and structure of the island is typical for volcanic islands in the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The island was a mixture of ash and silica based materials with gentle slopes near the shoreline rising to an inland, conical peak. Thera had been slowly building for at least a million years. The current arrangement of the small islands of Santorini did not happen with just one eruption. As many as twelve eruptions over the past million years have made Santorini what it is today (3). The eruption that occurred around 1600 BC was, however, the largest of them all.
Very little is known about the timeline leading up to the massive eruption. It does appear that typical seismic and volcanic activity had warned the inhabitants of Thera. According to Burstein and Shek, there are some accounts that seem to indicate that all of the Minoans living on Thera left the island prior to the eruption (4). There is no conclusive evidence to show that the evacuations mentioned actually are referring to the Thera eruption.
Thera was quite possibly the greatest volcanic explosion ever (5). Other scientists estimate that is was in the top four. The affect on the culture of the Minoans was immediate and catastrophic. The first and most immediate affect on the Minoans and Crete was a massive tsunami. Scientists believe that the waves that hit Crete may have been 40 feet high and traveled at 200 miles per hour. These waves would have destroyed the powerful navy and merchant fleets of the Minoan civilization. Other ways the civilization was affected were not as immediate but were just as devastating. The aerosols emitted by the eruption of Thera changes the climate globally for many years. These aerosols acted as a filter for sunlight entering the atmosphere. As a result, the climate would have been cooler and wetter on Crete, leading to failed harvest for several years.
The demise of the Minoan civilization has long been a mystery to historians. Their Linear B script has not been translated as of yet. All historians know is that around 1600 BC their once thriving civilization began to rapidly decline. The aggressive Mycenaean’s from mainland Greece soon conquered them. The eruption of Thera appears to have played a key role in the decline of the Minoans. The massive eruption of Thera physically altered the present day island of Santorini. The large caldera flooded with seawater, creating a small archipelago instead of a single island. Some have even hypothesized that this massive eruption gave rise to the legend of Atlantis. Whether Thera is Atlantis or not may never be known, but what is indisputable is the fact that the eruption of Thera was among the most powerful in the history of the world. The eruption of the Thera volcano has given us the scarred islands of Santorini and clues about the demise of the Minoans.
1. Ritter, Dale F., R. Craig. Kochel, and Jerry R. Miller. Process Geomorphology. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1995. Print.
2. Lutgens, Frederick K., and Edward J. Tarbuck. Essentials of Geology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1995. Print.
3. How Volcanoes Work-Eruption of Santorini. San Diego State University, Jan. 2010. Web. Feb. 2010. .
4. Burstein, Stanley Mayer., and Richard Hon-Chun. Shek. World History. Orlando: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.
5. "How The Eruption of Thera Changed the World | LiveScience." LiveScience | Science, Technology, Health &. Environmental News. Web. 04 Mar. 2010. .