Hand Geometry and Vein Check Hand Geometry and Vein Check of the Technology Hand geometry is a technology that measures and records the length, width, and surface area of a person’s hand. A plate with five pegs and a camera are used in capturing the silhouette image of the hand. Once the image is captured, up to 31,000 points are analyzed and 90 measurements taken. the measurements range from the length of the fingers, to the distance between knuckles, to the height or thickness of the hand and fingers (NSTC, 2006, p. 8). (360 Biometrics, 2011)Unlike the hand geometry, vein geometry is a fairly recent development. Vein network differ from person to person, between twins, and even between hands of the same person. A person’s vein network is not believed to undergo change in shape but only in size. Vein geometry makes use of infra-red camera to obtain clear images of the vein network (Yuksel, Akarun, amp. Sankur, 2011). Hand geometry has not been known to be affected by changes in environment (360 Biometrics, 2011). The use of palm vein has been defended based on the fact that the palm is likely to maintain the body temperature on a very cold day unlike the back of the hand. It is therefore assumed that with very cold temperatures vein check using the palm veins is not likely to be affected (Fujitsu Company, 2006).Historical DevelopmentHand geometry was developed in 1985 by David Sidlauskas. Since then, its popularity has grown wildly. Hand geometry is widely used by many companies (NSTC, 2006). On the other hand, vein geometry is equally increasingly attracting a lot of attention. Various parts of the hand, and indeed the body, can be used for vein pattern geometry. Badawi (2006) suggested the use of the back of the palm to obtain vein network. Fujitsu Corporation prefers using the palm. The corporation has successfully, since 2004, developed palm vein authentication for commercial banks. It latest product PalmSecure has hit the market (Fujitsu Company, 2006). Political and Legal InfluencesHand geometry biometric has found a wide acceptance as it is viewed to be non-invasive. It has a good political good will as it enhances security especially where public places are involved. Generally, the biometric systems have the back up of the political field as they enhance security measures in public places and also greatly reduce the probability of fraud being committed. The question on whether the information collected by biometric systems can be kept private and only for the purpose for which it is collected or not raises some legal concerns (Rosenzweig, Kochems, amp. Schwartz, 2004). Economical, Psychological and Sociological ConsiderationsThe hand and vein biometric systems have great implications economically, psychologically and socially. According to NSTC (2006), hand geometry has a very low storage needs compared to other biometric systems. The hand geometry, however, raises some psychological and sociological question. Since the palm has to be placed on a screen, questions of hygiene surge to the fore in the use of this system. People are prone to feel some discomfort touching where others have touched. For the case of vein check biometric, Fujitsu has designed a contactless palm vein biometric system. A palm is placed just on top of a screen without touching it (Fujitsu Company, 2006). Cultural, Moral and Ethical ImplicationsBiometrics systems have faced some socio-cultural concerns categorized into three namely: information privacy, physical privacy and religious objections. It is feared that with the use of biometric systems, information privacy is more prone to be abused due to creep and tracking abilities of these systems. These systems are also likely to be opposed due to perceived damage they may cause to body parts, for instance, the eyes. On the religious front, the systems have been associated with bringing to reality the prophesied mark of the beast in the book of Revelation (Army Biometric, n.d.). References360 Biometrics. (2011). FAQ – Hand Geometry. 360 Biometrics. Retrieved from http://360biometrics.com/faq/Hand-Geometry-Biometrics.php#1Army Biometric. (n.d). What Concerns do Biometrics raise and how do they differ from concerns about identification methods. Biometric Identification Technology Ethics – BITE. Retrieved from http://www.biteproject.org/documents/rand_report_biometric.pdf Badawi, A. M. (2006). Hand Vein Biometric Verification Prototype: A Testing Performance and Patterns Similarity. University of Tennessee. Retrieved from http://ww1.ucmss.com/books/LFS/CSREA2006/IPC4585.pdfFujitsu Company. (2006). Palm Vein Pattern Authentication Technology. Fujitsu Company. Retrieved from http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/COMP/ffna/palm-vein/palmsecure_wp.pdf NSTC. (2006). Hand Geometry. National Science and Technology Council. Retrieved from http://www.biometrics.gov/documents/handgeometry.pdfRosenzweig, P., Kochems, A., amp. Schwartz, A. (2004). Biometric Technologies: Security, legal, and Policy Implications. The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2004/06/biometric-technologies-security-legal-and-policy-implications Yuksel, A., Akarun, L., amp. Sankur, B. (2011). Hand Vein Biometry Based on Geometry and Appearance Methods. BUSIM Signal and Image Processing Lab. Retrieved from http://www.busim.ee.boun.edu.tr/~sankur/SankurFolder/Hand_vein_rev2_1July2011.pdf
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What divides each median into two sections at a 2:1 ratio? P is the centroid of AXYZ. If XU = 57, what is PU?
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Meditations on First Philosophy Primer In the 13th century attempt to reconcile Aristotelians with Islamism, Averroes postulated that the soul has two parts: one individual, the other divine. Furthermore, Averroes asserted that the individual portion of the soul was finite and dies with the body. At the Lateran Council of 1513, Leo X deemed this thought heresy. In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes sets out to defend this edict logically.
Descartes proposes that postulating logical proof of the eternal human soul, demands certain consequences. One consequence is that the mind must be distinct from body, and another consequence is that God must exist. Descartes claim that the postulate is so certain that anyone who does not accept it as truth is atheist and therefore an intellectual poser. Descartes goes on to say that the proof should be so certain as to rival the certainty of geometry and that just because the originator of an idea may not be perfect, it does not mean that a characteristic of the idea itself is not perfection. It is noteworthy to mention that Descartes was seeking the approval of the Sorbonne which he never received. Nevertheless, he remains true to the logic and admits that he could be erroneous in his thinking.
In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes sets out to defend Leo X’s edict. In the 13th century attempt to reconcile Aristotelians with Islamism, Averroes postulated that the soul has two parts: one individual, the other divine. At the Lateran Council of 1513 the thought of a finite soul was deemed heresy. Averroes asserted that the individual portion of the soul was finite and dies with the body, in Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes refutes this claim.
Behrens seems to have influenced Kahn’s design for the Ford Highland Park factory. In France, Auguste Choisy, Auguste Perret, and Tony Garnier revolted against the eclecticism of nineteenth-century architectural practice, proposing instead to apply classical geometry and clarity to the new building materials so as to achieve structural coherence. French architects were the world pioneers in the use of reinforced concrete made with cement–a new compound patented in 1824 and industrially produced after 1845. Other similar ideas, trends, and suggestions to follow the new spirit of technology and engineering were also emerging elsewhere in Europe at this time. One could argue that it was not surprising that these radical avant-garde modernists would engage in colorful rhetoric so as to liberate themselves from the chains of tradition, bolster their creativity, and attract attention, but there was much more than creative thirst or rhetorical fluff in modernism. The avant-garde modernists not only glorified the beauty of industry and the mechanical in their writings and architectural works but also endorsed and used the new scientific methods of labor management and organization originally developed in the United States at the turn of the century. The similarities between the techniques used by the scientific managers and by the avant-garde modernists are stunning–and troubling.
(Adler, P. S., and Winograd, T. A, 55-67)
European modernism did not arrive at an entirely novel approach to architecture and design until the 1920s, with the Bauhaus in Germany, Constructivism in the Soviet Union, Rationalism in Italy, and Purism in France. It was at this point that European architects made their revolutionary reinterpretation of scientific management in aesthetic terms. Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus school of art and architecture in Germany, was a firm believer in scientific management methods and became one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century.
Experts suggest that biometric technology is the most viable and efficient security measure compared to traditional methods, therefore, the paper aims to validate this claim. Discussion Biometric is the automatic person identification depending on the behavior or physiological attributes of that person. This authorization strategy identifies and verifies a person based on who he is before giving him access permission. The quest for increasingly reliable method of authorization to protect company information has called for biometric revelation and various companies and businesses have shown increased interest in the method. Commonly used physical biometrics is fingerprints, geometry of palms, characteristics of the face and retina, (Schuckers, 2010, p.89). Similarly, behavioral attributes are things such as voice recognition, patterns of keystroke, peoples’ signatures and gait and these technologies, voice recognition and signature are highly developed. Biometric security methods are indeed most effective authentication method compared to traditional methods such as smart cards and PINS or both. …
Technical support managers may have difficult time offering instructions to PIN users who have challenges with more basic associated technologies of signing in to certain network. Therefore, biometric technologies are more promising because they solve such problems and relieve the company of such expensive cost of hiring technical support staff, because in a system that uses one log in, biometric technology will be efficient in user authentication. Increasing number of organizations are recognizing biometric method efficiency in various applications, for example, in hospitals traditional methods are being replaced with biometric methods for authentication of users to ensure patients information privacy and confidentiality. Traditional methods such as swipe cards and passwords can be lost or stolen, and bad password management has left users writing passwords on papers and other materials or choosing general and possible works for faster remembrance, an activity that expose such pins to fraud and intruders. Biometric technologies, on the other hand, can be viable and efficient methods in solving these problems because they have strong techniques of authorization and authentication that can assure users of excellent security, (United States, 2004). Similarly, because biometric techniques uses user’s behavioral and physiological attributes in authentication and authorization, it is easy to detect and trace fraud and intrusion, (Ratha and Jain, 2005, p.85). Unlike traditional methods of authentication based of known characteristics – such as passphrases, smart cards – biometric techniques utilize distinct human traits such as voice recognition and prints of fingers that cannot be misplaced, forgotten, or lost. This is because human
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) was one of the courts’ rulings, which permitted legal segregation for approximately 60 years. Some people were against, any form of, segregation. For instance, Gonzalo Mendez and other Latino parents filed a case (in 1945) to end segregations, in California’ public schools. The case filed was known as Mendez v. Westminster (1946). They argued that it was wrong to separate students into different schools, simply because they were of different races (Latino or Mexican). The judgement, on this case, was in favour of Mendez: even though the schools’ lawyers argued that the students were segregated because they spoke a foreign language. The court ruled that according to the 14th Amendment, all students had the right to access equal education. Following this ruling, it was unconstitutional to segregate students, on the basis of their national originality. Mendez case, however, was never appealed to the United State Supreme Court. The Brown v. the Education (1954), case also aimed at ending segregations, in California. It ruled that education was to be given to all, on equal terms. The ruling on the Brown case, however, faced some challenges. For instance, the Southern states defied the ruling, while some White Community prevented the NAACP from enrolling Africa-America students, in Central High School (Caplow 305). These three cases were related in that the Mendez case laid the foundation of the Brown case, while the Brown case brought about the reversal of the Plessy (1896) case, in 1954. Both the Mendez and Brown cases also DEJURE segregations of public schools (Ritzer 180). Segregations between the Latino and Mexican America resulted to poor Mexican schools. There were less-experienced teachers, in the Mexican schools than in the Anglo schools. The Mexican students were given less educational materials than the Anglo students (Ritzer 234). In fact, the Mexican students were taught in crowded classrooms, while the Anglo students were taught in spacious classrooms. The segregation was also evident in their curriculum, which was carried out, in the Anglo, and Mexican schools. The Anglo students were taught geometry and biology, while the Mexican students were taught industrial skills and domestic chores (Dundjerski 352). In addition, most of the Anglo teachers discouraged the Mexican students from advancing beyond the eighth grade. Indeed, the Mexican curriculum was of low quality such that the students could not get, any prominent job, after they were through with their classes. The education, which the Mexican got, would only get them cheap jobs in the prospering agriculture communities of California. This segregation, therefore, could not allow the Mexican students to get advanced education. if they got advanced education, then they would not accept farm labor. Segregation between Latino and Mexican America resulted into the discrimination of Mexicans. Mexicans were not allowed in most of the parks, dance halls, eateries, hotels, stores, and barbershops. They also had less access to public swimming pool. they were only allowed to swim for one day, weekly (Dundjerski 203). In addition, the swimming pool was cleaned and drained, immediately after the Mexican-America had swum. The Mexican Americas were, also, not spared in the restaurants. they were only served after all the white customers had been served. Today segregation is still evident, in some parts of California. For instances, those schools that are located in
With respect to the tests and results to prove the linkage and correlation between verbal and non-verbal forms of communication, the authors reveal how these two separate forms were analyzed both side by side and apart from one another and then the results compared as a means of being able to infer what the true impacts of these can be. 8. These perceptions that are utilized, according to Knapp, include all of the human senses, and a great deal of emphasis upon the visual interpretation of nonverbal forms of communication. a) as such, naturally, designed, and manipulated environments in which such interactions and communications take place can have a profound level of impact with regards to the take-away information that an individual is able to glean. Due to the conflicting and differentiated cues that an individual would receive in each of these, the ultimate wording and intent could be identical in each of these three situations. however, the understanding could be entirely different. b) Ultimately, influenced perception by setting up a false archectural construct as a means of focusing attention, the listeniner/viewer is able to distance themselves from some of the distractions that might otherwise capture their attenion at the scene. For this very reason, news crews and cameramen attempt to stage a scene so that the ultimate focus can be on the individual providing the information and not on the scene itself. unless otherwise warranted. 9. People tend to orient towards time as an environmental feature due to the fact that the changing rate of culture and understanding sets continual new precedents that must be engaged in a different way depending upon the time that is represented. Monochronic refers to only one time being represented at a single instance. whereas polychronic represents several times being represented. Likewise, Gonzales and Zimbardo referenced 7 different time zones dealing with the way in which individuals integrated with new information. Interestingly, even though these time zones can be understood as unique vantage points from dissimilar groups, a noted level of overlap was discovered with respect to the way that individual integrated with information. 10. Territoriality, personal space, and conversational sdistance, as well as seating arrangements and patterns, has to do with the geometry and actual geographic relationship that the speaker has to the audience. As such, these factors impact heavily upon the way in which information is understood and the rate at hwhich a level of comfort can be provided to the speaker/audience. 11. A sense of territoriality can vary and change depending upon the cultural makeup of the audience and/or the speaker. As such, a level of sensitivity to the unique needs and expecations of different groups is required prior to seeking to plan the way in which territoriality will be evidenced within a specific space. 12. Contextual factors such as a sense of fear or friendship, the overall level of perceived reception, and/or a litany of other factors impact upon the level and extent to which territoriality is perceived and a sense of threat or invitation is understood. 13. Seating arrangements