Indirect bullying – also known as relational/social aggression – is less obvious and less visible (spreading rumors/gossip, and exclusion/rejection from a group). and cyberbullying – uses the Internet, cellular phones, or other technology to harm individuals. (Lamb et al. 2009, p. 356-57. Ontario Ministry of Education 2007, p.3)Bully children are impulsive, domineering, and inconsiderate (Bullock 2002, p. 130), displaying "aggressive personality pattern combined with physical strength" (Olweus 1991, p. 425). The bully’s self-regard is an inflated self-esteem, and a powerful/superior feeling over others. whereas, the victim’s appears weaker, passive, insecure, and anxious, and reacts by crying or withdrawing (Bullock 2002, p. 130). Van Cleave Davis (2006) revealed, children with special health care needs were more likely to be victims, while children with chronic behavioral, emotional, or developmental problems were more likely to be bullies or both (cited in Lamb et al, 2009, p. 357).Common indicators of bullying are physical symptoms – headaches, stomach aches. psychosomatic symptoms – difficulty sleeping, bed-wetting. depressive symptoms. anxiety symptoms. poor school performance – low grades, dropping out. and suicidal tendencies. Specific indicators for bullies are drug/substance use. indifference to other’s feelings. aggressiveness or being manipulative with siblings, parents, and others or with animals. and possessing unexplained items or extra money. while for the victims are absenteeism, refusal to attend school, drop in school motivation. losing items, needing money, being hungry after school, injuries, bruises, damaged clothing, broken items, and threatens to hurt self or others. (Lamb et al. 2009, p. 358) These damaging symptoms warrant intervention, especially so bullying (commonly starts in childhood), if disregarded may result in more frequent and severe bullying behaviors that may persist and worsen to adulthood.
Other symptoms include fatigue, articular stiffness, anorexia and fever. A complaint of pain and limited lifestyle are the characteristic features of the onset of the disease. If left untreated, the inflammation will result in serious life-threatening conditions during its progression. Morbidity, progressive disability and hastened mortality feature the untreated disease conditions. As a result, it entails serious economic implications for both the patients and their families as well as society as the affected people are unable to continue in their employment with the same efficiency as before with the normal functioning of their palms, feet and gait seriously affected and progressively disfigured and disabled (Cush, Weinblatt, Kavanaugh, 2010). According to the National Audit Office, there are around 580,000 people afflicted with RA with additional 26,000 new cases every year. The disease affects people of age between 40 to 60 years with women who are three times more likely to be affected than men. The patient referred herein for treatment also happens to be a woman aged 40. This being an auto-immune disease, affects small joints of the hand and feet. If severe, it reduces life expectancy by 6-10 years as a result of co-morbidity through cardio-vascular diseases or side effects from treatment (Home Carr, n.d.) The disease reduces the affected person’s work-life by five years. Its annual cost to the U.K. economy is estimated to be between £ 3.8 and £ 4.75 billion (NationalAuditOffice, 2009). There are many institutions engaged in the care of RA with their own guidelines for treatment. British Society for Rheumatology (BSR, (n.d)), NHS (NHS, n.d.), National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) (NRAS, n.d.), The Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists (SCPOD, n.d.), The Musculoskeletal Services Framework (DeptOfHealth, 2006), NSF long-term conditions (DeptOfHealth, Department of Health, 2005), 18-week commissioning pathway (DeptOfHealth, Department of Health, 2006) and Podiatry rheumatic care associations (PodiatryRheumaticCareAssociation, n.d.) are the major sources of standards of care for RA conditions.
This means that this client must lose weight in order to turn his health challenges around. The challenge for the community nurse will be to help the client understand the need to change their behaviors with eating and with exercise. In this scenario, the individual must start exercising daily and start eating meals at home instead of using take away food or restaurant food for most of his meals. He must also understand nutrition, how to read labels at the grocery store, and how to buy nutritious food for himself. In this situation, it seems that the Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) is the best to use because this individual must learn self-care.In the first phase of education, the nurse would encourage this client to understand more about hypertension. Most important would be to explain what hypertension does and the consequences of not treating it. The first step would be a general overview of hypertension and its symptoms. Once these were discussed, the nurse would provide the answers to any questions that the client may have about their own hypertension. The nurse would need to have information from the client’s doctor about their hypertension. The objective of this education about hypertension would be to show the client the seriousness of the issue and help them make their own thoughts about what might happen if they go untreated. It would seem that in this scenario, this client may be moving into the pre-contemplation stage of the TTM. As he begins to understand the seriousness of hypertension, he should also be able to relate to some of the symptoms, though he may not have thought about them in the past. As an example, he may have experienced headaches, dizziness or nose bleeds at times when his blood pressure was high, but he would not have attributed these to hypertension. After education, he may be able to relate thisinformation to the nurse.
It is one of a group of diseases, together with ulcerative colitis, known together as inflammatory bowel disease. Although the disease can affect any area from the mouth to the anus, it often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2012). Crohn’s disease is highly associated with genetics and can occur in all age group but is most often diagnosed in young adults. Common symptoms includes pain in the abdomen and diarrhea, bleeding from the rectum, weight loss, joint pain, skin problems and fever may also occur. Often children who developed the disease encounter growth problems. This can be associated with problems due to the disease such as intestinal blockage and malnutrition that can highly affect growth and development in children. Treatment may include medicines, nutrition supplements, surgery or a combination of these options (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2012). Crohn’s disease is highly associated with genetics and can occur in all age group but is most often diagnosed in young adults. Common symptoms includes pain in the abdomen and diarrhea, bleeding from the rectum, weight loss, joint pain, skin problems and fever may also occur. Often children who developed the disease encounter growth problems. This can be associated with problems due to the disease such as intestinal blockage and malnutrition that can highly affect growth and development in children. Treatment may include medicines, nutrition supplements, surgery or a combination of these options (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2012). There have been an increasing number of incidences of having the disease and the standardized mortality ratio for irritable bowel disease, both for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, generally ranges from approximately 1.4 times to 5 times the general population suggesting 95% that the increase in relative risk is real. This implies the importance of early diagnosis and proper treatment to reduce chances of increasing IBD mortality rate (Rowe, 2011). In the practice of health care regarding specific diseases such as Crohn’s disease, the role of the nurse in achieving full patient recovery and desirable patient outcome is very vital and necessary. Through the formation of nursing diagnosis nurses are able to direct specific interventions that would address a specific problem brought about by the disease. In this way the nurse is able to achieve full potential in giving care to patients and gives more desirable and measurable outcomes. Since nutrition plays an important role in the development of a growing child it is important to focus on nutrition as a basic need. Nutrition impairment is usually a very common problem in children suffering from Crohn’s disease thus the importance of addressing the nutritional needs of such patients is essential. One of the important nursing diagnoses according to The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association that pertains to nutrition is Imbalance Nutrition: Less than body requirements (White, 2005, p. 316). The desired outcome for this specific nursing problem should be directed to achieving the nutritional needs of the patient. These needs may include achieving desired weight, correcting nutritional deficiencies, maintaining a special diet, preventing nutritional disorders or improving nutrition to promote health and prevent disease. Since diet is an important factor in patients suffering from Crohn’s disease, one goal for nutritional alteration for this specific disease could be that client will comply with diet therapy designed specifically for Crohn’s disease patients. To be able to achieve this specific goal the implementations or interventions opted are diet therapy and weight and intake monitoring. From the many choices of
There was a dire need to build what was ruined and Europe has the choice of whether to pursue this as an integrated region or as individual countries. As to the integration, there were two political and economic models invented at that time – the long history of nation-building wherein economic integration follows political unification and the model of Zolverrein where political unification follows economic integration (Lecture, Topic 2: From Post War Reconstruction to the European Coal and Steel Community)One of the aftermaths of World War II is the European Coal and Steel Community, a moved that strengthened both the economic and political ties of the surviving European countries. “The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty was signed in Paris in 1951” (Europa.eu). It involved the Benelux countries of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands together with West Germany, France and Italy. Its goal was to “organize a free movement of coal and free access to sources of production” (Europa.eu). One of the unique aspects of the integration was the establishment of a common High Authority which supervised the market including the competition rules and price transparency. The ECSC Treaty became the “origin of the institutions as we know them today” (Europa.eu).The ECSC was the first community organization that was created as an aftermath of the 2nd World War. The devastation brought by the war needed economic reconstruction of the European continent and attaint lasting peace. Since coal and steel were the basic industry of the two countries France and Germany, “the idea of pooling Franco-German coal and steel production came about” (Europa.eu). Thus the European Coal and Steel Community was formed. Obviously, the war has made both countries realized that a truce between them would help establish both their political and economic health. Thus the strong necessity for a truce led to the acceptanceof the necessity to submit some elements of their sovereignty to a Higher Authority.
As suggested by the National Health Service (2008: 9), an unhealthy diet is clearly associated with poor health and premature death throughout the globe. Given this, it is clearly the case that there is a need for the population to highly consider their diet to avoid cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and obesity. Adopting a healthy lifestyle clearly lowers the poor health and premature deaths. In terms of eating habits, men and women should consume five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day (NHS, 2008: 9). Unfortunately, the adults aged 16 – 24 years old are the least in meeting such recommended proportions of fruits and vegetables (NHS, 2008: 9). On the one hand, physical activity also lowers the risk of premature death (NHS, 2008: 8). It also lessens the possibility of having major chronic illnesses (NHS, 2008: 8). Likewise, engaging in physical activity increases the chances of independence in older age (NHS, 2008: 8). It improves as well as the quality of life (NHS, 2008: 8). Meanwhile, alcohol consumption also impacts a healthy lifestyle. Undeniably, the damage caused by alcohol is detrimental to health. However, most in England claimed to be occasional drinkers in which most of them exceed the recommended alcohol intake of only three to four units for men and two to three units for women (NHS, (NHS, 2008: 11). A healthy lifestyle is basically not just about the foods that people consume but must be combined with the right amount of exercise, alcohol, and no smoking habits. It does not just improve and extend life but according to McDowell (2010: 70), a healthy lifestyle includes enjoyment from the choices of lifestyle as well as overall well – being. Given this, it is without a doubt that to have a healthy lifestyle matter not only to the individual itself but to the whole society as a whole for the reason that such improves the quality of lives. Nonetheless, despite what a healthy lifestyle can offer people, the engagement to some behavior that is considered dangerous for the health and well – being of citizens are observable in the United Kingdom. As a matter of fact, taking a look at the young adult population of United Kingdom indicates some of their practices of the risky health behaviors such as their alcohol consumption, smoking habits and intakes of fatty and salty foods. Likewise, it is also the case that there has been a rising incidence of weight gain and obesity among young adults (Lake, Adamson, Craigie, Rugg-Gunn Mathers, 2009: 157 -165). Certainly, such evidence the practices of risky health lifestyle among young adults. The objective of the Study In this regard, the focus of this paper mainly aims at investigating healthy lifestyle among the young adult population of the United Kingdom. Specifically, it aims at answering three points. First, its objective is to know what is considered a healthy lifestyle among the younger adult population of the United Kingdom. Second, it targets to understand how important a healthy lifestyle is among them. Third, it aims to look at food as an element of lifestyle.
Alan Arrowsmith, for his experience with small businesses, was appointed as the HR manager at GS. His teaching experience in the trades section of the local technical college, where he handled subjects related to health and safety, risk management etc also made him proficient of HR manager post. GS plumbing underwent tremendous expansions such as contracts with several buildings and companies over the last ten years. GS takes up both planned tasks like plumbing installations for new homes as well as unplanned works despite the threat the unplanned works cause to the security of the company. GS Plumbing maintains strict regulations on workers on record keeping, maintenance of accounts etc. The rising demand for plumbing staffs compels GS plumbing to offer better financial and non-financial assistance to its employees. However, GS Plumbing has not been able to cope up with these demands and it has intensified the problem of employee turnover in the company. The senior management team of GS plumbing company includes Greg, Alan, Gail, and Jane. The company receptionist role is efficiently handled by Greg’s sister-in-law Gail White. However, she often finds her responsibilities increasing her stress level despite the company’s growth. The increase in the staff absenteeism and the occurrence of frequent injuries like falls, chemical burns etc have raised Alan’s concern.Alan has proved that he is eligible for managing the company and has been a great support to Greg. However, GS plumbing has not yet conducted any formal audit of the HR function. In fact, an audit is an essential part of organizational management because the examination of policies, procedures, documentation, and practices with respect to the HR functions of an organization can be effectively done through the audit activity1. This activity provides an opportunity for the HR manager to reveal his potency and achievements which would further encourage him to exhibit his abilities in the future.
The 1804 constitution approved several aspects about the country in that there was freedom of religion but the national religion was to be catholic. The constitution also stated that all the members of the state would be regarded as black. This was meant to reduced racism that had spread so much in the country whereby Europeans were given more favor due to their skin color. There was also a statement that no white individual would own property in the country. There were riots in 1843 that were meant to develop a better parliament. Robert (2006) describes that the economic situations worsened in 1946 which resulted in a military coup where the country was then led by a black person who developed more infrastructures on the social and labor policies. Haiti is now ruled by an elected government and in the years 1986 to 1989 the country was under a military government. A new constitution was approved which allowed for parliamentary members to be elected. These members would include a president, prime minister and cabinet ministers. There were other violent cases in 2004 which left many dead and they were led by people who were opposing Aristide. It was also in this year where this president was removed from power due to the many violent cases reported in the country.These disputes have made Haiti lag behind in terms of reforming its economy and the political system. Even now there are reports about gangs engaging in substance use and violent acts and have moved to the extent of kidnapping individuals. The frequent reports about the violation of human rights in Haiti made the United Nations move to Haiti in the year 1994. When Aristide left power, an interim force was founded followed by MINUSTAH was founded under the United Nations Stabilization Mission who’s aimed at initiating change to the lives of the Haitians.This was to protect citizens from violence, stabilizing the political, economic, and social status.
When the peaceful atmosphere prevailing between the countries gets aggravated, the countries themselves will try to solve the conflict. However, in other cases, the countries will approach International Organizations (IOs) to help them in finding a solution, and in certain ‘extreme’ cases, the IOs themselves will intervene to solve the conflict. Although, intervention or even forceful intervention of IOs to safeguard security in a tension filled environment could be a welcome step, when viewed from another perspective, it could be viewed as the infringement of country’s sovereignty. Thus, when IOs try to impose their authority over sovereign nations in the matters of security, it could lead to security dilemmas in international politics. At the same time, these dilemmas can be managed or overcome, when the countries themselves welcome the role of IOs in solving conflicts, as it provides them with certain advantagesAlthough, international cooperation between countries or territories have been happening from earlier centuries leading to the formation of International groupings or International Organizations (IOs), League of Nation is considered to be one of the first IOs. After the First World War, various countries and other humanitarian groups wanted a strong overseeing IO, which can pre-empt large scale global wars and ensure security, thereby leading to the establishment of League of Nations in 1919. However, as the League of Nations failed to prevent the occurrence of the Second World War, it disintegrated. Only United Nations, which came into existence after the Second World War in 1945, is continuing to function as a strong IO, and has even ‘spawned’ many other IOs, which are not only focusing on security aspects, but also social, economic, health and other aspects.
I observed for redness, drainage and bleeding at the stoma site, then listened to breathing sounds with a stethoscope. and monitored O2 saturation level. These were the tangible treatment activities undertaken when assessing the patient’s condition.However, outside of the tangible activity being performed, issues of holistic patient care had to be considered in order to provide a more emotion-focused series of outcomes for the patient. Holistic patient care “is based on the idea that there should be a balance between body, mind and spirit” (Ellis and Narayanasamy, 2009, p.886). At the same time, having never performed this procedure before, there were personal issues with self-confidence about performing the tracheotomy for the first time. I realized during this patient intervention that my own performance and ability to project confidence would give the patient more confidence and trust in my ability to successfully complete the task of health care.Prior to approaching the patient at the interpersonal level, I had to become visibly-composed and provide body language which suggests that I am familiar with the procedure and am confident about its successful delivery. Patients who are undergoing complex treatment in an unfamiliar hospital environment are likely to have a wide variety of negative emotional adjustment issues, therefore nursing competence as a practice goal brought this patient better holistic care. I realized that if I had conducted the tracheotomy without careful analysis of my internal emotional condition, the patient could have picked up on many non-verbal cues and realised that his caregiver was mildly concerned about their own ability to successfully complete the procedure independently. Nursing competence and the outward reflection of personal competence and task mastery gave the patienta more relaxed and less-anxious experience during this patient intervention.