While several sustainable construction materials are now available, the criteria used to choose either of the same is informed by the desire to strike a delicate balance between the growing needs of the world today and the need to minimize the negative impacts that would emanate from such initiatives both to resources and to the environment. From the perspective of the environment, the building materials used have a direct impact on the energy consumption, the emission of carbon dioxides, how much waste materials are generated, the natural resources used, water consumption as well as how the utilization of such materials directly affects the health of the persons around the area.The first criteria that would be used in choosing a sustainable building material are the ability of the material to be recycled. Taking an example of steel, it is a building material that is recyclable for an indefinite time without necessarily suffering any losses in terms of quality. Steel can, for instance, be recycled 100 percent. However, for purposes of building, steel materials can be recycled i.e. used from one building to another to a degree of about 98%. There is, therefore, an economic loop that is sustained by the intrinsic quality inherent in the steel itself. Today, it is estimated that all over the world, recycled steel make up to about 40% of the total ferrous material in the steel industry. Mostly, such materials are used in the electrical furnace procedures and other processes like the blast oxygen furnace that play a role in generating building materials and even in direct construction processes. Through recycling, there are a significant cost reduction processes meaning that it can be sustained for a long time.
Employers should identify/set up a safety team who can train all employees and contractors. This is referred to as Safety Induction. In this program employees will be trained on the risks, safety issues, how to tackle these issues and how to escalate anything above their capacity. Outlined herein is the general safety induction for any construction or production company. Employees must be made aware and trained on how and where to protect themselves from what safety issue by using personal protection equipment (PPE). There are several areas in a company with various risks such as chemicals, hazard spills, noise that could impair hearing, falling object and carrying of heavy objects or tools among many others. Some of the PPEs are. reflective jackets/ high visibility reflectors. All employees must have this in order for them to be easily visible to avoid accidents e.g. being knocked by a forklift. Ear plugs or ear muffs for hearing protection in high noise area. Heavy-duty goggle for eye protection against flying objects e.g. bottle bursts. Helmets for head protection, different hand gloves for different tasks, safety boots for feet protection and also based on the kind of work, body protection clothes e.g. overalls for engineers or lab coats for technicians. Once the employees are taken through PPEs, they will be trained on the importance of observing laid down signage and other safety protocols such as observing walkways and its importance. On top of these, employees must be made aware of the protective policies adopted for their own safety. Some of the policies are. forbidding employees or contractors reporting to work under any influence of alcohol/drugs, any levels whatsoever, or reporting to work while sick. This could be disastrous especially if an individual is operating any kind of machine, neglect to this could be a risk to self and other coworkers. Also, employees must be forbidden to report to work with hanging jewelry, especially when working in the area or machine with belts as this can cause accidents. Smoking on the site should also be prohibited and employees who are smokers be provided with a smoking zone to avoid any fire blasts. On the other hand, the company should stipulate a maximum time for working in a particular area based on the health risks involved e.g. someone should not be allowed work for more that 6 hours when operating a high vibrating machine like a hand drill. Having finished with personal protection, the company should play a role in providing a safe working environment. This includes providing things like easily accessible emergency showers and eyewash, lavatories on-site, hand wash and sanitizers, cleaners to take care of the company neatness and spillages to avoid slippage accidents. Clearly marked emergency exits without any obstruction, emergency contacts and also an emergency clinic on site. Employees should be told of all this during the safety induction (Gupta, P 8, 2006). Safety induction could be made more exciting by a brief video to accompany the training. This could go a significant way to stress the importance of and possible accidents in case of neglect. By doing this, employees will have a real picture and will take personal safety to be their number one priority.
Since social factors also impact the health outcomes, nurses who are caring for postpartum patients will also have to take into account, the cultural aspects of care. This study proposes to examine the perspective of nurses’ duties in postpartum depression and how they can promote health outcomes through the application of Leininger’s culture theory.The birth of a child is associated with dramatic hormonal shifts. During the term of a pregnancy, the levels of endogenous glucocorticoids and estrogens in the body increase. however after the delivery of the child, the level of these hormones suddenly plummets, which causes a temporary hypoactivation in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which lasts for several weeks. As Cizza et al (1997) have demonstrated, this suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis tends to be much more severe and lasts for a much longer period in women who are suffering from postpartum depression. While the extent of the hormonal impact does contribute to postpartum depression,Several studies have shown that a correlation exists between postpartum depression and the lack of social support. According to Hagen (2001), new mothers may tend to suffer from postpartum depression when they feel that they do not have adequate levels of social support. they may adapt by experiencing postpartum depression where they feel emotionally or financially disinvested in their infants. Some of the ante-natal risk factors which have been seen to be conducive towards the development of postpartum depression include experiencing depression or anxiety during pregnancy, a previous history of stress, lack of social support, low levels of self-esteem, low socio-economic status, single marital status or a poor relationship with one’s partner. (Stewart et al, 2004). Postpartum depression could have a potentially detrimental effect on infants because of the children of such mothers.
She paid visits to the sick and the underprivileged living in villages and rural settings. She undertook training for a nurse in Germany and France against fierce criticism from her family, who considered the job to be demeaning for someone of her knowledge and status because nursing was considered to be the lowest form of hired help (Aller, 2007). Later in October 1854, she was appointed as a nurse to a military base in Crimea. The terrible sanitation conditions of the place shook her, and she set about with her group of volunteers to improve the sanitation conditions of the place, and to provide the utmost nursing care to the injured soldiers. It was for her work in the Crimea military base that she got named as the Lady of the Lamp since she used to make rounds of the wards carrying a lamp (Lamb, 2008). Her contribution to nursing is not just limited to tending to the sick. When she came back from the Crimean War, she drew up a fund to establish the first nursing institute to give nurses proper training. She also penned down her thoughts and opinions about what nursing is and how it should be conducted in the book Notes on Nursing. Today the book is read by nurses all over the world and is also integrated into the core objectives of nursing training. Nursing is not merely about administering medicines into the sick but also requires the nurse to be more compassionate and to provide the utmost comfort to the patient. The following paragraphs portray how nursing has been defined by Nightingale.I consider every woman to be a nurse because she is involved in taking care of someone’s health at some point in her life. In my opinion, a nurse is someone who takes responsibility for somebody’s health. I adhered to the view that if every woman knew how to nurse, the product of their collaborated experience and efforts can be very magnanimous.
The supposition is that people will deliberately choose foods that add to their long-term physical well-being by decreasing their threat of chronic disease. There is a slight doubt that a diet well-suited to human biological requirements is necessary to the existence of the species (Clifford, Keeler, 2002).Satter is a model developed by Ellyn Satter, and that is based on her clinical observations of how people do well with eating. Essentially, eating competence explains how normal people eat. It is descriptive in that sense, and rigid only for that group who are not comfortable with their current eating or who are concerned about their diet and health, and seek to make a dietary transformation.Still, Weight Watchers, which a lot of people hype as the finest of the diet centers because of its dependence on real, unmarked food and flexible menu options, does not help people in understanding and knowledge about the inner competence on eating. This comes down to the issue of trust against control, according to the nutritionist Ellyn Satter…who takes care of ‘dieting casualties’ in her practice. She trusts that people require learning to believe that they will get filled, even on the food they think as highly desirable, and recognize that they can reliably control their own food intake, instead of depending on exterior rules to control those choices. Weight Watchers is good at easing up food choices, teaching people how to eat carefully, and encouraging them to add to the diversity of food in their diet, states Satter. But it is still essentially a control stance they apply (Satte, 2007, p. 56). When people rely on exterior rules, ranges, and diet cops to control their eating, their association with food remains delicate.
Trudyann Blackburn A Critique of the Western notions of progress from an anthropological perspective. Straughn- Williams SSA 101.1869 ACritique of the Western notions of progress from an anthropological perspective. The Western idea of progress stems from the period known as The Enlightenment which was an age of exploration and discovery. We like to think of it as the time in which modern scientific principles were developed. The industrial revolution had seen a huge rise in the population of the world, with an increasing concentration in cities. Western nations had colonized vast areas of the globe and had begun to exploit their resources in a systematic fashion. Old subsistence level work in agriculture was replaced by labor saving machinery, and mass production of all kinds of consumer goods. Goods became cheaper, and life, for those in the West at least, was made easier. This point of view treated all of the earth’s problems as matters which could be solved by mankind’s ingenuity. In recent years this notion that humans are moving in a positive direction, improving their lives as they move from caveman status, to hunter gathering, to farming and now to industrialization has been challenged. Jared Diamond (1994) reports these notions are widely assumed to be true but not proven. The theory that agriculture creates food surpluses, which allow people more leisure time, and thus the space to create cultural advances is just a theory, for example, and there are other possible interpretations of human history over the long term. Diamond cites the work of anthropologists with modern hunter-gatherer tribes as evidence that this lifestyle is precisely not inferior to the agricultural lifestyle: these people (= Kalahari bushmen) … have plenty of leisure time, sleep a good deal, and work less hard than their farming neihbors (Diamond: 1994, 106) When one adds to this the evidence of paleopathology, in which scientists work out the health and diet of prehistoric specimens, it becomes clear that agriculture may have been a poor choice, rather than a progressive one. There are three pieces of evidence cited by anthropologists who oppose a progressive interpretation of human history: hunter gatherers ate a wider variety of different foods and a higher quality of food, than farmers. hunter gatherers did not depend on two or three food sources, and so they could survive when there was a weather disaster. and hunter gatherers moved around more, which kept them safe from diseases and epidemics (Diamond: 1994, 107) Once again there is plenty of evidence from the modern world to support these ideas since one only needs to look at the waves of famine that hit Africa and Asia year after year to realize that a dependence on core crops like rice and wheat create huge health risks for millions of people. Even in relatively prosperous America there are problems with the reliance on agriculture and huge cities. As Striffler (2005) explains in his study on the harmful effects of mass production in the chicken industry, there are harmful effects built into every stage of mass production. From the antibiotics that are pumped into the animals to keep down infection in their overcrowded accommodation, to the decrease in diversity in the breeds that are used, everything indicated a system in a state of terminal decline. The only way to stop this and restore human food to an acceptable and healthy standard is to return to more humane and friendly ways of dealing with animals. The lives of animals and farm workers alike are blighted by the pressure to produce ever more cheaply. In the modern world there are many interlocking factors such as wage rates and prices in the local, national and international markets which can affect the ability of farmers to produce food that is fit for human consumption. This means that economic as well as physical pressures weigh down the system and make it susceptible to devastating diseases and disasters. When producers themselves are not enabled to look after the welfare of their animals, then there is little chance that those who process and sell the product further along the chain from farm to supermarket and dinner table can guarantee even minimum health standards. In the light of this, all the efficiency and scientific knowledge in the world is not able to guarantee a better lifestyle for modern citizens. In conclusion, therefore, it seems that the progressive view of human history is not proven and the reverse may indeed be true. Hunter gatherers have survived in parts of the world where agriculture has grabbed all the best land, and they demonstrate that even when pushed to the margins, they have a healthier lifestyle, and more leisure time than the majority of farmers. When seen through the eyes of an anthropologist, the narratives of Western societies show a huge progress in terms of theoretical knowledge, but a huge deficit in terms of real results. It looks as if the shift from hunter gatherer to farming culture has led the world into a trap of unsustainability. It seems that a regressive view, that recommends living on a scale and in a fashion that fits in with nature, rather than attempting to control nature and exploit every last possible calorie, would have been a far better choice than the one that the majority of mankind is forced to endure. References Diamond, J. (1994) The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. In A. Padolefsky and P.J. Brown (Eds) Applying Cultural Anthropology: An Introductory Reader. London and Toronto: Mayfield Publishing, 105-108. Striffler, Steve. (2005 ) Chicken The Dangerous Transformation of America’s Favourite Food. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
GDP is the best indicator to express the economic health of a country’s GDP is usually measured on an annual basis for easy comparisons. But quarterly figures are also being computed and recorded for the major industrially advanced countries. GDP can be measured as ‘Current Dollars’ values or ‘Constant Dollars’ Values. The Constant dollar GDP is also known as the ‘Real GDP represents the quantity of economic output. Real GDP is always used in measuring the overall rate at which an economy is grown. The current dollar GDP represents the market value of goods and services produced in a period in a country.And compare them to check for the trend of the growth in the US economy expressed through the GDP figures. Usually, such kinds of economic data can be obtained from the website of the Bureau of Economic Analysis. (BEA)An analysis of the US GDP is expressed in chained dollars in the BEA Website for the period from 1929 to 2006 last quarter. An analysis of the historical GDP figures indicates that the US economy has been continuously showing an increasing trend only except for some years where it shows a negative trend. Especially in the years where there were recessions of the economy the GDP has been continuously growing.From the following Chart, it can be observed that the growth of the US economy suffered slightly during the years 1974, 1982 and 1991. These are the known periods of recession where the US economy was recording a negative growth of -0.51 percent, -1.97percetn, and -0.17percent respectively which are very negligible. Apart from these small deviations in the near past, the US economy has been continuously doing well. The observed data is also produced below to show that in the real values also the GDP of the US economy is growing continuously except for intermittent reversals to negative figures.
Global warming is further evidenced by the well-documented melting of glaciers along with the thermal expansion of the oceans, which have contributed to an increase in sea level over the past century of about 15 cm. (Trenberth 1997). It might be considered that something as small as a water bottle may not be all that great a concern in the grand scheme of things, but in truth, the trend that has everyone and their neighbor sucking on water bottles all day long could actually have a very detrimental effect on the environment, contributing a great deal to the global warming crisis.In response to a growing weight problem in developing countries and an increased focus on environmentalism, more and more people have taken to drinking bottled water, perceiving it as healthier than tap water and more convenient. Bottled Water – often considered a ‘healthy alternative’ is very popular in the States – we currently drink about 8 million gallons of it each year (Makay, 2007). True environmentalists have been arguing for years against the trend, but the case is a hard one to make because it is attacking a favorite product. According to Geller (2007), U.S. consumers spent about $15 billion dollars on 2.6 billion cases of bottled water in 2006 alone. Consumers have an affection for bottled water. It’s not an issue of taste or health, it’s about convenience … Try walking up (New York City’s) Third Avenue on a hot day and getting a glass of tap water (John Sicher cited in Geller, 2007). However, those against the use of bottled water have valid points as the process is highly environmentally toxic. Beginning with the production of the product, consisting of the making of the bottle and the concerns regarding the water supply, progressing through the transportation of the product to market and then ultimate disposal of the empty bottles, the best environmental action people can take is to ditch the bottle and turn on the tap.
The Issue Child obesity is assessed in terms of published guidelines of body mass index. As Ferry points out, child obesity is a condition where a child’s body weight is 20% more than actually needed height according to BMI criteria, or body fat percentage is 25% above in boys and 32% above in girls. The condition is again defined as the presence of excessive accumulations of adipose tissue that interfere with child health and well-being (Simonton 62). My research on childhood obesity is conducted in five stages. the reasons behind the health issue, the intensity of the issue, the possibility of any shortcoming in the current health policies, the effects of obesity in children, and the long-term consequences of the issue. The intensity of the issue According to the latest data published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, among Mississippi’s children aged 2 years to less than 5 years 3, 14.9% were overweight (85th to lt. 95th percentile BMI-for-Age) and 13.7% were obese (? 95th percentile BMI-for-Age) (Mississippi’s Response to Obesity..). It must be noted that the risk of child obesity has been unequally distributed across the state. Researches indicate that certain ethnic groups are highly vulnerable to child obesity. To illustrate, children from some minority ethnic groups such as Black Caribbean and Black African are more likely to develop child obesity when compared to other ethnic groups. Causes The reasons for obesity range from lack of physical activity, variations in nutrition, environmental factors, and genetics. Although genetic factors may contribute to this disorder, sedentary lifestyle is the major cause worsening the rate of child obesity. Trost and Sirard et al have compared the levels of physical activity in overweight and non-overweight children between 3 and 5 years of age. It was found in the study that overweight children were considerably less active than their non-overweight counterparts in the preschool years. However, no such correlation was visible in the case of girls. Despite this shortcoming, the study proves that there is a relation between physical activity and obesity. Admittedly, physical activity only results in an increase in the calories used. That means if there is a rise in the calories consumed, the effects of physical activity will not be visible. As Pennings (n.d) reports, the changing environment has widened the food options available for consumption. Grocery stores have their shelves filled with a wide variety of products. In addition, there are pre-packed foods, fast food restaurants, and various energy and soft drinks. It is a known fact that these items often contain excessive levels of fat, calories and sugar. That means the people who depend on these food items regularly take excessive levels of calories. Consequences According to the findings of The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, obese children are at greater risk for bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, and social and psychological problems (Childhood Obesity Facts). Empirical evidences suggest that obese children are more likely to become obese adults and this feature adds to the severity of this disorder. Studies reveal that obese children are affected by a range of emotional as well as psychological problems. In addition, child obesity tends to develop life threatening conditions such as
Healthcare Qui TamIn Virginia, many hospitals were billing for outpatient procedures with codes kept for physician’s office visits rather than an outpatient procedure performed at the health center. Medicare pays a high rate for physician’s office appointments to mirror the cost of their operating cost (Warren Benson Group, 2009). Hospitals obtain a separate facilities fee to settle the overhead cost. Therefore, the correct repayment rates for hospital outpatient services are lesser. The hospitals agreed to a payment of $3 million.A Pennsylvania hospital settled on paying a $2.7 million defrayal due to its upcoding fraud. The center was submitting claims for a multifaceted form of pneumonia when the accurate diagnosis showed a simpler form, which is compensated at a lower rate. The hospital decided to pay $500,000 for other upcodings with counterfeit claims for septicemia (Warren Benson Group, 2009).A Florida hospital decided to pay $2,531,000 for issuing false claims for laser procedures executed as part of post cataract elimination surgery by demonstrating that the procedures were executed after the 39-day post-operative phase. It is also issued claims for actions, which were either never upcoded or rendered. Finally, they issued claims for two management services and evaluations per patient visit.Finally, a Hawaii doctor agreed to recompense a $2.1 million settlement for issuing false claims to Medicaid. The doctor operated a pharmacy in his hospital. The doctor billed Medicaid for providing expensive drugs when the clinic issued cheaper generic substitutes (Warren Benson Group, 2009). … A Florida hospital decided to pay $2,531,000 for issuing false claims for laser procedures executed as part of post cataract elimination surgery by demonstrating that the procedures were executed after the 39-day post-operative phase. It is also issued claims for actions, which were either never upcoded or rendered. Finally, they issued claims for two management services and evaluations per patient visit. Finally, a Hawaii doctor agreed to recompense a $2.1 million settlement for issuing false claims to Medicaid. The doctor operated a pharmacy in his hospital. The doctor billed Medicaid for providing expensive drugs when the clinic issued cheaper generic substitutes (Warren Benson Group, 2009). Question 3 The following procedure could be used to admit a patient to a hospital, which upholds the law about the required number of Medicare and Medicaid referrals. Permission letter always should be issued before the admission of the person in the hospital (McCarty, 2008). The patient should be given Pre-requisite permission for a medical procedure and not for general consultations. The beneficiary will be urged to furnish a photocopy of a valid CGHS card, a request letter from CGHS, or a photocopy of the specialist’s professional advice. After that, then the patient will be offered an admission memo. In case of a therapeutic emergency, the hospital accepted under CGHS, shall not refuse or deny admission or demand early deposit from the concerned patient. Nevertheless, the hospital accepted under CGHS, shall offer credit facilities to the respective patient on issuing of a valid CGHS card (McCarty, 2008). Rooted in the virtues of the case study on an