e of globalization has generated intense debate among economists, attracting both strong supporters and opponents and although characteristics of current globalization are different from previous ones, but still by turning the pages of history, one can find similarities and learn from past experiences. Therefore, initially, the history of globalization with the focus on the last two waves is reviewed and analyzed. The opinion of various researchers has been presented and discussed. Throughout the next section and during the analysis of the impact of globalization, historical evidence is provided, and with referring to recent events various aspects of globalization are examined. The economic development, open-door policies, financial liberalization, sound institutions, the role of international financial intuitions, governance, and welfare policies have been briefly discussed and investigated.O’Neill (2004) argues that there is no argument that the levels of income and disparity and poverty are significant between advanced and emerging countries. O’Neill claims that from an enormous range of contributions to the literature on globalization, a consensus has been reached that overall globalization has brought more benefits than costs. that it has exacerbated inequalities both within and between countries because of sharply diverging experience at individual and country levels. and that it has increased economic and political insecurity even for those who have benefited in monetary terms from globalization. But they challenge making a causal link between changes in poverty and inequality with increased globalization, as the globalization process today has an impact far beyond its economic aspects, and is increasingly influenced by global health and environmental crises.O’Neill (2004) disagrees with the claims that globalization has increased global poverty and income inequality worsened over the last 40-50 years. He argues that if correct economic indicators are used, global income distribution has become more equal over the last twenty years although inequality increased slightly in the 1970s.
Despite the perception that Medieval Europe was a time of static oppression by the state, the church and the land-holding lords while the populace remained uneducated and barely managed to subsist (Power, 2006), there remains much truth to the idea that the period between the tenth and the 14th centuries were a time of significant change and development. The area within the boundaries of France had one of the most dynamic histories of diversity in the European Middle Ages, occupied as it was at first by native Europeans, then the Celts, then the Romans, then the Germans, and, in the last wave of migration, an influx of Scandinavians. The amazing thing about this history is the culture that the French forged from all these materials, eventually, with England, becoming the central culture in the larger process of the invention of Europe (Hooker, 1996). Historians generally date the European culture as starting its course of development in the late tenth century. The late tenth century marks the beginning of a new phase in European history since Latin Christendom ceased to be on the defensive against neighboring cultures and began to expand aggressively against them (Power, 2006: 5). In addition, the eleventh century was characterized by radical changes to settlement patterns, often through aristocratic direction, which transformed the social and economic structures of the countryside (Power, 2006: 22). An understanding of what happened in the tenth and eleventh centuries can begin to explain why and how this dynamic change started and how it helped to shape the future of the Western European nations.As the tenth century opened, society was split into three primary classes – the priests or monks, the farmers or peasants and the warriors. The beginning of France’s formation could be found in the efforts of Charlemagne, who was the first conqueror to unite much of central Europe under a single government in the early 800s. Carolus Magnus, however, did not have a working model of government over such a vast territory, so he improvised.
Britain’s external relation in this period has been quite interesting and people have conflicting views about the policies in this period. This period has also been of significance for historians because of the role of the Foreign Secretary in the making of British foreign policy.Secrecy has been a key characteristic of foreign policy in the late nineteenth century. A small number of ministers and officials have been known to play crucial roles in the formulation of foreign policy. Those were the times when the press had its limited presence and it was not considered an important driver in the policymaking. Also, public opinion about different issues related to the external relations of a country was not given any importance. Even among the government circles, a selected elite group made key decisions. Prime Ministers directly controlled the affairs of the Foreign Office.If we look at the background history of foreign policy in Britain then we get to know that Benjamin Disraeli from 1874 to 1878 intervened constantly in the affairs of his Foreign Secretary. During the 1902 to 1905 period, Arthur Balfour gave some respite in the direct intervention culture set by his predecessors but still kept a close eye on the developments in British foreign policy. Sir Edward Grey took the Foreign Office in 1906 and was given more independence in the foreign policy area. After Herbert Henry Asquith assumed office in 1908 Grey got even more freedom in the affairs of his department as other ministers and cabinet members got busy with their own domestic affairs. Foreign affairs got restricted to selected people. This scenario changed with the war in 1914 and foreign policy was criticized by all sundry. Different governments also started making comments about the way the foreign policy was being tackled. President Wilson of the United States became the biggest critic of covert ways of foreign policy dealings and demanded that the democratic process should be involved in the affairs.
‘Emotional intelligence’ (EI) is considered to be a new concept pointing towards a new means of controlling workers. This paper will discuss how effective is the concept of ‘emotional intelligence’ is increasingly being applied in all aspects of HRM.Sparrow (1999) describes two schools of thought on how managers should deal with issues. One group of people opine that issues should be dealt with rationally not allowing emotions to interfere with strategic decisions while another group acknowledges emotionality by considering the role of stress, levels of satisfaction, and trust. Of late, however, constructs like EI are gaining legitimacy. Research suggests that managers cannot avoid dealing with emotionality in today’s turbulent environment. As the information load is increasing, managers need to develop EI to be able to handle the situation effectively.The concept of EI was conceived by Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey in 1990 and since then many theorists have discussed the benefits to the organization by individuals who possess high levels of EI. There are broad claims that EI can be used as a driver of competitive advantage and enhanced profitability (Brown, 2005). EI has been defined as the intelligent use of emotions to help guide an individual’s behavior and thinking towards enhanced results. According to Armstrong, EI postulates that to be effective it is not enough to have a high IQ but also the capacity to recognize one’s own feelings and that of others, capacity to motivate one’s self, and the capacity to manage emotions in one’s self and in all relationships. It is the ability to perceive, access, and generate emotions to assist thoughts, to understand emotions, and effectively regulate them to promote emotional and intellectual growth. This is a nutshell that amounts to knowing your self.EI has a deep history as links between affectivity and intelligence, and between emotion and cognition have been explored by different authors.
North of Thessaly occurs another, different culture, the Macedonian in the Cyclades still another, the Cycladic on the Adriatic coast of Epirus explorations have found few remains that can be ascribed to the first half of the second millennium B.C.. Crete, of course, is the province of the Minoan culture.1Many amazing things were accomplished during this time. Not only did the Helladic period involve the establishment of agricultural communities in Greece, the first metalworking, and later the development of the Greek alphabet, but it played host to one of the greatest events in all of history: the Trojan War. The actual facts of this event are hard to pin down. We know that a big war happened on the present day site of Troy in the late Helladic period (probably around 1200 BCE2) thanks to excavation by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. In the late 19th century, Schliemann found many items at the site including valuables he called Priam’s Treasure and Helen’s Jewels.3 But the actual truth of what happened is lost in the recesses of time. What we have instead of cold hard facts are the poems of Homer—namely the Iliad and the Odyssey, both of which (especially the first) deal with the Trojan War. Homer himself was not an eyewitness account of the war, nor did he live in the Helladic period, but instead a few centuries after it. Nonetheless, the accounts of the great war that he composed make that period in history truly live.The Trojan war also marked a cultural renewal following a period of some centuries in the Middle Helladic period where cultural activity began to fall off, according to archaeologists. There are many possible reasons for this original drop.
Cocaine Epidemic in the USA in 1980sThe extent of psychostimulants use cyclically varies in contrast to the relatively constant level of opioids use. In the last century there were two periods of high popularity of cocaine. The last peak of its popularity can be traced in 1985 when the number of people who used this drug episodically reached 8.6 million people, while the number of those who used cocaine regularly reached 5.8 million. More than 23 million Americans used cocaine at least once in their life, but the number of those who kept using it was gradually decreasing to 2.9 million in 1988 and to 1.3 million in 1992. The middle of 1990s can be considered as the late phase of epidemic. Since 1991 the number of people who use cocaine very often (at lest every day) remains stable and amounts to 640000 people. Approximately 16% of people who used cocaine lost control and dependency occurred. That happened under the influence of many factors. Two important factors are the availability and the cost of the drug. Till 1980s cocaine hydrochloride used for intranasal and intravenous injection was the only available form of cocaine. Moreover, it was very expensive. Then cheaper alkaloids of cocaine, which could be used by means of inhalation, appeared. Moreover, they were available in many big cities just for $2-5 for dose. Due to this fact, cocaine became available even for children and teenagers. In general, men used drugs more often than women and for cocaine this correlation amounts to 2:1. However, the use of cheap alkaloids of cocaine was very widespread among young women and reaches the level that is characteristic for men. Due to this fact the popularity of use of cocaine among pregnant women was high. The third very important factor that influenced people was the fashion. It was fashionable and prestigious to use cocaine, it was very popular among rich and people blindly followed the stereotypes. Young people and teenagers were the most vulnerable. They were sure that in order to be considered cool, it is necessary to start using cocaine. Certainly, such stereotypes had many awful consequences (Demarest).The cocaine epidemic was depicted in many movies. Some of them were even forbidden due to the active propaganda of cocaine use. The movie Blow (2001) tells us the real story of a man who decided to become one of the first distributors of cocaine in the United States. He made many famous and rich people dependent of cocaine, his sharpness allowed him to avoid any conflicts with police. But everything comes to the end at last. The movie Scarface tells spectators about the history of cocaine use in the USA when it was brought by criminals from Cube. These movies shed the light on the hidden motives of drug barons who wanted to make a distinguished career making many people dependent on cocaine use that very often led to their death. Cocaine epidemic killed many people in the United States in 1980s. Works CitedDemarest, Michael. Cocaine: Middle Class High. Content.time.com, 1981 Web February 12, 2014
We are posed with the question that they are workers who are not employees. Who are these workers is the subject of the search of this paper. Any conclusion that will be arrived at will set the path clearer for decision-makers like management and government bureaucrats to respect the boundary created by the interpretation of labour laws.The statement would mean that workers constitute a bigger group than employees. Hence, we ask: what are those workers that are not employees? Separating workers from employees (Fossum, 505-507) is only proper because each group has different rights, privileges and obligations under the law.BECTU (or the Union) submitted an application to the CENTRAL ARBITRATION COMMITTEElt.www.cac.gov.uk/ – 6kgt. (CAC) sometime in March 2003 for the purpose of being recognised for collective bargaining (Fossum,312,313) by the BBC (or the Company) concerning the ‘wildlife cameramen/women engaged on freelance contracts by the BBC Natural History Unit. The CAC notified both parties notice of receipt of the application (Fossum, 149-151) about one week after the application by BECTU and invited a response to the application from the BBC. The Company submitted a response about one week after receipt of the notice.BBC responded stating that it did not know which individuals were included in the bargaining unit proposed by BECTU and that in the absence of such information it refused to comment on whether any of the individuals were workers for the purposes of TRADE UNION AND LABOUR RELATIONS (CONSOLIDATION) ACT of 1992 (hereinafter called ACT). It demanded the Union to identify the individuals included in the proposed bargaining unit and requested a preliminary hearing. The purpose of the hearing is to determine whether any of those individuals and if so how many, were workers for the purposes of the ACT.
In 1660, however, the monarchy was restored with Charles II and has retained an important constitutional role ever since. Since then, it continues to date, and debate goes on time to time regarding its relevance. The monarchy symbolizes conservative values and the status quo (David Starkey, 2006).The monarch dissolves parliament, appoints and dismisses prime ministers, assents to legislation, signs treaties, declares war, and appoints judges through the prime minister. Using this prerogative, a British prime minister can declare war without a debate in parliament. This implies that democracy can go well in integration with the monarchy in the UK. This history reveals that monarchy has brought remarkable positive changes in the society of the UK.Even though monarchy still commands respect from significant sections of the population, the percentage of supporters has been on a declining trend. In 1990, 75% of Britain’s population favored a monarch, which fell down to 44 % in 2000 and 34 % in 2001. There are some views, which support shifting the governance from monarchy to republic. Republicanism in the United Kingdom is a movement in the United Kingdom that seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic that has a non-hereditary Head of state (Reginald Stanley Birch, 2004). This certainly opens debate over the relevance of monarchy at present.There is a clear cut gap in the governing style of monarchy and people’s aspirations in the modern age and hence the intelligentsia attacks the monarchy with a pincer movement (Theodore Dalrymple, 2002).Moreover, a modern democratic process has no need for a monarchy. An elected president should be the way forward, so anyone can aspire to be head of state rather than it being retained for a single-family. The same laws on tax should be applied to every UK citizen.
The novel portrays the hunt for personality and self-realization (Sten), the struggles that are related to race, those of African Americans as Sundquist claims, the self-transformation starting from lack of knowledge to knowledge (Ellison) the worth contained in one’s history and cultural legacy (O’Meally). (Anelli et al.2012) Similarly, in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, we find a case of an African American story dealing with racism against African Americans in the USA. The protagonist, in this case – the speaker, stays anonymous throughout the narrative which allows him to present his life familiarities with a relative lack of involvement while also offering the reader a hint into his opinion on the actions that take place all through the narrative. Analysis The narrator is an adolescent African-American male from the excluded Deep South. He recalls about his youthful days when he had not yet known his identity or realized that he was an invisible man (Ellison, page 402) that he was an invisible man a black man whose individuality is unnoticed and complex to understand in the American society. The invisible man develops ethical, mental, and academic consciousness through a chain of encounters that test his suppositions about the humankind while at the same time he learns painful lessons (Anelli et al.2012). The action intensifies when, on his death bed, the narrator’s grandfather tells the family that the life of blacks who live in a far-off white America had been and was still full of battles and hostility. The narrator is in dilemma having considered his grandfather the most humble as it turns out he was a spy (Ellison, page 403). The strategies of agree on ’em to death as well as undermine ’em with grins (Ellison, page 413) are the instruments that allow the Negro to live on, in concentration approving invisibility until sightlessness slay white society. Therefore, Grandfather’s words create and prefigure cultural values, for instance, the racism and bias that the speaker will come across in a negative society as he finds his way through the communal mine grounds of America. Racism is blatant in the venue in which the narrator is invited to give a speech. When he arrives, he discovers that he is to provide part of the evening’s entertainment for a number of drunken white men as a competitor, together with nine of his classmates, in a blindfolded boxing match ahead of giving his speech. He attends the festival not knowing what stance he would take but later discovers that the comic action merely endeavors to highly oppress the blacks, lower their self-esteem, kindness and human rights in the complicated society. Everyone involved, including the audience, contributed to the racist ploy without exception. It comprised of an erotic dance by a nude light-colored female with a flag tattoo on her belly, which he and his classmates are forced to look at. After enduring these humiliating experiences, the narrator is finally permitted to give his speech.
In the third stage or the concrete operational stage which occurs between 7 to 11 years, important processes like decentering, reversibility, conservation, serialisation, classification and elimination of egocentrism occur. the last stage is the formal operational stage which commences at 11 years of age, during which time the child acquires the ability to think abstractly and also to draw conclusions from whatever information is available.According to Marcia, there are four stages of adolescent identity status of psychological identity development. The first stage is that of identity diffusion in which the adolescents have not made any commitments and have not experienced any crisis. They have little interest in ideological and occupational choices. In the identity foreclosure status, the adolescent makes a commitment, but do not experience a crisis. In the identity moratorium category, the adolescents are in the midst of a crisis, but their commitments are either vaguely defined or absent. In the identity achievement status, the adolescents have made a commitment and have undergone crisis too.Factors associated with eating disorders are environmental factors like family, friends and media, biological factors like abnormally low serotonin levels in the brain, abnormal hormonal levels and low cholecystokinin levels, developmental problems like adolescents difficulty in separating from over-controlling parents and traumatic factors. Factors associated with substance abuse are age, family history of substance abuse, friends and relatives, mental illness, chronic pain or disease, psycho-behavioural risk, childhood experiences and trauma. Factors associated with eating disorders are environmental factors like family, friends and media, biological factors like abnormally low serotonin levels in the brain, abnormal hormonal levels and low cholecystokinin levels, developmental problems like adolescent’s difficulty in separating from over-controlling parents and traumatic factors.