Literature Review Different Merchandise Strategies The retail market typically thrives when s identify the efforts the retailer makes to appeal to their needs, that is why smaller convenience outlets within town centers are becoming so popular (Shannon para 5). Secondly, online sales are becoming the new trend to in replacing the out of town big retail sheds coupled with top-up shopping at their local stores. Notably, the current crop of consumer conducts extensive research on their purchases online, by comparing numerous stores inventory using gadgets such as their Smart phones. Valuable retail web sites will boost foot traffic to the stores, when the retailers are able to connect their consumers purchase history. The retailers are now more and more involved in their consumer online research instead of allowing other expert reviewers or the customer produced reviews and blogs to outwit them. The retailers are now more involved in their customer online social site in reviewing their products and services (Jones 1). The other trend in the offing for retailers is holding of inventory so as to aid their customers to maintain minor inventories at home. This entails retailer innovativeness needs being linked to the target market, merchandise growth potential, fashion trends, customer segments, and receptiveness to consumers. Retailers are developing concepts which focus on defined price points, geographic markets and convenience offers since consumers are most probable to react to offers plus promotions which are pertinent to their desires and consistent with precedent behaviors (Fiorito, Gable and Conseur 880). Therefore, retailers can use loyalty programs in order to identify their customers, and which also focus on real customer behavior as a forecaster of future purchasing behaviors. For instance, customized coupons give customer information on a weekly basis and this allows the retailers to quickly make decisions concerning any alteration in their consumer’s behavior. Retailers are also sharing their forecasts, buying plans along with sales information as part of their cooperation initiatives with smaller local retail outlets via data integration. They have realized that they need to possess the capability to act in response to any unexpected demand, re- purchasing of trending styles, and to delay or cancel slow moving styles (Jones 1). Current consumers are not just looking for larger weekly purchases, but they focus on special purchasing experience and the product, one that is just exact for them. They tend to focus on products and their core needs rather than keeping pace with existing fashion trends. Moreover, they are at all times concerned with the lowest price. Therefore, merchandise plus deals offered online or through mobile devices will certainly be part of the new retail trend. In addition, the cost conscious consumers are forcing retailers to forecast based on specific variety of merchandise, in particular the profitability, controlled decision making and declining goods plus services. As such, smaller convenience branches in town centers imply that retailers need to improve their multichannel integration (Mitchell, Hutchinson and Bishop 160). Further pressures on retailers consist of broadening supply chains even as the lead times requisite for planning varies, that is why executable business intelligence acquired via the utilization of integrated systems as well as exception reporting will facilitate retailers to come up with quicker and better-informed preference. In such an environment whereby consumers are moving away from "big-box" retail store, retailers are forced to enhance their supply chain processes, and they need to continually endeavor to lower their inventory levels, in addition to decreasing their expenses of handling the merchandise. This will enable them to effectively plan, purchase, and assign reduced quantity of inventory without harmfully impacting their stores in-stock levels or even decreasing their range selection (Dunne, Lusch and Carver 155). Also, the move by consumers not to regularly use "big-box" retail store in favor of local smaller outlets, implies that retailers need to innovate their branding strategies. Retailers need to merge their disparate brands and enhance the sophistication of their private brand offing. This requires broadening the brand beyond the boundaries of their stores to fostering the progression of a concrete brand portfolio by differentiating their offers and building scales. Due to margin pressures, retailers will have to lessen their dependence on branding manufacturers, by fighting for concessions from their suppliers, and at the same instance shifting more responsibilities of inventory administration to their suppliers. In order to revitalize their merchandizing mix, retailers initiate their product development teams to come up with products that are only exclusive to their own stores or private labels. Hence, the private labels helps the retailers to be differentiated from the smaller local retail outlets that are now preferred by consumers, by making sure that the product designs and brand are only available in that particular store (Parrish, 548). Retailers have been trying to develop their customers shopping experience through the use of Point-of-Purchase Advertising. They use this medium to revamp their store image and to re-direct their store traffic to the smaller outlets. In addition, they use POP to reinforce their merchandising plans as it is more credible. Therefore, Point-of-Purchase Advertising has become the most crucial form of retailers marketing plan as it is at the critical point where products, the consumers, and money to buy merge simultaneously, In addition to serving as the silent salesperson (Dave and Sondhi 34). Works Cited Dave, S and S Sondhi. "Reach out for hot space – In-store advertising in the era of organised retailing with special reference to digital signage." GNA Journal of Management 2.1 (2007): 30–36. Dunne, Patrick M, Robert F Lusch and James R Carver. Retailing. London: Cengage Learning, 2010. Fiorito, Susan S, Myron Gable and Amanda Conseur. "Technology: advancing retail buyer performance in the twenty-first century." International Journal of Retail Distribution Management 38.12 (2010): 879 – 893. Jones, Adams. "The added value of good information: Tesco cuts back on store opening." The Financial Times 18 April 2011. Mitchell, Richard, Karise Hutchinson and Susan Bishop. "Interpretation of the retail brand: an SME perspective." International Journal of Retail Distribution Management 40.2 (2012): 157 – 175. Parrish, Erin. "Retailers’ use of niche marketing in product development." Journal of Fashion Marketing and Managment 14.4 (2010): 546-562. Shannon, Sarah. "Grocers Abandon Big Is Beautiful as Tesco Leads: Retail." Bloomberg L.P. 27 March 2012.
Effective Corporate Social Responsibility is an important asset to acquiring critical stakeholder resources. Consequently, firms who have greater and easier access to required resources are expected to be better positioned to exploit the cost structure benefits of organizational efficiency and thus more likely to gain a performance advantage over their respective competitors. This examination should assist the CEO, manager and senior firm officers strategize for our organization in this age of social responsiveness. Most prominently, the arguments and results garnered here to lend support for the organizational benefit of effective CSR. It outlines a path from ethical and social performance to financial performance superiority and demonstrates that firm may use CSR and more specifically the intangible Corporate Social Reputation that it promotes, as a substantive element in deriving a workplace efficiency and subsequent competitive advantage. Organizations today face increasingly multifaceted and often competing, motives and incentives in their decision making. More and more people, including consumers and investors, feel that corporations owe something to their work and the communities in which they operative which may entail sacrificing some profit at times. An organization’s ethically and socially responsible practices, commonly referred to as corporate social responsibilities (CSR), have been shown to be advantageous. Furthermore, research has also claimed that being more ethical and socially responsible in business increases efficiency in the workplace. The Chief Executive Officer of the company has asked the author to research the above claims. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to review available literature and recommend CSR policies to assist managers and senior firm officers strategize for the organization. Corporate Reputation An organization can improve corporate reputation at the same time while working toward establishing CSR, whether through incorporating higher human rights standards or by addressing environmental connections in the work ethic (Gaines-Ross, 2007. Speth Haas, 2006). Reebok found that by incorporating internationally recognized human rights standards into its business practice it achieved improved worker morale, a better working environment, and higher-quality products (Holliday et al., 2002, p. 111). Manufacturing industries adopting sustainable measures are collaborating with institutions that support sustainable guidelines and are also improving and protecting their corporate reputations (Gaines-Ross, 2007. Grayson Hodges, 2004. Holliday et al., 2002). According to Russell (2006), organizations that save money by cutting corners at the cost to the planet will be recognized as poor performers, which will ultimately affect the organization as incidents of environmental disaster will continue to linger in the minds of consumers. For example, in September 2006, the Dutch company, Trafigura Beheer, which unloaded toxic sludge on the coast of Africa, killing 7 and making 50,000 people ill, has experienced the backlash from consumers for its poor decision (Gore, 2006. Russell, 2006). Trafigura Beheer focused on the financial cost associated with disposing of the toxic waste product and chose an easier method (Gore, 2006).
Also, the field of Human Resource Management is also largely impacted by such external and internal environment changes. Psychological Contract Theory has now become a regular debate because in involves both employers and employees, who operate in an unstructured, uncertain, unclear, and unpredictable business environment where small changes may lead to adverse or sometimes uncontrollable consequences. The researcher will discuss the Psychological Contract in contemporary organizations in this paper. Indeed, the various types of Psychological Contracts will also be presented and critically evaluated in the light of currently available pertinent literature to reach appropriate conclusions. The paper will be self – reflective as it will not only include a discussion of ideas, opinions, and arguments of theorists but also will reveal the evaluation and analysis of such arguments by the researcher. Finally, the paper will end on a conclusion that will summarise the discussed thoughts and analysis as well as provide a specific recommendation to employers to enhance relationships with employees for financial, economic, and monetary benefits.As far as the definition of Psychological Contract is concerned, it should be pointed out that it is a set of ‘beliefs’ that personnel have about their organization, based on which, they decide to get indulged in an exchange agreement with their recruiters. According to Psychological Contract Theory, such type of contract is actually an exchange agreement in which employees pledge to showcase loyalty, optimal performance and results to accomplish defined goals and objectives of strategic planners. while they employers promise to offer job security, timely disbursements, extrinsic and intrinsic rewards such as skills development, promotions, bonuses, commissions, vacations, motivation and encouragement for excellent conduct, behavior, and performance.
This paper will cite a number of significant studies. These will be cited to underscore the fact that psychological contracts are extremely important for the business organization for the simple fact that it is directly linked to productivity and efficiency, and, henceforth, profitability.The psychological contract concept was first coined and identified sometime in the 1990s to the 2000s although some semblance to it has been mentioned in previous literature as early as the 1970s and perhaps earlier. This fact underscores that the principle at work here is that one involving a system that is present in all interpersonal relationships wherein there are implicit and explicit promises. (Conway and Briner 2005, 20) There are numerous definitions of psychological contract and certainly, psychologists, academics, and other stakeholders could and would not agree on a standard or universal meaning. One of the most comprehensive, however, was that definition suggested by Denise Rousseau.According to her, the psychological contract is something that exists in the mind of an individual and that it is consisted of “individual beliefs, shaped by the organization, regarding terms of an exchange agreement between individuals and their organization” or that, in simple terms, it is “the actions employees believe are expected of them and what response they expect from the employer.” (Cited in Wellin 2007, 27) Central to this variable is the so-called employee’s agency, which, for its part, “manifests itself as self-actualization, action influence and creativity” – all of them contributing to the employee’s conception of the contract. (Seeck and Parzefall 2008, 473) It is important to underscore here that since the contract exists between two parties both of these exist in their respective minds – from the employee and the employer’s points of view.Further on, Makin et al.
This study is interesting because it encompasses an area of research under the healthcare platform that has been under-researched over the years (physical health for the ole people in the society) thereby facilitating the need to have a study done and results tabulatedIs information provided regarding background, literature, aim/ aim objectives, methods, sample size, data collection tools, data analysis strategies, results, conclusions and recommendations included?Anonymity and confidentiality were not discussed by the respondents, or if it was indeed discussed then it has not been documented in this study. The table has however shown fictitious names to represent the respondents which show that anonymity and confidentiality were somehow considered in the tabulation of the resultsThe selected quotations are explained and the particular quotes have been used to reinforce the findings under the discussion of the results from the study. There are other quotes from other respondents under different themes of findingsThese findings can be transferred to wider populations through selectively because the selection of the respondents was not gendered sensitive: more females than males thereby creating difficulty in transferability to the whole population.The discussion part of the study documents the benefits of the results gotten from the study and also tabulates the recommendations to bring change in levels of physical activities of the sampled populationThe weaknesses of the study include the stated fact that the selection of candidates for sampling was not adequately done as the number of female respondents is supposed to have a similar range as that of male respondentsThe fact that the respondents were given $20 incentives before the interview could prove that some of the respondents did not release reliable information as the incentives were all that did matter to them.
War and Peace by Leo TolstoyWar and Peace is considered to be one of the greatest novels ever written (Moser 1992). It is based in Russia and dates back to the times of the Napoleonic wars. The novel is stretched from the period of 1805 to 1812: drawing up a clear picture of the effect Napoleon’s wars had on Russian lives. It is based on the histories of five aristocratic families: Bezukhovs, the Bolkonskys, and the Rostovs and how their personal lives were affected by Napoleon’s invasion of Russia. Though the book has a vast medley of characters, some are fictional while accurate displays have been drawn of Napoleon and Alexander I. The book is divided into four parts and two epilogues. While the first part of the novel is roughly based on the lives of the fictional characters, the latter half including the epilogues has essays of history and the nature of war and power. Tolstoy is said to have used his own experience of the Crimean War to explain the wars in a more detailed and realistic form. He was critical of the standard history passed down over the generations, finding military history to be particularly deceitful. By producing a fictional book, Tolstoy aimed to blur the line between reality and fiction to create something that he felt would be closer to the truth. While war is one of the strongest themes of the book, Tolstoy ensures that the idea of individualism is not left out. War and Peace discusses the self-asserting pattern that human life often adopts and ends with how there is little free choice in the world. Thus, War and Peace is a book that describes the epic period that passed during and around the time of the French invasion of Russia. By involving characters in his book, Tolstoy ensured that the true grim reality of war and power were evident to his reader. While many feel the novel to be long, its length allows the writer to add details that other authors miss. It is hard to choose one specific quote from the book.The following are interesting quotes from the book:A doctor in a bloodstained apron came out of the tent, holding a cigar between the thumb and little finger of one of his bloodstained hands to keep the blood off it.This was an instance of the graphic but real horrors of war. Although in female society Anatole usually assumed the role of a man tired of being run after by women, his vanity was flattered by the spectacle of his power over these three women. Besides that, he was beginning to feel for the pretty and provocative Mademoiselle Bourienne that passionate animal feeling which was apt to master him with great suddenness and prompt him to the coarsest and most reckless actions.A personality trait of one of Tolstoy’s character’sA man without convictions, without habits, without traditions, without a name, and not even a Frenchman, emerges- by what seem the strangest chances- from among all the seething French parties, and without joining any one of them is borne forward to a prominent position.Tolstoy’s opinion of Napoleon.B.IIaOil is one of the most expensive and sought after natural resources on the planet because it is the life blood of industries. Four Western oil companies got the privilege to get oil concessions back from Iraq once Saddam was removed (Kramer 2008). Many felt the war in the Middle East was based entirely because of its oil resources (Fox News). Thus, the strongest motive to start a war in the Middle East is oil. On the other hand, another opinion states that oil is the exact reason why a lot of flaws in the Middle East are tolerated: primarily Islamic fundamentalism. IIb.Turkey has had a strong spirit of nationalism ever since its removal of the Ottoman Empire. This is evident in the backlash that followed soon after Turkey thought of joining the European Union.Iran also has a strong nationalist spirit. This is apparent in their continuous resentful discourses with the West and their decision to maintain their nuclear arms. Egypt got its freedom for the European colonial powers and soon developed a strong sense of pan-Arabism which is vital in its nationalistic spiritIsrael is contrasting to all of the above stated countries in the respect of its absence of a majority of Muslims. While the nationalist spirit is strong in Israel as is seen by its constant tiffs to remove Palestine from their land, the other three countries maintain their nationalistic spirit to ensure Israel does not gain too much strength. BibliographyFox News, GREENSPAN: Oil the prime motive for Iraq War, Fox News Online, Available: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,296938,00.html [July 16 2009]Kramer A, 2008, Deals with Iraq are set to bring oil giants back, The New York Times Online, Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/19/world/middleeast/19iraq.html?_r=1partner=rssuserlandemc=rsspagewanted=all [July 16 2009]Moser C. 1992. Encyclopedia of Russian Literature. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 298–300
Literary Response #3 In Willa Cather’s Neighbour Rosicky Polly is first introduced as the daughter of neighbor Rosicky. The story first describes Polly when Rosicky states, “Polly got lots of spunk, an she got some style, too. Das nice, for young folks to have some style” (Cather 1932). As the story advances, the reader becomes aware that Polly was raised in a more populated environment and has had to adjust to life on a farm. Polly has married Rosicky’s son Rudolph, so Rosicky has taken pains to aid in her adjustment to her new life. Compounding Polly’s interactions with Rosicky is the fact that she was born in American, while Rosicky is European. Polly had four other sisters and a came from a poor family. The story indicates that since Rudolph is a proud man, yet is struggling, one of the reasons his relationship with Polly has continued to function is because of Polly’s humble background. Even while Rudolph and Polly’s relationship has functioned, the story thematically returns to the question of her integration and interactions with Anton Rosicky and the rest of the family. Throughout the early portions of the story Polly exhibits a distance from Anton Rosicky. Although this distance is punctured by the moment when he visits to lend her and Rudolph the car, one realizes that she is slightly confused with her new family. This changes when Rosicky experiences a heart condition and Polly comes to his aid. In this instance, the story makes clear that she refers to him as father, where in the past she had only referred to him as Mr. Rosicky. After Polly is successful in aiding Rosicky she sits with him and they converse for a moment. It’s in this instance that she realizes Rosicky loves her more than anyone in the world. this is attributed to perhaps Rosicky having a gift for loving people. She then takes his hand and examines it. The story spends a lengthy paragraph of description on Rosicky’s hand, and afterwards indicating that Polly had an awakening while examining it. The text states, “Polly remembered that hour long afterwards. it had been like an awakening to her. It seemed to her that she had never learned so much about life from anything as from old Rosickys hand. It brought her to herself. it communicated some direct and untranslatable message” (Cather 1932). While the text doesn’t explicitly state what Polly’s awakening exactly is one can surmise a number of possibilities. Throughout Cather’s story there is considerable attention given to Rosicky’s experience living in London and New York and the hardships he faced. In a certain sense Polly’s experience of integrating into the Rosicky family, finding herself, and realizing true happiness are challenges that Rosicky faced during his lifetime. When Polly examines his hand, she is meditating on the experiences that have made Rosicky the loving person he has become. In this sense, Polly’s awakening is a spiritual realization that the true road to happiness is not exterior wealth, or the hustle of city life, but a deep connection of love and caring and a similar grasp of the purpose of existence that Rosicky, as exemplified through his hands, has come to grasp. ReferencesThe American Tradition in Literature, 12th Edition. Authors George Perkins and Barbara Perkins.
There was a time when the United States of America used to be called the land of opportunities for the people of the third world or developing countries. The land of the United States of America has been proved as the machine which converts the dreams into reality. Those desires which were a mere dream for the people of the developing world in their own countries, came to the United States of America and their those dreams got fulfilled. On the other hand, America was also welcoming them openly. The major motive, according to various researchers, was not the desire to help fellow mankind, rather to attain the cheap labor for the country. This was the reason why the business community of the United States of America has always been in favor of allowing illegal immigrants to get legalized or at least to be allowed to stay here.Though it seems quite obscure and strange, yet it is a reality that once immigration was taken for granted in the US policy but now, immigration policy occupies a significant space in the political agenda of both, the democrats and the republicans. Moreover, the business community is also trying their level best to influence the immigration policies and shape them in such a manner that benefits their own motives such as the steady availability of cheap labor. The illegal immigration reforms and the business community have the potential to influence each other. Thus, the problem statement for this research is that there are the interests of the US Business Community in the relaxed illegal immigration reform. What those interests and impacts are will be analyzed in this research.In this literature review, we intend to explore and identify what has already been researched and what needs to be research regarding the perspective of the business community regarding the illegal immigration reforms.The scheme of the literature review would be as follows: First of all, we would try to define what we mean by the term immigration.
Being such, it becomes the “supreme test of solicitude, when unequal power finds compensation in authentic reciprocity of exchange, which in the hour of agony, finds refuge in the shared whisper of voices, or the feeble embrace of clasped hands.” (Ricoeur 1992, p 191) Thus, the subjectivity, personhood and humanity of both the nurse and the client are supported as “nurses respond with authentic presence to a call from another” (Boykin Schoenhofer, 1990, p 150) at the moment of health vulnerability. It is in this context of care that the midwife and client scenario becomes the paramount exemplar of support for the dignity and humanity of the client as their relation affirms the subjectivity and autonomy of the women client to decide over their bodies (Dekkers, 2001. 2004). And the power to decide over one’s body is concretely manifested by informed consent. However, what is informed consent?In lieu of the significance attributed to informed consent, this paper intends to look into the concept of informed consent in order to gain a deeper understanding and appreciation of informed consent as it is applied in a midwife – client relations. Moreover, this paper aims to compare some of the identified approaches in the understanding and application of informed consent. Finally, this paper aims to identify points, which may need further study as the notion of informed consent is clarified. These aims are to be accomplished via a review of existing relevant literature pertaining to the subject matter at hand.This paper will primarily focus on the conceptual analysis of informed consent. As such, it will look into the nature and definition of informed consent. Moreover, it will go over the guidelines of the proper implementation of informedconsent.
hods of research do not lend themselves to this study because of the wide scope and nature of the subject being taken up as the focus of this research assignment1. Therefore, this study adopts a theoretical rather than an empirical assumption. Cyber terrorism is a contemporary issue and therefore a greater focus is given to examining issues in the present and the literature that deals with the developments occurring in the electronic medium and the political arena over the last two decades. Both the critical legal studies method and the post-positivist method of inquiry are applied in this study. The application of the post-positivist model2 has produced a process of ongoing reflection throughout the study. After a brief introduction, the development of the Internet and its implications are explored, to lay the groundwork explaining the reasons for the emergence of cyberterrorism. Lawrence Lessig has undertaken an exhaustive analysis of the electronic medium and the potential for its misuse,3 and through the inclusion of the views of such experts, this study incorporates a critical legal studies approach.During the next phase of the project, an examination of the law is undertaken, including the recent legislative developments that are geared towards clamping down on illegal terrorist activity. The process of ongoing reflection uncovers the fact that civil rights violations have occurred in several cases as a result of the harsher legal measures that have been introduced in all democratic countries.This leads to the final phase of the project where the research question is tackled. Benjamin Franklin believed that any measure to curtail the freedom of individuals in the name of security was totally unacceptable4. In the light of his views, how far is a legal intrusion into individual privacy and civil liberties justified in a democratic country, especially when coping with a problem as grave as cyber terrorism that strikes fear and terror into millions of innocent victims?