Canada has adopted a policy of multiculturalism based on encouraging the retention of individual ethnic identities to the extent that they don’t disturb the societal cohesion and peace. This ethnic heterogeneity in Canada was reflected in the 2001 Census which recorded almost 200 odd ethnic groups. The term “cultural mosaic” is often used to describe this phenomenon though many scholars have of late questioned the epithet because Canada’s society is more than a cultural mosaic. On the other hand, the US approach is based on the premise that the immigrants have to integrate into US society with little or nothing of their individual ethnic identities being retained. It’s described as the “melting pot”. Again the term conjures up an image that is often associated with veiled compulsion to abandon one’s past and integrate into the US society with steadfast commitment.However, the recent developments in both countries have taken the debate of multicultural societies and integration one step further. Despite a plethora of literature on the subject, there is still a considerable gap between these unfolding developments and the subsequent explanations of phenomena. The connotations and denotations of these developments have to be understood well in order to be fully knowledgeable of the underlying nuances.Canadian society is described in terms of a cultural mosaic that has virtually been known for a huge shift away from the American melting pot experience while there has been a considerable amount of controversy over the nature and the shape of the mosaic. The US experience has been different though as Hirschman (1983) suggests the melting pot has been subject to some of the greatest jolts received in the form of what he and many others call “theemergent ethnicity” – a more radical form of ethnic identities and bonds that have been crystallizing the US societal fabric in hitherto unassailable directions. It’s just as much the impact of highly dense ethnic neighborhoods populated by immigrants as is the class-specificity in employment on an otherwise unsuspecting analyst.
The image of Edger Allen Poe in the minds of readers is of the murderer and a mad man, and his work has been printed since 1827. His literary work includes “Short tale stories, poems, a novel, a textbook, a book of scientific theory, and hundreds of book reviews and essays” (Hogle 25). Edgar Allan Poe’s sensational literature is filled by his thoughts of sensationalism in his short stories of contemporary literature. Sensationalizing a character or figure by exaggerating its appearances and performances to make up stories for gaining public attention is sensationalism. Its basic aim is to attain readership and cover headlines of magazines and newspapers by following the lifestyles of celebrities and public figures (Law 3-5). The concept of sensationalism begins in the stories at the start of the 18th century when editors of the magazine started to publish stories related to sensational characters. In these stories, the authors wanted to shock readers by sensation and disbelief and the purpose of sensationalism was to make the readers feel horrified, feared, sexually excited and creating suspense for them. Poe’s literary work on sensationalism was a reflection of his feared, mentally tortured and unstable thoughts that resulted in masterpieces of sensational stories and tales that were hot cake for publishers. These sensations gained popularity amongst the readers, because big cities started to emerge at that time, and industrialization was emerging very rapidly. People, especially women, wanted to escape from the everyday routine, therefore, these sensational stories provided relief for them (Law 3-5). At the beginning of the story “How to Write a Blackwood Article,” character Signora Zenobia is sensationalized and described by the writer Edger Allen Poe in a different style of thoughts and ideas in his fictional world. The character of Psyche Zenobia is a reflection of Poe’s negative side of his mind and pessimistic thoughts. At the beginning of the story, Zenobia introduces herself as a Suky snob, and she specifically pointed out her enemies who called her a snob, which is the most conscious character and known as Suky which is a rude version in minds of her enemies (Hayes, The Cambridge Companion, 96). “My dear madam,” said he, evidently struck with my majestic appearance, for I had on the crimson satin, with the greenagraffas, and orange-coloredauriculas. “Mydearmadam,” said he, “sit down. The matter stands thus: In the first place, your writer of intensities must have very black ink, and a very big pen, with a very blunt nib. And, mark me, Miss Psyche Zenobia!” he continued, after a pause, with the most impressive energy and solemnity of manner, “mark me! —that pen—must—never be mended!Herein, madam lies the secret, the soul, of intensity (Poe 233). The writer sensationalizes Zenobia’s character by adapting the interesting terms that create a sensation to his narrative story. Whereas factual perspective of her name Psyche means “Butterfly,” which she refers to a dress that was a multi color satin, with an Arabian mantle over it.
Real events and historical fact can be mentioned in children’s literature but the use of fantastic makes persuasion of plot easier and more interesting. Fantastic elements make books for kids more picturesque and multi-sided. On the examples of “Tom’s Midnight Garden” by Philippa Pearce, “Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry” by Mildred D. Taylor and “Harry Potter and Philosopher’s Stone” by J. Rowling, we’ll consider the use of realism and the fantastic in each book.The authors discuss the problem of adolescence through such frameworks as self-identity evoking, social agency and subjectivity in a certain cultural sphere. The authors use different tools and methods in order to widen their readers’ audience such as the symbolical representation of reality and space, metamorphosis, time-slip, ghosts, an apparition of a living person, transparency and others. With the help of fantastic tools, authors can endow their heroes with incredible, supernatural gifts that exist next to normal real life. We get acquainted with fantastic realism, which is the best didactic kind of literature. As we shall see, in spite of magical elements and fantastic processes, the authors want in their books to bring to young readers deep and profound thoughts and ideas. The modern world requires subjectivity and strength even from the youngest representatives of the human race.“Tom’s Midnight Garden” by Philippa Pearce is a literary masterpiece. Unreality and metamorphosis lead us into the world of mystery. Children consciousness is explored. Though this book refers to children’s literature, not every child can grasp the main idea of it. The main idea is in time transient and human mind metamorphosis. Tom, the main hero of the book, with the help of a magic clock discovers a new world and mysteries, which require rich imagination and experience.“Roll of Thunder, Hear my Cry” by Mildred D. Taylor is an outstanding piece of literature work.
In my opinion, I strongly agree with her. Artificial and chemically based products are very harmful not only to the environment, not only to flora and fauna and the different wildlife on this Earth, but these products are also harming the very people making and manufacturing them, humans. I believe that we should just remain faithful to natural and organic ways. It is a lot safer, without risks.The problem is that our world now overlooks the flaws and the dangers of using these kinds of products. The many consequences that are slowly becoming evident in our surroundings are still being ignored and neglected by most people. They continue to use them, not knowing that the little damage and destruction are accumulating. These chemical deposits are building up everywhere.In the chapters of Rachel Carson’s book, she tells the cause of ill-health which is from strong artificial toxins from pesticides. Humankind has permanently infected the earth and we are infecting ourselves. Rachel Carson then encourages us to look at the proof for ourselves. She says, “We have beentravelinga road that seems easy but will end indisaster,”and that humans are creating chaos at a speed too swift for nature to heal.All the illnesses and the diseases that she describes in her imaginary town in America she says, “has actually happened somewhere, and many real communities have already suffered a substantial number of them."I think that if people want to save the Earth and to save their lives, then people should start looking into what they are using more often and more deeply. People should become more aware, more cautious about what kinds of products they are consuming because no one knows what kinds of effects certain chemicals might have in their bodies.This book has opened my eyes and has made me realize the real terrible situation of our Earth and that we are the very people who are causing the destruction of humankind and that to save it, we should do something and act quickly before time really does run out.
Capitalizing and maximizing on diversity has emerged as one of the fundamental requirements in organizations today. However, it is also realized that there must also be a certain level of equality existing in the diverse workforce in order to manage them successfully. Organizations are increasingly trying to impose equality among the diverse work culture with the view to maintain cohesiveness and collaboration. The project seeks to bring forth various arguments put forth by authors on the subject. This includes their views and suggestions regarding the various opportunities and challenges posed by equality and diversity at the workplace. The areas in which the authors are in agreement or disagreement on the subject are highlighted. Finally, the project concludes by summarizing on the core context spoken about in the literature. Critical Literature Opportunities and challenges of diversity at the workplace Researchers and practitioners’ views have been particularly favorable towards organizations upholding diversity in their culture. According to the views of Stephen, G. Butler, who is the co-chair of the Business-Higher Education Forum, diversity in organizations has the ability to yield higher competitive advantage and generate greater productivity. This is the reason why he has emphasized on the need for organizations to become ‘totally inclusive’ in nature and focus more on diversity issues. He has greatly emphasized on the American economy in this regard, saying that diversity is an asset that the country’s organizations possesses and must not ignore at any cost. He believes that valuing and managing diversity must form a key component of the nation’s organizations which could improve workplace productivity considerably (Green, Lopez, Wysocki, Kepner, 2008, p.2). According to Parvis (2003), with the increasing demands of the global competition and external changes organizations are focussing on redefining their diversity strategies. It is seen that organizations which are more diverse in terms of their culture and are better equipped to cater demands of a diverse workforce are in a better position to remain competitive in the market. However, regarding the ways in which organizations frame their diversity programs or manage diversity, Clemons and McLaughlin (2004) have claimed that diversity programs can only be effective if they are designed in such a way which assists employers in achieving organizational goals (Cunningham Green, 2007, p.2). The effectiveness of diversity programs necessarily depends on how organizations encourage and motivate their employees to work with others through interdependence and collaboration. According to the views of Esty et al., (1995), diversity can be beneficial for both employer and associates. Even though the associates remain interdependent at the workplace, respect towards their mutual differences can enhance productivity. The prevalence of diversity can reduce lawsuits and at the same time increase the chances of market opportunities, creativity, recruitment and the image of the business (Green, Lopez, Wysocki, Kepner, 2008, p.2).
The above arguments should be criticized and evaluated having in mind the scope of article 267 TFEU, the needs that this article serves but also the position of the community law in the hierarchy of laws of the member states. The examination of existing case law and the literature published on the particular issue have led to the followed assumption: member states may have the discretion to ask the ECJ for a preliminary ruling but this discretion is not absolute. in fact, this discretion refers to the choice of the phase of the case and the methods employed for submitting a referral to the ECJ – it does not reflect the freedom of the courts of a member state to completely avoid the ECJ when the interpretation of community law is required.The article 267 of TFEU sets the terms under which the national courts of member states can ask the ECJ for a preliminary ruling for cases that refer to the community law. The preliminary ruling can be given by the ECJ specifically in the following two cases: ‘(a) the interpretation of the Treaties. (b) the validity and interpretation of acts of the institutions, bodies, offices or agencies of the Union’ (article 267 TFEU). The national courts have the discretion to make a referral to the ECJ when the terms of the Article 267 TFEU are met. however, this discretion has limits: the national courts cannot avoid the preliminary ruling of ECJ in the context of 267 TFEU, a view that is supported by the existing case law and literature – as analyzed in the next section. It must be noted that the ECJ must respond with no delay when such a ruling is asked by the national courts of member states – this obligation of the ECJ is clearly stated in the 267 TFEU in this article’s last paragraph which was added by the Lisbon Treaty (Great Britain, Parliament, 2008, p.77). the above provision for the response of the ECJ ‘with the minimum of delay’ (Piris, 2010, p.232) refers to cases where a person is in custody.
Every work of fiction worth its salt has a truth concealed in it. As the story unravels in a book or on stage and screen, the truth is arrived at, otherwise, the story turns out drab and boring, resembling one in which prince and princess meet, fall in love, marry and live happily ever after. Who can derive entertainment from such? Not even a child.The great dramatist, William Shakespeare, the master of suspense creates mysteries in all his plays – comedies and tragedies alike, hiding their solutions and bringing them to the light when the time is ripe. The genius that Shakespeare was enables him to reveal the truth in manifold ways – subtle and graceful such that when it finally dawns on the readers or the audience or even on the other characters in the play from whom the truth is hidden at the beginning, it comes naturally and understandably. They say to no one in particular, “Hmm, I thought as much…”William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare of Stratford-upon-Avon, a substantial citizen of that small but busy market town in the heart of the rich agricultural country of Warwick. John Shakespeare kept a shop and dealt with wool and other products, gradually acquiring property. As a youth, he acquired the trade of gloves and leatherworkers.John married Mary Arden, daughter of his father’s landlord. The third of their eight children was William. He was sent to free grammar school which provided basic education in Latin learning and literature and a little knowledge of Greek.There is little documentation for Shakespeare’s boyhood. The most important record is a marriage license issued November 22, 1562, to permit William Shakespeare to marry Anne Hathaway, eight years his senior. 1592, the first reference to Shakespeare as an actor and playwright was available. Documents indicate that in 1598, he was “a principal comedian” and in 1603, he was a “principal tragedian”. Shakespeare’s literary activity seems to have been almost entirely devoted to the theater.
Bell’s fondness of the place which was not her country of origin made her exert great efforts almost all her life and even made her reside in the country until her death which had resulted in the establishment of the country we now know as Iraq.Gertrude Bell’s roots can be traced from her great grandfather Thomas Bell, an ironsmith from Carlisle who married Katherine Lowthian, daughter of Isaac Lowthian from Newbiggin, Cumberland, England (Mosley vol. 1, 331). Thomas Bell and Katherine Lowthian bore Gertrude’s grandfather, Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell who was the father of iron industry during the late Victorian era in Middlesbrough and one of the important figures in the British steel industry (Carr 13). Sir Lowthian Bell married Margaret Pattinson who was the daughter of Hugh Lee Pattinson, Cumberland, England’s inventor of the process of silver from lead (Lonsdale 273-320).Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell and Margaret Pattinson had two children, Mary Katherine Bell and Gertrude’s father Sir Thomas Hugh Bell (Mosley, volume 1, p. 331). Thomas Hugh Bell married Maria Shield and had two children, Gertrude Margaret and Maurice Hugh Lowthian Bell (Mosley, volume 1, p. 331).Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell was born on July 14, 1868 (Lukitz 13), an era when massive industrialization and colonial conquests had swept England. It was also in this era that women became popular in literature, the theater, the arts, business, in alleviating poverty, and obviously in politics as the ruler of England then was Queen Victoria. Gertrude was born at a time when women play important roles in society but their rights as citizens were still unclear one major issue on women’s rights was their right to suffrage.Amidst this period and with strong political blood in her veins, Gertrude was destined to be more than just a plain housewife. Her lineage bearing a conferred baronetcy, Gertrude was given an edge from other women in England due to her heritage. Her strong political views and her analytical skills were the most important legacy that she had inherited from her ancestors.
Put them all together and they spelled mother, daughter, sister, wife – woman. Without them, no matter whether there was fame, achievement, or wealth, all was ashes. With them, she was promised happiness and power” (Welter 1966 p. 152). The scholarship has focused on how this ideology was promoted both by women and men within this time frame, but even a cursory look at the literature of the Western tradition, spanning back thousands of years into the world of the ancient Greeks, demonstrates that this Ideal of Womanhood has been a long-standing tradition. Throughout time, women have been characterized on both sides of the Atlantic as the nurturer of the family, the keeper of the spiritual ideals of the home, and the individual responsible for the welfare of the home. The ideals ‘introduced’ with the Cult of True Womanhood as they relate to the definition of femininity and the woman’s nurturing role can be traced through ancient Greece in works such as Sophocles’ Antigone, to the Middle Ages and Shakespeare’s character Desdemona into the Victorian Age with Charlotte Bronte’s character Jane Eyre and finally through the evolution of the myth of CinderellaThe ideals of the True Woman were founded on four core principles – those of piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity. According to Hewitt (2002), “native-born northern white women became an increasingly undifferentiated category, all middle-class adherents of a dominant idea. As work on women who stood outside the cult’s reach multiplied, then, true womanhood lost its contested, dynamic character and became hostage to all the retrograde values that affluent white womanhood masked in a field newly focused on difference and conflict.” The hierarchy of these four core values was further delineated by Welter in their order of social importance. “Young men looking for a mate were cautioned to search first for piety, for if that were there, all else would follow” (Welter 1966 p. 152).
A very recent report, however, by ABC News, in its website ABC News Online dated May 14, 2007 (2:33 pm AEST), states a reversal of the stable market. The headline says: “Government policies, charges ‘stifling’ housing growth.” The report says that “the Property Council of Australia is warning of a looming housing shortfall as prices and taxes increase.” The surge in median house prices in the last seven years has shut many people out of the market, ABC News quoted the Council as saying. The report however is on Western Australia and not on the whole of Australia, but still, there has to be a concern to avoid a possible downturn.From a stable property market, there is a trend of slowing down due to circumstances or causes that are the primary focus of this study. However, the situation may not be serious. The causes will be enumerated in the literature review.The property market in Australia is a major source of wealth creation for investors, contributing to the socio-economic well being of all Australians. The Real Estate Institute of Australia states that in the financial year 2005/2006, property sales totaled $186.1 billion. The Institute further said that 67% of Australians owned their houses and 28% rented on the private market. Property affects everybody in Australia. Those who are renting their houses and those who own their houses are a subject of surveys by the prominent institutions in Australia and even from outside Australia.Over the past years, right after the 1991-1992 economic recession, there has been a stable residential property market in Australia. But there is a growing defect that the Property Council of Australia has warned in its latest press release. This pertains to the higher taxes imposed by the government.This study will examine the underlying growth on the property market of Australia and the impact of the higher taxes.