The Spread of MethicillinResistant Staphylococcus Aureus

In most hospitals worldwide specific rules have been implemented regarding the various phases of the hospitalization of patients – also regarding their treatment. these rules could be regarded as prevention measures – at least up to a level against the spread of infections in hospitals. However, because the specific issue is of significant importance, a series of relevant tests have been made in order to ensure the effectiveness of measures already established worldwide for the protection from infections developed in hospitals. additional control measures have been also proposed taking into account the characteristics of each one infection but also the funds available for the realization of relevant projects.The current paper focuses on the identification and the proposal of the most effective measures towards the limitation of the risk of infection by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in hospital patients. It should be also noticed that in literature and the empirical research, the need for appropriate measures regarding the limitation of infections in hospitals is highlighted. however, the proposals made could be characterized as offering a rather partial resolution to the particular problem. For this reason, the critical analysis of the findings of these studies has been considered to be helpful for the identification of the most appropriate measures for the limitation of the specific disease in hospital patients.The limitation of the development of Methicillin-Resistant staphylococcus in hospitals has been an issue extensively examined by medical researchers internationally. A series of infection control measures have been proposed against the spread of this disease. the effectiveness of these measures has been doubted taking into account the findings of relevant clinical studies.

Between Old and New Social Movements and Cultural Change

The work reveals the command of the authors on the problems people undergo while following the social norms and cultural values on the one hand and imitating the footprints of modernism on the other. D’ Anjou Male also find unawareness of the majority of the participants of a social movement regarding the hidden agenda behind the launching of the movement. 2. Eddy, Mark “Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies” Congressional Research Service 2010 http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33211.pdf Eddy (2010) has made a comprehensive investigation into the problem of drug addiction with special concentration upon the governmental policy about drug consumption and legitimizing the same for the patients as well as for the habitual addicts under the federal Controlled Substances Act (CSA) prevailing and effective in almost fourteen states of the United States. The author has argued that fourteen western states of the USA have granted the permission to the patients for consuming marijuana, which has invited severe controversy in the country. It is partly due to the very reality that the normal people can not only have access to the same in the name of medical treatment but also it could reach the access of the adolescents and youth subsequently. Moreover, the controversy arose because of the very fact that the federal government is making persecution of the patients consuming marijuana as well as the physicians responsible for recommending the same to the patients addicted to marijuana. Consequently, the US Congress appears in a fix regarding making any decision for allowing or prohibiting its consumption in the society. The author has also pointed out towards two bills presented by the members in the US Congress in favor of granting permission to the patients for the consumption of marijuana and other drugs on the recommendations made by their medical advisors and therapists. Hence, drug consumption would be legalized in the country, which is contrary to the values and previously existing statutes of the law declaring drug addiction as a crime. 3. Debusmann, Bernd “Obama, Drugs and Common Sense” Reuters Dec 23, 2009, http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/tag/war-on-drugs/ In his article in Reuters, Debusmann (2009) has pointed out towards the controversy arose in the statements made by the present US President Barrack Obama before and after coming to power as the US senator as well as the president of the country. On the one side, he had declared the war against drugs as an utter failure in his speech he made in 2004 in the Senate before running for the candidature as the President of the USA. He aimed to bring alterations in the prevailing laws for the best interest of the nation.

Assessment of the Compliance of Radiation Dosage Guidelines for Computed Tomography

It is estimated that in the developed world at the current use of CT every year twenty percent of the population go through at least one CT diagnostic evaluation for some purpose or the other. This suggests that every member of the population of the developed world will undergo at least one CT diagnostic evaluation once in five years (Coursey Frush, 2008).CT essentially uses x-rays for the creation of the diagnostic images. However, the radiation and its distribution with CT are markedly different from conventional X-ray imaging and this weighs heavily on the quantum of radiation that an individual is exposed to during CT imaging (Bushberg et al, 2002). Radiation dosage is a significant factor in the possibility of radiation-induced malignancies or radiogenic cancers. The accepted thumb rule according to Hofer, 2007, p.174 is “the lower the individual dose and the longer the interval between several radiation exposures, the lower the risk of a subsequently induced neoplasm”.Evaluation of the type of radiology examinations performed on an overall basis suggests that CT comprises between 11-13 percent of all radiology examinations. However, CT has been found to be responsible for in excess of two-thirds of the total radiation dose associated with its use in medical imaging. It is estimated that the risk for cancer in the developed world has ridden from 0.4% to 2.0% with the dramatic surge CT being employed for medical imaging. Radiation dosage associated with the use of CT in medical imaging has thus become a matter of concern both within the field of health care and outside it (Hara et al, 2009).When CT became available as an imaging technology it was accepted that the use of CT involved a relatively high radiation dose technique. There was however clinical justification is the use of CT. It was used for quality imaging of the brain, which was unsurpassedby any other available imaging technique and on patients with malignant disease, where concern for radiation dose was not concerned relevant.

Aspects of Law and Regulations Relating To Management of Employees People and Customers

8). To ensure that professionalism and control are maintained in the leisure industry, countries and regions have enacted legislation and regulations. This discussion will focus on identifying aspects of law and regulations and the management of employees, people, and customers. The discussion will use a case study of a person (staff) hiding in a changing cubicle and was reported to be ill and require medical assistance. The following aspects of law and regulations and management of employees, people and customers are discussed below. Risk Assessments, Public Awareness, Culture of Blame, Availability of Specialist Advice, Health and Safety, Sizeable Awards for Damages, Professionalism of Sport, Growth of Regulatory Environment, and Duty of Care.Seibert (2003, p. 12) defines risk assessments in the leisure industry as careful examination of what factors in leisure places and activities may cause harm to people, to determine or weigh up whether one has to take a certain level of precautions or put more effort in preventing harm. Grainger-Jones, B (1999, p. 28) notes that risk management can take several dimensions such as financial implications, identification of hazards in the workplace and taking appropriate actions, possible accidents and ill health, and the legal requirement that relates to risk assessments in the leisure industry as decided in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharms., Inc. Risk assessment as a legal and regulation aspect in the leisure industry is important in the following ways. One, to meet the legal requirement of risk assessment in workplaces to put in place measures to control them. Two, it helps prevent ill health and accidents to workers and public members. Three, risk assessments help prevent or reduce the harm caused by risks such as damaged equipment, loss of life, and court costs among others (Seibert, 2003, p. 60).According to Collins (1993, p. 48), laws and regulations stipulate that the following 6 steps to risk assessment must be adhered to: identification of hazards, who might be affected by the hazard, the likelihood of a hazard occurring, the severity of hazard, risk rating, and measures to minimize risk.

How the Insurance Industry Deals with Problems of Risk Pooling and Risk Sharing

As stated above, risks are uncertain and there is a difference in their nature, uncontrollable or accidental. Generally, risks are regarded as occurrences that bring about only loss. Another feature of risk is the degree of controllability. Risks are not self-invited and their impact is difficult to control, once they occur. But there are certain types of risks which can be improved, i.e., their incidence can be reduced by pre-planning. In some cases, they can also be prevented by anticipating their behaviour based upon past experience. Basically, risk is fortuitous, something that is not planned, deliberate or will fulfil but something which may or may not happen.Risk pooling and Risk Sharing are related to health insurance which is also called as medical insurance. This insurance covers all types of disability, loss of income, medical expense and accidental death. It can be defined as “any form of insurance whose payment is contingent on the insured incurring additional expenses or losing income because of incapability or loss of good health (ICFAI Centre for Management Research (ICMR), 2003).” In medical insurance, benefits become payable on disability as a result of accident or sickness. Health insurance can address the problems related to rising medical expenses. A health insurance policy can be used as an accumulation plan.Risk Pools are especially related to health insurance where special programs are created by state legislatures with an aim to provide a kind of safety net for people who are “medically uninsurable (naschip.org).” “Medically uninsurable” here means people who do have a pre-existing health ailment and are denied insurance coverage or who are eligible to access only private insurance coverage that has got too many restrictions and at the same time is extremely expensive.The concept of risk pooling works because of the “law of Large numbers

Assessment Methods of Nutritional Status

In 1965, the US Congress passed the Social Security Amendment which established Medicare, which provides for a basic program of hospital insurance together with a medical insurance program. This national health insurance progr4am is intended for citizens aged 65 and over and also for citizens with some form of disabilities under age 65. Today, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is appointed with the task of administering Medicare (Pulec 2003, p.7-8).The federal government of USA shoulders the funding for this health care program which it generates from social security contributions, general government revenues, and monthly premiums paid by enrolled members (Pratt Hornbeck, 2002).In African countries, particularly South Africa, they have expressed a “need for an effective but simple nutrition screening tool that can be used by all levels of health care workers, particularly at community clinics” (Charlton et al 2005). This need is echoed in practically all the four corners of the world: in USA, Europe, Latin America, and Asia.Malnutrition is defined as a “condition resulting from a decreased intake of protein and energy, calories, vitamins, and minerals” (Stechmiller 2003, p.170). Malnutrition is also a condition with an imbalance between intake and the needs of specific nutrients (Elmstahl et al 1997, p.854). The same author thus considers as malnourished or suffering from undernutrition, those older citizens who do not consume the recommended 30 kcal/kg/day for energy needs. As such, this elderly citizen is considered “in a high risk for nutrient deficiency” (Stechmiller 2003, P. 171). He is then subject to a possible or a likely attack of “cardiac and respiratory problems, infections, deep vein thrombosis, and pressure ulcers, perioperative mortality and multi-organ failure” (Omran Morley 2000, p.50-63).These malnourished citizens would naturally then be pressured to undergo rehabilitation at hospitals, in accordance with the Medicare program and are expected to suffer complications.

Social Policy Themes and Issues

An important development took place in the history of NHS was outlined in the 1989 White paper, that tuned in to the NHS and Community care act in 1990 (Pollock and Majeed, 1995). In the 1990s legislation, the NHS and Community Care Act implemented a new policy that asks the local authority social services department to focus on community care. In 1994, the House of Lords discussed the Peckham medical central that proposes a multigenerational family club to serve the inhabitants to the local catchment areas against small membership fee and agreement. The government also created a voucher system for the poor elderly people and their families that they could use to get healthcare services at the nursing homes of their choice. The objective of these initiates was to prevent the loss of public funds by the way of social security findings. (Means and Smith, 1994)The local authorities were made the rationing agents to curb the government expenditures on healthcare. As a result of this policy change, the government decided not to directly provide the healthcare service to the people but they were directed to get it through the independent voluntary and private commercial sector. The 1990 NHS and Community care act call for the contract with the general practitioners GPs. This step was intended to increase the responsiveness of the service to the consumers and to improve the overall healthcare services available to the people. The community-based healthcare service was introduced with the intention to increase competitiveness and to foster innovation in the sector (Pollock and Majeed, 1995). Moreover, this policy also worked to end the monopolistic influence of some hospitals over the entire healthcare system. In sum, it can be said that the most important change occurred to the National Health Service – NHS during the last twenty years in the implementation of the concept of community care within the healthcare sector that result in new contracts with the GPs.With the establishment of the government of the Conservatives in 1979 in the UK, there were some major trends induced into the housing policy of the country. The Conservatives were in favor of privatization and after 1979 the privatization program was initiated in the housing sector as well that bring competition in the sector. The Compulsory Competitive Tendering (CCT) was introduced to enable the active role of private companies in the sector. On the 3rd of October, 1980 the Housing Act was implemented by the government that allows the council tenants to exercise their right to buy. As a result, more than 400,000 people buy their homes by 1982. The scheme was further extended to tenants in the leasehold properties (Hunter and Selman, 1996). The privatization within the sector was promoted throughout the tenure of the conservative government.

The Entry into Practice for the Family Nurse Practitioner

This facility is in a rural medically-underserved area where the clinic is part of the hospital system – but is not a hospital in the strictest sense. The clinic, however, shares the tax ID number with the hospital. It is also a provider-based health clinic (more on family practice and services). It is well-funded and is qualified under health provider shortage and medically-underserved categorization. In this sense, it is qualified to use either category, depending on need and on advantages. It is a small community of fewer than 20,000 inhabitants but it would likely serve more than one county or community. This type of town is one where everyone would most likely know each other. All the providers would have an LVN and the clinic has a clinic manager who would be acting as a liaison between the clinic and the hospital CEO. this manager would also be an intake coordinator. he would also coordinate staff for rescheduling, for billing, and for referrals. Pros and cons of working in identified arrangement One of the advantages of working in the identified arrangement are that the provider would be able to get to know his patients and the circumstances surrounding his patients’ lives. Such an arrangement helps the provider administer the best type of care for his patients. Assessing the patient within his home environment is one of the ways for a provider to reach maximum efficacy (Hunt, 2008). The provider would not have much difficulty in evaluating his patients in their home setting because the community is small. Moreover, the provider would already know where the available resources are and know who would likely have access to such resources (Buppert, 2007). For the more specialized needs of the community, the clinic schedules specialists to visit at different times each month in order to reduce the need for patients having to travel to distant places to seek medical care. In the end, this practice helps ensure continuity of care for the patients. Continuity of care is an important aspect of healthcare because it helps ensure that the patient would be fully monitored throughout his illness and would be able to eventually gain full recovery (Haggerty, et.al., 2008). Disadvantages are however also apparent in this set-up. For one, not many people would prefer living in medically-underserved areas because of the difficulty in accessing adequate and quality medical care (Shi and Singh, 2008). The more technical and higher level of services would be limited in this area. I noted however that the clinic where I precept conducts many high-level services because the health professionals in the clinic are very skilled. Throughout their years of practice in the rural setting, they have picked up and mastered various skills. They have encountered various patients and have come up with different ways to treat them or to stabilize them long enough to reach the next referral hospital. Even with the disadvantages which practitioners have encountered in the rural practice, the clinic has managed to work around its challenges and provide the best quality of services it can provide. It is important to note also that there are not as many positions for practitioners in the rural setting. the pay scale is lower than the average pay. The cost of services is however also lower than the cost of services appear in the urban setting.

The Human Rights Act

The result will be a new mental health act and legislation for the detention of dangerous people, which will maintain a balance between the rights of individual patients and the rights of the community as a whole.Article 5of the Human Rights Act guaranteeing liberty is the most important article for detained mentally disordered people. Interpretations of Article 5in the context of persons of unsound mind resulted from the decision of the European Court in the case of Winterwerp V the Netherlands. Detention under article 5(1) e is considered lawful only if the patient is deemed to be of unsound mind. Also, it is necessary that the mental disorder must be of a kind or degree warranting compulsory confinement. Further, continued confinement should depend on the persistence of the disorder. Finally, the detention must be in accordance with the prescribed law. (Potential impact of the Human Rights Act on psychiatric practice: the best of British values? Rosanne Macgregor­Morris, Jane Ewbank, Luke Birmingham).Scottish and other European Cases challenging restricted medical treatment have largely been unsuccessful as current clinical practice generally does not breach an individual’s human rights and recent Scottish Case Laws, have high – lighted that an individual patient’s rights may be of a lower priority than public safety.Following the decision of the European Court of Human Rights, in X V United Kingdom, 1981, 4EHRR 188, The Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1983, introduced a periodic right of appeal for restricted patients enabling them to apply to the sheriff annually for a discharge. The relevant provision is section 63 of the 1984 act. According to this section as long as it is required, the sheriff and Scottish ministers do not discharge a restricted patient from the hospital. This is in order to protect the public from serious harm, regardless of whether the patient is treatable or not.

Family Medical Leave Act and the Economy

FMLA could be a very important provision to have at workplaces in that it aims to promote positive welfare among employees but at the same time, its effects can be damaging on the economy and the performance of organizations hence some changes are being considered. However, the main question is. “Are these changes to the FMLA of any benefit or could even damage the economy further?”Before attempting to look at the effects, it is imperative to fully understand what FMLA is and the conditions required for one to be eligible to apply for this extraordinary privilege as a point of departure. It must always be borne in mind that not all employees are eligible to take advantage of FMLA. One major condition that is mostly considered is that one must work for his or her employer for at least 12 months and in those 12 months, he should have worked for at least 1 250 hours. The employee must be working in an organization with at least 50 or more employees within approximately 75 miles radius, in order to be considered for the benefit of FMLA. It should also be noted that FMLA can not be taken together with maternity leave since it is already included in the employer’s maternity leave. It may only be taken for “serious health conditions” as outlined by LawGuru Knowledge Base [online 2008]. Employees are not entitled to be paid for the time they are off on FMLA. The employer is not allowed to terminate an employee’s contract while away on FMLA. Upon return of the employee, the same position must be available or if that position is no longer available, the employer must provide an alternative position that is equivalent to the previous one with similar comparable benefits.The Family Medical Leave Act creates an advantage for employees in that nowadays both parents go to work and the FMLA allows them to be home with their family when it really counts especially in situations that are life-threatening.