Application Exercise 3 (A-3) of the Survey The of the survey organised by Ford Motor Company in order to understand the effectiveness of the training program was training evaluation survey. Assurances of Anonymity and Confidentiality Anonymity and confidentiality are vital constituents for any type of questionnaire survey. Besides, since the survey deals with the employees within the organisation, it is the responsibility of human resource manager to ensure that the respondents are not detrimentally impacted because of their participation in the questionnaire survey. Due to this reason, an information sheet has been provided to the respondents which depicts that their answers regarding the training program will be kept confidential. Any kind of information that can reveal the identity of respondents has not been taken. The information sheet also provided the method of offering feedback to the questionnaire. Apart from this, a consent form has been provided to the respondents depicting that the respondents completely understand what they are being requested to do and that they are well versed in the consequence of the questionnaire survey (Polonsky Waller, 2010). Description of the Survey Types of Items The survey comprises both closed ended and open-ended questions. The closed-ended questions are recorded based on likert rating scale. There are about six closed-ended questions in the survey. The closed-ended questions are designed in order to acquire numeric information regarding the effectiveness of the training program. Every answer will provide a value so that statistical understanding can be judged. On the other hand, open-ended questions are used in order to acquire descriptive information about the training effectiveness. There are certain factors which cannot be illuminated in numeric terms, due to this reason. open ended questions have been used in the questionnaire to understand the individual opinions of employees of Ford Motor Company about the training program. Open-ended questions help to provide qualitative information such as approaches, outlooks and understanding of the employees regarding training. As a consequence, the questionnaire survey would help Ford Motor Company to understand the true feeling of the employees on training program. Measurement of Variable Two level of measurement has been used in order to evaluate the variables. The first level of measurement is at nominal level. It is the most basic degree of measurement. In the questionnaire survey, the first and the second questions have been measured through nominal level. In nominal measurement, every observation in one category is similar to certain property and varies from the other category. Thus, in this measurement, one cannot conclude that one category is better than the other (Michael, n.d.). The second level of measurement is ordinal level. In this level, questions are classified into categories such as excellent to poor and strongly agree to strongly disagree. These categories are comprehensive and equally exclusive (Michael, n.d.). In order to represent the shortest item of the questionnaire, about four words have been used. The longest item of the questionnaire represents about 78 words. The total number of items in the questionnaire was about twenty-two, comprising both closed ended and open-ended questions. Considering the size of the questionnaire, it would probably take fifteen to thirty minutes in order to complete the survey. Statistical Analysis Utilised There are several statistical methods that are most likely to be utilised in order to analyse the numerical data. The first statistical analysis entails the measures of central tendency. Measures of central tendency define how data are amalgamated together around a central point. Three key measures that are most probably used in order to analyse the numeric data are mean, median and mode (Psychology Press Ltd, 2004). The other vital statistical analysis that is most likely to be utilised in the survey is measures of dispersion. Three measures of dispersion would probably be utilised in order to analyse the numeric information namely range, variation and standard deviation. These analytical techniques would indicate whether the scores are similar to each other or have no relation with each other (Psychology Press Ltd, 2004). Apart from these two statistical methods, data presentation is also likely to be utilised in the survey analysis. The response of questionnaire survey can be represented through graphs and charts, in order to make easier for the company to understand the effectiveness of training program. For evaluating the descriptive information, qualitative analysis method would probably be used (Psychology Press Ltd, 2004). In order to evaluate the responses, more than one analysis would be required. For instance, the survey analysis would be most effective and would provide more accurate knowledge if the results are described in percentages through various graphs, frequencies through statistical analysis and qualitative method (Psychology Press Ltd, 2004). References Michael, R. S. (n.d.). Measurement. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_3/measurement_rsm.pdf Polonsky, M. J., Waller, D. S. (2010). Designing and managing a research project: a business student’s guide. United States: SAGE. Psychology Press Ltd. (2004). Research methods: data analysis. Retrieved from http://www.smartpsych.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/psych_methods1.pdf Appendix Training Evaluation Survey Please answer the following questions based on your understanding: 1. Please specify your job position 2. How long have you been working with the organisation? Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3-5 years More than 5 years 3. Please rate your understanding regarding the items listed below: Items Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree The training has fulfilled my expectations I am completely capable of utilising the knowledge learned through the training program in my work The training objectives are properly recognised and followed The training components were appropriately prepared The training components were useful The quality of guidance was effective I learned a lot of aspects from the training There was satisfactory amount of time provided to learn from the training 4. Please rate your understanding regarding the trainer: Items Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Trainer has detailed grip on the subject The trainer was knowledgeable The trainer was highly prepared 5. Please rate the following aspect of the training process: Items Excellent Good Fair Poor Scheduling and timing Selection of facility Ways of direction Stimulator aspects of training 6. Overall how will you rate the training program? Excellent Good Fair Poor 7. What was your most preferred experience of the training program? 8. What was your least preferred experience of the training program? 9. What aspects of the training can be improved? 10. Any other remarks about the training program. Thank You for Your Participation
Prudence signifies implementing wise decisions related to practical situations to determine effective results and outcomes. In accordance with prudent decisions, it depicts that a person thinks as well as analyzes a particular situation to make wise decisions. Prudent decisions within personal life can make me unique and can also help to tackle difficult situations which in turn assist to ensure effective outcomes. In professional sphere, prudent decisions assist in framing effective and advanced strategies that facilitate in the development as well as the growth of an organization (Snyder 69-489). Fairness within professional as well as personal life fosters better relationship and growth. Equality plays a vital role in every sphere of life. Equality within professional aspect can enable to bestow me with a unique sense of confidence as well as growth and it also can assist in the development and acceleration of an organization’s activities (Snyder 69-489). Honesty signifies being loyal towards every sphere of life. Honesty plays a vital role within organizational context. Maintaining honesty within work life can enable me to gain a unique sense of goodwill among peers and management that ultimately works as a motivational factor. Authentic decisions as well as honesty among friends and families foster goodwill as well as develop self-respect within an individual (Snyder 69-489). Appreciation acts as a motivational factor for an individual, it accelerates the development of an individual and fosters better performance and growth. Appreciating skilled performance, beauty and knowledge in every sphere of life accelerates motivation, attitude and performance. Appreciation within professional sphere can be a unique practice which can in turn enhance an employee’s motivational power along with assisting in the organizational development. In personal sphere, appreciation helps in developing a strong bond with the near and dear ones as well as fosters a feeling of being important within an individual (Snyder 69-489). QUESTION 2 During my school days, I used to be a carefree person without any proper goal and direction in mind and used to avoid cultural traditions as it generally irritated me a lot. Although I have always remained out of any kind of troublesome scenarios owing to the reason of aiming to walk a straight-line, till very recent times I was not aware of the proper meaning or significance of my life to me. Traditions frame an important part in shaping our psychology and they act as an engagement for human beings to develop more meaningful relationships. As time passed by after my marriage, once I was criticized by some guests in front of everyone. This incident changed my life drastically and I recognized my fault. My mother-in-law taught me about cultural dimensions that showed me the path of enlightenment. At present, I am aware of the significance of cultural dimensions and its importance in our life. I am a very spiritual Catholic person highly active in Church related activities and I believe that this provides me immense strength in life to deal with adversities. This positive psychology will remain with me forever. In future, I am attempting to impart these cultures and its values to the next generation by setting good examples to them so that they remain in their blood forever. QUESTION 3 Psychology depicts an academic as well as applied discipline which
Discrete trial training is extremely structured, so it’s good to coordinate with an experienced therapist or, if you’re trying it yourself, making an extremely detailed plan. First, you take an objective: Better speech recognition or skills, better motor coordination, better response to requests. You break that down into every logical part. Then you take them through discrete, or separate individual, trials, or tests of the skill. If you’re trying to get a child to respond to questions or requests, for example, you can begin with having them acknowledge the request with a sound or gesture, then have them do one kind of request, then another and another, then have them respond with Yes or Sure to the request until they have developed a proper response. If they succeed, you can reward them with whatever appropriate reward: Try to avoid candy or sweets, but perhaps some time with a game or alone would be good. Discrete trial therapy works for you and for your autistic child because it’s highly rational. Autistics tend to view the world as very ordered, and giving them a rational reward for a task makes it a game they can understand and relate to. It also lets them mentally break down the task they are trying to learn for themselves, which is far easier for your autistic child. CAPS is a well-accepted autism diagnosis and treatment system, but like all such systems, it has strengths and weaknesses and needs to be augmented with other approaches. CAPS’ primary strength is that it is comprehensive. Many other approaches, like DTT, focus only on teaching a few skills but don’t bear in mind that skills are likely to be forgotten or fade if they’re not holistically incorporated into the child’s life (Smith, 2001). CAPS makes sure that specific skills that are necessary for success in life and school such as academic skills (reading, writing, mathematics, and other basics), social skills, cognition, daily living and emotional management are trained. Further, CAPS allows focus on interrelation: Autistics like to have ordered, related universes where everything is logically interlinked and create semantic systems. CAPS plays to that sensibility. CAPS is wonderful because it is a beginning with the end in mind (Henry et al, 2007). Many other approaches either leave it up to the individual therapist to create an ultimate objective or really can only be used to solve multiple piecemeal problems. CAPS is comprehensive, but it is comprehensive with the goal of eventually solving autism insofar as is humanly possible. The ultimate goal is a fully functioning person, unique due to their special background and psychology but capable of participating with others with all social and mental skills fully intact. This is not always possible. indeed, it is exceedingly rare. But having this goal lets the treatment get as close as possible. One weakness of CAPS is that it is so comprehensive. To institute a CAPS regimen is an all-or-nothing deal: One has to commit to a number of elements and do extensive planning and charting. DTT can be used to teach individual skills where time or resources are finite. CAPS itself needs to be used in conjunction with other systems. In Aspy and Grossman’s (2008) Ziggurat model, CAPS is used to move from intervention design to implementation. Generally, all therapy
Ever since the beginning of time, we were created for survival. Whether this survival is by natural selection, or by clinging onto Jesus’ teachings, we were still created to rise to the top. But not everyone rises to the top in the same way. Not only do we not rise in the same way, but we also are not always chosen for the role we want in life. Our behavior seems to dictate who we will hang out with at lunchtime during our high school years. We are guided by our behavior which orders us to determine how we will communicate with our professors in order to receive a passing grade in college. Our children learn to sweat talk to us with good behavior when they want to go to a party or want us to change our minds about something already predetermined. Our behavior runs the show. The question isn’t whether we are good at convincing one another or choosing the right group of friends to associate ourselves with. The question is how hardwired is human behavior? (Nicholson, 1998, p. 135) Is it in our genes? Is it in our blood? Did God make us a certain way? Did evolution split us in a particular direction? So many questions with such a diverse amount of answers lead some to believe that it is through natural selection that we are able to stand on our own two feet and be successful in life, and in our workplace. But others, still, believe that from day one, we were made to be a certain way. This could be through creation or evolution. Evolution is not the belief that there is no intelligent design. It is the belief that things change and adapt to its particular origin. The origin can be different for each species and not even Charles Darwin claimed to know what the origin was. (Wright, 1994, pp. 1-10) He only claims that things evolve from one point to another. Evolution, however, is not just one step and the theory is not as narrow as it may seem. The theory includes six different components which create the theory of evolution in its entirety. The six components are evolution, gradualism, speciation, common ancestry, natural selection, and nonselective mechanism of evolutionary change. (Coyne, 2009, p. 3) Each of these parts means something important and are directly applied to determining which person is the best fit for the job at hand. Evolution itself means that a particular species undergo genetic change over time. Is this something that occurs in the workplace? Yes! Over time, people learn how to please their boss or they are not rehired. For the manager, they learn to look for traits that are going to help grow their business, not shrink it. This is where the idea of modern Darwinism comes in. The new fields of science or psychology do not just come about. They evolve, and with its evolution come the ability to choose in a more purposeful way. Choosing who will work for you is so important because you do not want to be stuck with the thought that you will need to fire that person. Gradualism is the idea that it takes many years to produce the product of evolution. (Coyne, 2009, p. 4) In the workplace, this means two things. The manager or the boss needs to have several bad apples before realizing what he really wants, and, improvement in the workforce comes over time. Competition adds to the search for the new and better-improved resources that will help a company grow, and not extinguish itself. Part of this gradualism is allowing time for a change.
Unlike in traditional psychology, none of these approaches could be said to be the most correct as each has both strengths and weaknesses. Behaviourist Approach Behaviourism has been noted to be unique from the other four approaches, studying observable and measurable human behaviour because of its objective measurability in terms of stimulus-response units. The goal of this approach is eliminating maladaptive responses and acquiring the adaptive responses. Experiments are the preferred methods of study. According to Kalat (2008), the behaviour of human beings according to this approach is shaped by environmental factors, entailing learned ways of responding to external stimuli. Learning occurs through classical conditioning or through operant conditioning. This approach assumes no stages of development, as different behaviours get reinforced selectively with age but the variation in an adult and child is just quantitative. Abnormal behaviour results from failure to learn adaptive responses or learning maladaptive responses. Treatment would be through behaviour therapy such as systematic desensitisation with no difference between such behaviour and symptoms. Psychodynamic Approach Unlike the behaviourist approach, this approach uses case study as the preferred method of study. It aims at uncovering unconscious conflicts so as to cause them to be conscious. It seeks to balance the unconscious mind made up of the id, ego and superego (Kalat 2008). While the id and superego would always be in conflict, the ego would try to resolve this discord, failure to which humans resolve to defence mechanisms. This psychoanalysis entails an aspect of psychosexual development where early experiences impact on adult personality with stimulation of the different body parts being important as children progress through the normal developmental stages. Abnormal behaviour arises from emotional disturbance due to unresolved conflict from one’s childhood. This abnormal behaviour is symptomatic, notably anxiety. Treatment involves insight-oriented psychotherapy such as psychoanalysis. Transference, dream interpretation and free association reveal unconscious. This non-scientific but circular theory suffers the limitation of biasness towards sexuality while under emphasizing the function of social relationships. Humanism Approach This emphasizes on studying a person as a whole, referred to as holism, so as to cause self-actualisation. Just like the psychodynamic approach, case study is the preferred method of study. Distinctly, the humanistic approach acknowledges the uniqueness of each person and the free will to change anytime. Satisfying lower level needs is a prerequisite to satisfying higher level needs. Psychological normality occurs when one accepts oneself, realises self potential and finds meaning in life. Abnormal behaviour results from the inability to accept and express the true self nature. Self denial results in anxiety, referred to as ontological insecurity or identity crisis (Kalat 2008). Therefore, client-centred therapy is the preferred treatment method through exploration of present experiences with the therapist. Cognitive Approach Adopting a divergent method of study, the cognitive approach uses experimental method, focusing on artificial and human intelligence. The aim is to correct unrealistic and irrational beliefs and ideas to make thinking an effective means of behavioural control. Therefore, to know what keeps people living, there would be need to understand the processes running in
The processing of cognition has consequences that come about due to bilingualism or multilingualism. Therefore, all perennial questions concerning bilingualism revolve around the relationship and connection between two different languages in the same mind. Most tutors tend to wonder whether if multilingualism has two forms of separate systems responsible for language processing or it is a single combined system. Ideally, issues regarding whether one language aids or interferes with the other are not clear but this paper will consider addressing this issue with relevance to cognition. The complexity of the system consisting of two languages may have either losses or benefits on some areas rather than mind. This means that monolinguals and bilinguals may think differently. Evaluation of the competitive viewsStudies concerning psychology reveal that the term cognitive is becoming a confusing element when discussing this topic. With reference to linguists, linguistics is an arm of cognitive psychology. This is because, it concerns human mind. However, you should be able to note that the faculty of language is entirely different from the rest of the faculties that concern human mind. This reveals that, the faculty of language is distinct from cognition. Furthermore, linguistics differentiates the abstract of knowledge commonly referred to as competence and the process of cognition that facilitates the actual comprehension and production of a speech often termed as the performance. Often, psychologists explore the aspects concerning the relationship between the rest of the human mind (cognition) and language. Interestingly, some models related to language competence such as the parameter setting tend to treat language as a separate knack of human mind. Further, these models seek to develop a difference wherein language competence becomes a distinct aspect from language performance (Harris, 2005:385). Fact-findings tell us that the manner in which an individual defines the relationship between cognitive processing and bilingualism depends on the approach and the ideology of the person asking the question. The common general manner in which people ask this question uses the normal approach whereby it is standard for people to be monolinguals (Heaton, Taylor, and Manly, 2003:185). Supposedly, this approach lies on the norm that human beings should only know one language but deviating from a single language comes with a cost. Contrary to this approach is the multilingualism view, which views that human beings have knowledge of more than one language (Lorentz, 2008:77). In this arena, the monolingual approach has deficiencies since it lacks the natural human heritage whereby people know more than a single language. What is unclear is the overall level of loss that monolinguals have for having knowledge of only one language as well as in their remaining mental processes (Hammers and Blanc, 2003:101). Evaluation of the competing views of the relationship between bilingualism or multilingualism and cognition show that people who know more than one language, possess deficiencies in knowledge and understand in their second language (Panton, 2003:39). Research findings make it clear that, perhaps, it is blindingly obvious in such cases that, people who use their second language are less efficient in it (Harris, 2005:388). While compared to monolinguals, monolinguals are more critical and efficient in their native languages since their
However, the vocal techniques and speech skills of performers begin to affect the audience in a unique way as the performance continues. Musical progressions and costumes of Chinese actors are different from anything witnessed in European opera. The Chinese counterpart stands distinguished in the respect that vocal techniques are used primarily in songs. Research claims that these techniques form a core principle because they help to express emotion in Chinese opera by enhancing the aesthetic qualities of sound in the language of the pihuang musical system (Wichmann 267). The musical system employed in Chinese opera is called Pei Huang. Musical progressions hold extreme importance in Chinese opera in terms of expressing emotion which is why Chinese opera is also sometimes called pihuang theatre. The pihuang system comprises of many elements like modal system and modes which are arranged according to requirements of a specific play to demonstrate the fundamental psychology of its major characters (Wichmann 53).Discuss the debate about Nandan performance in the first several decades of the twentieth century. What were the arguments for and against men playing female roles on the Chinese opera stage? Give a brief historical overview of cross-gender performance in Chinese opera.The debate about Nandan performance poses fatal questions to Chinese opera. People still argue if it is right to abolish Nandan or not. Nandan performance is about female impersonation in Chinese opera. The early Republican era or the first several decades of the 20th century are considered the best of times for Nandan performers who are male actors entrusted with the controversial job of portraying women. The Republican stage in the early 20th century promoted the popularity of Nandan stars like Mei Lanfang and Cheng Yanqiu. These Nandan performers surpassed other male actors who played roles of idealistic macho type men.
In 2007 in Vienna he was also an artist-in-residence at Museum-Quartier of the art group named Monochrome. He has also been prominently featured in a documentary film named Print the Legend (Welch).Bre Pettis moved to Seattle at the age of 13. Before Seattle, he lived in Ithaca, New York. He graduated later from the Bellevue High School. He studied mythology, psychology and performing arts at Evergreen State College and was graduated from there in the year 1995. After college, he worked for a brief time as a floor runner and also as a camera assistant on films that were being featured in Prague. Bre Pettis also worked as an assistant for the Creature Shop of Jin Henson in London. He later studied at the Pacific Oak College from where he graduated with a teaching certificate and started working as an art teacher in Seattle Public School from the year 1999 to 2006. Pettis married Koi Stark and they have a daughter together named Nika Stark, who was born on July 8, 2011 (Dale).Pettis started thinking about creating something when he moved to New York in the year 2007. He used to play Frisbee each weekend with 20 people belonging to the technology industry in New York. This is how he met Zach and created NYC Resistor, a famous hackerspace. Zach and Pettis shared tools and they also invested collectively in a laser cutter worth $25,000. It was then that they started talking about creating 3D-printers. they had been hearing about them but never saw any as they were only available to the design firms. They later got involved with a community whose focus was to make 3D printers. a community that had the ability to make their own copies in order to build the foundation of a world without money. It was then that they began making prototypes. Even after working for two years they did not have any 3D-printer that actually worked (Kate).In January 2009 both Zach .Pettis locked themselves in hackerspace and in a few months created an actual 3D printer.
Background: Anna Freud Anna Freud was born in Vienna, in the year 1895. Besides, her mother was Martha Bernays and her father was Sigmund Freud. But she was not able to maintain warm relationship with her mother. So she was looked after by a Catholic nurse, named as Josephine. In addition, she faced problems to deal with Sophie (say, her sister). To be specific, Anna considered that her sister is more attractive than her and this created tension between them. So, these problems created emotional trauma in Anna’s mind and she gradually became affected by emotional and physical problems. Still, Anna did not ignore her education and she completed her education in the year 1912. Later in the year 1917, she started her career as a teacher. But ill health hindered her professional life and was she forced to quit her job. So, Anna decided to co-operate with her father to continue his research in psychology, especially in psychoanalysis. Moe (2007) states that, Born and educated in Austria, Anna Freud entered psychoanalysis with her father (not an unusual arrangement at the time) in 1918 (p.153). … She passed away in the year 1982. Theoretical perspective: psychoanalysis One can see that Anna Freud’s theoretical perspective is deeply influenced by her father’s interest in psychoanalysis. Hergenhahn (2008) states that, Anna became her father’s emissary to psychoanalytic societies throughout the world, delivered his papers, typed his daily correspondence, and, along with his friend and physician Max Schur, attended to his personal and medical needs (p.553). But she did not limit her research work within the field of psychoanalysis. Instead, she extended he research work to the context of psychoanalytic child psychology and ego psychology. One can see that Anna’s work named as Beating Fantasies and Daydreams is symbolic of dedication towards psychology. During the initial stages of her career as a psychologist, she cooperated with her father’s research related to psychoanalysis. To be specific, her service at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute helped her to realize the importance of psychoanalysis in child analysis. Later, Anna began to continue her research work in defensive operations. One can see that this initiative is deeply influenced by her father’s research work and contributions to the field of psychoanalysis. Within this context, she considered that psychoanalysis is important within clinical field. To be specific, the interpretation of defensive operations and defense mechanism can be helpful for the clinical psychologists to diagnose the problems faced by the patients. Her research work related to ego and consciousness is interconnected with the structural theory, formulated by her father. So, one can see that Anna’s theoretical
The article is directed to health care providers like doctors, psychologists, nurses or other health employees who in one way or another affect how help-seekers are treated. It could have also been intended for policy makers who are in the position and have the authority to influence how health care providers should treat their patients. The article could also be useful to patients who are seeking help especially the Blacks so that they will be aware of the benefits they are missing and should have. In case they are faced with similar circumstances mentioned in the article, they would know their rights and know what to demand for when seeking professional help. The article clearly shows the need for review of the racial disparities in several government institutions as evidenced by recorded statistics and results of studies. The authors theoretically assume that the behavior of health and human service providers contribute to race or ethnicity differences in care and therefore, institutional discrimination (Van Ryn Fu). There is the assumption that stereotyping primarily affects how people are given help and it has been well evidenced with general observations as well as specific examples that this supposition is true. People around the globe automatically have ideas about other people either consciously or unconsciously and this affects how individuals treat them. For instance, a Black man in rugged clothes, evidently unable to attend to his personal hygiene is automatically considered a threat to the environment whether in terms of health or security. When the man enters a hospital for help, he could be admitted and placed in seclusion as most Blacks are treated (Van Ryn Fu). Perhaps one of the reasons for such treatment is the thought that Blacks do not go to hospitals for real medical needs but they are there to seek free shelter and food. This kind of attitude can deprive help seekers of treatment and cure they indeed need medical attention and not just what is perceived by the stereotypical employee. Moreover, Van Ryn and Fu theorized that providers’ beliefs about help seekers influence their interpretation of the problems or symptoms of these individuals. Again, they have proven this to be true with the use of results of studies performed on a number of psychotherapists presented with Black and White patients showing the same symptoms. As expected, the behaviors of the Black patient were considered less clinically significant than the White patient’s. More similar situations proved the specifically noted theories of the authors to be true. The authors though, did not aim to write the article to prove their assumptions right but as mentioned earlier, to encourage change in the care providers’ attitudes to give better services and give attention to the real issues rather than what they perceive as a result of stereotypical understanding. The subject matter is important in the study of psychology because it helps bring about better treatments of help seekers as a consequence of being knowledgeable of the issues brought up in the article. Psychologists can help design a workable plan wherein first and foremost. the educated party should have the initiative to consider his/her attitude towards the other party which is the help seeker.