A clear understanding of the scientific principles involved with blood must be emphasized. Depending on the injury, when the blood leaves the body it conforms to the general laws of physics. The analyst must be careful when analyzing the blood shedding events like this will enable them to understand clearly blood flow. The physical properties of blood when in fluid form, have several properties that resemble water characteristics. Both blood and water are affected by physical forces. The internal friction that is present in most fluids is referred to as viscosity. As fluids flow past each other, the layers that are present among them are responsible for the generation of these frictional forces. Also, both cohesion and surface tension forces cause blood drops to maintain their spherical shape once they drop from their point of origin. Cohesion force attracts molecules together while surface tension refers to a force created by the molecules of a fluid when they attain the lowest most stable energy configuration value possible. This value is attained by minimizing the areas that can lead to exposure of the fluid.Impact Spatter usually results from a forceful impact between an object and wet blood. This impact causes the blood to disintegrate into smaller droplets. When the impact is greater, the droplets produced will be much smaller (James, Kish, Sutton 2005). This is due to a drop in the density of blood that decreases as the movement of the blood drops become further from the blood source. A critical analysis of impact splatter enhances the conclusions on the location of the individual.
As we progressed from manual labor to large industries capable of mass production of goods, veterinarians solidified their role in society. First, as critical medical and veterinary contributors to maintaining health, providing animal care, and preventing diseases in the meat production sector. And, second, as the luxuries and leisure time drastically increased thanks to the industrial revolution, veterinarians were charged in taking care of more pets than ever before in human history.The Role of Veterinarians in Society Essay explores the veterinary history and modern veterinary positioning in society.Exceptional Individuals as Drivers of Veterinary ProgressIt is no surprise then, that in the 1800s, a famous French chemist and biologist, Louis Pasteur, undertook an important medical and veterinary task – figuring out what rabies is and how to treat it. Contrary to popular opinion, rabies is not just manifested as the word would imply – becoming rabid. Instead, it can take two forms. The more sedated form is where an animal is foaming at the mouth, with hanging jaw and paralyzed demeanor. And the more serious form of animal rabies in which an animal is extremely aggressive toward any living animal, and even inanimate objects.Pasteur soon deduced that animal rabies is transmitted via saliva, so an infected animal can easily infect others by a bite that penetrates the skin of the animal. In order to erect a defense against the rabies culprits contained in the saliva, Pasteur began to extract them from the saliva, and weaken them, by drying up the samples. Eventually, Pasteur developed a world’s first rabies vaccine. A remarkable feat for one who, by today’s standards, would be considered as a mere veterinarian dabbling in microbiology and animal research out of sheer necessity and intellectual fortitude.Pasteur’s invaluable contributions to medicine showcase that veterinarians and medical practitioners followed the same path to progress. One that leads to an ever-greater understanding of microbiology and surgical techniques, which would first be tested on animals. These are the two pillars of veterinary craft that had a critical effect on how our societies developed.Even before there was a name to label microscopic organisms, veterinarians proved critical in keeping animals healthy. This directly translated to keeping humans healthy, as animal meat and other byproducts were the mainstays of human consumption throughout history. However, not until the invention of anesthetics in the mid-nineteenth century did we see huge leaps in treating both animals and humans.We could safely say that anesthetics jumpstarted both veterinary field and medicine. They allowed for surgeries on living animals to take place, which would have otherwise resulted in torturous animal deaths. This sped up consistently competent care of animals, ultimately resulting in the formalization of food quality standards. At the end of the 19th century, veterinarians were confident enough in their knowledge to control the state of the entire food supply. By testing the animal food itself and controlling diseases that may infect livestock, it is no understatement to claim that veterinarians have saved millions of human lives. In 1930, veterinarians were pivotal in establishing the Bureau of Animal Industry to further the goal of animal care and health. This important institution implemented a wide range of veterinary standards to ensure the wellbeing of livestock: their feed quality, animal disease testing, and animal breeding policies. In turn, such formalization of veterinary standards increased the longevity of humans.Modern VeterinariansAlthough dogs were human companions for thousands of years, they were mostly treated as working animals. Arising pet culture – owning dogs, cats, parrots, hamsters, and other animals for the sake of companionship – emerged after the industrial revolution. As societies began to enjoy more abundance due to mass production of commodities and food, so did pet culture and leisure become prevalent.This created two kinds of modern veterinarians – for companion animal and mixed animal veterinarians. The first one speaks for itself, while the latter type takes care of livestock, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, horses, turkeys, etc. Additionally, you can find them employed at zoos and governmental veterinary institutions in charge of animal food control.Outside of such large organizations related to food control, modern veterinarians can mostly be found in their own private practices, or as a part of a network of veterinary clinics. They serve an important function of vaccinating pets, diagnosing them for health problems, and treating them for either infectious diseases or injuries that require surgeries. Although this is the baseline of veterinarian duties, their influence extends much further, as they advise pet owners on how to properly feed and groom them, as well as rectifying any unwelcoming behavior.Mixed animal veterinarians lead a much more intense veterinary life, as they are called from one farm or a ranch to another, from one emergency to another. As you would see a medical doctor, veterinarians carry with them diagnostic medical equipment such as a stethoscope, and surgical instruments for emergencies.However, not all veterinarians venture into the field. Some opt for public health and research. By investigating what needs to be improved in animal care, these veterinarians have a more significant and broader impact on society. By now, we all know how easy a virus can spread from animal to human, and vice versa. From swine and bird flu to the latest COVID-19 virus, medical research into protecting us from these diseases has never been more important. In addition to safeguarding us against infectious diseases, research veterinarians contribute closely with medical doctors for product testing, drug testing, and developing new experimental surgeries. In particular, for the developing field of biotechnology. In short, everything that is considered to be used on humans is first tested on animals, which is the domain of research veterinarians.Public health veterinarians work on the frontline of food safety. As animal food inspectors, they make sure that all organizations involved in the production and delivery of eggs, meat, poultry, milk, and plants, are upholding rigorous standards of control. Veterinarian work also involves paying visits to farms and ranches to advise and check on diseases. Furthermore, public health veterinarians scrutinize the meat processing plants to ensure they follow the guidelines on sanitation, humane killing, and food quality control.Public health veterinarians are usually employees of DOA – Department of Agriculture, while FDA – Food and Drug Administration – employs them as a part of their effort to conduct quality control on all food trade with the world’s nations.How does one get a veterinarian degree?Both humans and animals are complex biological systems that require years of extensive training and learning to competently understand what makes them tick and what makes them ill. While medical doctors enjoy greater social prestige, both medical doctors and veterinarians undergo an equally grueling education that requires cognitive excellence and passionate dedication. To make the transition to a veterinarian as smooth as possible, it would be prudent to start participating as a volunteer at animal shelters, or more formalized programs in high school, like the 4-H program. As far as the veterinary curriculum goes, mastering hard sciences is a necessity. biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Everything else, like composition or communication, is just an extra benefit that would boost your employment chances on the veterinary market. In essence, to join veterinarians, one has to possess a practical, inquisitive, and scientific mind. One that can absorb the STEM curriculum through both high school and college.Currently, the United States holds 30 accredited veterinary universities. Given the hundreds of millions of people living in North America, this makes for intense competition, with only one out of three applicants accepted to become a veterinarian. As is the case with medical doctors, after successfully completing the veterinary program, one can further specialize in surgery, internal medicine, or preventive medicine. Unfortunately, veterinary education is quite costly and long. It takes. eight years of schooling – college plus veterinary college – on top of an average $20,000 per year tuition. Needless to say, many animals have unique physiognomies which greatly extends the time it takes to master the veterinary field.Lastly, animal lovers should seriously consider if a medical veterinary profession is for them for one simple reason – inevitable deaths. Not only those that are inevitable by the due course of nature or illness but often enough a veterinarian has to put down animals that are too sick to have an acceptable quality of life.Employment Prospects for VeterinariansIn terms of income, veterinarians are comparable to computer programmers and web developers, with some specializations yielding more profit than others. Both companion and mixed veterinary college graduates have an average salary within the range of $62,000 – $65,000. This increases with seniority when 5 years of veterinary experience goes up to about $79,000. Understandably, veterinarians not working in the field, like public health and research veterinarians, can expect a much lower income at about $53,000 annually. However, this will too grow with experience and accomplishments, with a salary increase to about $86,000 over five years. On a federal level, veterinarians can expect a similar wage range, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.Although vegetarianism is a growing trend for supposed health benefits, it doesn’t seem to stop the demand for more veterinarians. From 2008 to 2018, the veterinary field has grown by 33%. We can attribute this to a relatively low number of accredited veterinary institutions, which altogether output about 2,500 veterinary graduates per year. Even if meat consumption goes down in the future, the populations steadily increase, not followed by more veterinary colleges. All fields of medical veterinary practice enjoy steady growth, with the companion animal arena being the most competitive. This might change given the unprecedented economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, veterinarians can count on stable employment in numerous government institutions concerned with maintaining health standards. The first among them is Homeland Security as the largest single employer of veterinarians. Suffice to say, there will always be a need for trained professionals in food inspection, health, and safety.In short, a medical veterinarian degree (DVM) is very versatile. It makes it possible to open your own medical veterinary clinic or veterinarian work within a wide variety of institutions and organizations. On another note, those who would like to become private veterinarians should keep in mind that such income is largely aligned with the economy. If the economy suffers, so does your veterinary income as care for animals is still viewed as a luxury for most people, instead of a necessity.Final WordAs one of the cogs of modern civilization in charge of animal care, it is difficult to imagine how the health of a civilization could be maintained without veterinarians. Although there are not many of them, as the American Veterinary Medical Association only holds about 91,000 members, their jobs are critical for taking care of dozens of millions of animals. Some of them opt for veterinarian work with animals directly, while others are ensuring that our food supply remains as safe as possible. The veterinary profession might be rewarding and important on a societal scale, but it is difficult and costly to obtain. It requires years of dedicated study that must start during high school and focus on hard sciences – a curriculum that is the most challenging for most people. Therefore, only those who are without doubts and have a special inkling to care for animals should embark on the path of becoming a veterinarian.Veterinarians have to be obstetricians, surgeons, and anesthesiologists all in one medical person, as situations arise. This is quite different from being a human medical doctor who specializes in one thing only. However, veterinarians are also flexible. If they succumb to a veterinarian burnout due to seeing too many animals suffer and performing too many euthanasia cases, veterinarians can always switch to a type of veterinary work that is much less involved. Veterinarians can find such work as administrators within government agencies, as food inspectors for large corporations and ranches, or as researchers.With that said, the path to acquiring that degree of flexibility must come through some measure of grueling veterinary work in order to become an experienced veterinarian. Similar to medical practice for humans, this involves long operating hours, in addition to availability for emergency calls.Resources UsedAmerican Veterinary Medical Association – Care for Animals, Veterinarians Protecting the Health of Animals and SocietyVeterinary History Society – Veterinary History.The Journal of The Veterinary History Society, (1973):25United States Bureau of Labor Statistics – VeterinariansUnited States Department of Agriculture – Food Safety and Inspection ServiceOccupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-2011 Edition.
u09d1 The first thing to spring up in my mind complements the wisdom of ancient Greeks in that all is in a of flux, nothing is the same. The thing is that looking at the all-sky map, it is apparent that without movement there is no growth and development. High speed gives way to either heating or freezing of the celestial bodies. Thus blue-shifted and the red-shifted vague specters reflect the reality of really high speed at which the Local Group moves in a constant manner. This flow is never ending and provides us with a deeper understanding of the state of affairs in the galaxies throughout the universe. Moreover, the all-sky map describes logic of the spectral analysis seen in physical peculiarity of light division. Thus, the main reaction on this map is that the orbital movement of the whole groups of celestial bodies gathered in galaxies is not limited to some definite magnitude. However, the heliocentric model of the universe is well determined on the example of the map. Thus, I can make up an inference that the hottest and the coldest parts of the all-sky map are counter-related, and it gives a specific impulse for the galaxies to move as described in the creation of tornadoes on Earth. Along with the rules evident in the heliocentric model, the opposition between cold and hot layers of the Local Group makes it possible that the universe is constantly renovating and the movement between red-shifted and blue-shifted galaxies is mutually relevant. u09d2 Albert Einstein once said the following statement: The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible (Einstein, 2007). It sounds really as a whole mess. However, I’d like to state that if Einstein came up with this characterization of the universe, then there were particular reasons. First of all, the cosmos is little learnt, and gives grounds to state that the mankind is not ready to realize the scope of the processes within the universe. On the other hand, the universe cannot comply with the general rules of Physics and Astronomy, in particular. It is a fundamental rule for everything spinning around in it. Hence, Einstein is straight-forward in identifying the comprehensive character of the universe per se. It is especially justified on the example of the solar system. Consisting of 8 planets (with no mention of Pluto), the solar system complies with different physical and astronomic phenomena overt within it. To say more, it is the matter of great accuracy in calculations and personal observation by the scientists all over the world that make the comprehensiveness of the universe come true once. It is meant that the truth is somewhere beyond our current understanding. It is not revealed today, but it does not mean that the magnificence of the universe will stay unknown to the humanity. The question is that in the great amount of different processes evident in the space scientific circles should first agree that in the complexity of the universe there are particular answers. u09d3 Finally, I think that the Big Bang theory is too convincing in terms of the cosmological approach on the universe creation. The idea is that it complements the heliocentric idea of the universe and isotropic structure of it in a broader way. Thus, with exact calculations when the universe creation started there is an assumption of how redshifts and blueshifts are likely to spread over the galaxies since that very moment. It makes scientist suppose that the Big Bang was in part inevitable and in part spontaneous, as it could or could not appear from nothing at all as it contradicts causative-consecutive line of events preceding or following it. The strengths of the theory are in its partial explanation of how things are kept in the universe and why there is a constant division of galaxies. It also contemplates with the division of energy coming from the stellar bang and stellar wind as well (Bennett, Donahue, Schneider, Voit, 2009). It also explains the flow of radiation and its impact on the creation of different celestial bodies throughout the cosmos. However, the theory does not explain reason why the initial impulse for the big bang itself appeared. Nevertheless, it distinctively describes galactic evolution of matter. As for me, I think that the Big Bang definitely happened and caused the creation of galaxies. It is both too complicated and too easy to understand. Moreover it goes hand in hand with the fundamental prescription regarding the structure of the universe. This is why the Big Bang theory has rather more arguments for the explanation of the universe per se than some opposite mismatches. Reference Bennett, J. O., Donahue, M., Schneider, N. O., Voit, M. (2009). The Essential Cosmic Perspective (5 ed.). Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings. Einstein, A. (2007). Albert Einstein Quote. Retrieved June 9, 2011, from Brainy Quote: http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins125369.html
Faculty Profile Professor Zachary Holman works as an assistant professor in the field of electric, computer and energy engineer field. Furthermore, Professor Zachary Holman despite working in the field of electric computer and energy engineering, he mostly focuses and devotes his time and attention to the solar energy docket. Zachary Holman has been able to carry out extensive research on the solar energy docket of the electric, computer and energy-engineering field and has written a research paper to that effect. The research predominantly addresses the high efficiency of the silicon solar cells. Subsequently, the research conducted by Zachary Holman addresses the vital uses of nanoparticles in electronic devices and solar devices. Consequently, the research highlights the properties exhibited by the nanoparticle and the effect that each property has in regard to the functioning of the nanoparticles. The research by Zachary Holman could affect the industrialists and energy engineers populations in various ways. Industrialists and energy engineers could be the populations most affected by Zachary Holman’s works because of their never-ending venture to produce cheap energy to run the industries. Zachary Holman in his research tries to answer the scientific question of whether it is viable to produce inexpensive power using the full spectrum of sunlight as the source of the energy production. The viability of the energy production by the sunlight rays is at any time of day. Moreover, the research paper by Zachary Holman attempts to answer the scientific question of the possibility of the nanoparticles in the solar energy to produce sustainable power enough for human consumption. The nanoparticle produces energy using the properties that already exists within the micro-nanoparticles. In his research project concerning Solar Concentrating Photovoltaic Mirrors, Zachary Holman discusses the optics technology. The optics technology entails the use of products and materials such as the curved mirrors and lenses. The reason for conducting the project is to discover means of concentrating sunlight over a smaller surface area of photovoltaic cells in order to generate power. The heat skins product, which has a relationship with the research that Zachary Holman is undertaking, helps keep the solar cells cool. The technological design of the photovoltaic concentrators is also relatable to the research that Zachary Holman is currently conducting. A simple booster reflector is an additional product relatable to the Solar Concentrating Photovoltaic Mirrors research project by Zachary Holman. Two axes solar cooling and tracking are also novel to the research project headed by Zachary Holman. Everything about the research project and work done by Zachary Holman was, of course, interesting and fascinating. However, there were a few things about Zachary Holman’s work that I liked the most. For instance, using nanoparticles, which are minuscule and not visible to even the most powerful microscope, play a significant role in energy production. Furthermore, the particles only need to be concentrated on a small surface area in order to produce large amounts of power. Another fascinating aspect about the research project headed by Zachary Holman is that the complex research employs the simple physics of lenses and curved mirrors as the focal point of the project. I would have liked to be an assistant to Zachary Holman in his Solar Concentrating Photovoltaic Mirrors research project. In being the assistant project head to Zachary Holman will mean that I would have an in-depth and sound knowledge of the project, and the project head will be consulting with me at all times. I have an ambition of taking part in inventing a sustainable solution to the increased demand for power consumption worldwide.
Research Centers, Evolution and Architecture 1. Introduction The ongoing trend of research centers in the contemporary world is attributed to the formal beginning of research center in the 9th century. The importance of research centers is identified in the 9th century from where its benefits are being acquired in a significant manner today (Tash 9-11). The initial research centers were limited to observatories, which have expanded to several other disciplines by the evolution of time. In the contemporary world, there are several research centers which precisely deal with distinct important disciplines including medical and health sciences, chemistry, physics, sociology, psychology, astronomy and many more (Tash 22-27). Since the beginning of this significant trend in the world, the discipline of architecture has played an intrinsic role in the design and structure of research centers’ buildings (Narvaez, Panksepp and Schore 13-15). The evolution of this trend was accompanied with the evolution of architecture in which specific research facilities were designed in the latest state of the art with its contemporary times (Colquhoun 7-11). Out of many research centers, which are designed in concordance with its domain of discipline, there are specific research centers, which precisely incorporate the issues related to children. The idea of children research center is associated with the evolution of child development (Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development 31-33). This concern has hatched the initialization of children research centers. As the evolution in the consideration of child development led to the persisting trend of children research centers, the discipline of architecture has also pertained to the influence of this evolution (O’Connor 3-5). There are several significant elements, which are being incorporated in the architectural design of children research centers in the contemporary times. These elements include arts, spacious interior design, modernistic exterior of building, numerous levels of buildings with utility of glass, and friendly decor to the architecture of building (Colquhoun 45-51). These are the elements which have been illuminated through the evolution in the children research centers’ architecture. 3.1 History/Evolution (International amp. National) of Development of your Project. If your project has multiple functions/mixed use you should trace the evolution of these functions/types/uses. Offering examples is necessary The Beginning of the Children Research Centre The very first recorded children’s research and learning center was the Victoria Hospital for Sick Children that was built in 1892 by Darling and Curry Architectural Firm. It was built in Toronto, Canada as a hospital to serve sick children. It became the first children’s hospital to open a school within its walls (Hamilton amp. David 65). This school was meant to facilitate the transfer of skills and knowledge that nurses and doctors had learnt in the hospital to new staff. In addition, it was meant for doctors, professionals, and scientists to exchange information on various children illnesses. Starting off as a hospital, the building was later abandoned as it became less suited for multiple departments. The building, first made
With the improvement in the designs of these dams, the apparent flaws have also surfaced, which are being tackled, at individual level……(Chadwick, Introduction to Buttress Dams)An American engineer used such type of dam construction in his projects during the 20th Century and hence, these dams are also called Ambursen dams. The terrain condition is also responsible for choosing the building of this type of dams as the land at the particular site may not be able to support the size and weight of other types of dams. As the name suggests, the dam has the support of many buttresses at different intervals, while these are concrete slabs with reinforced steel that act as a strong seal against the flow of water from the water bodies like a river. As buttress dams can be of many types, the two main types are flat slab and multiple arch dams.While in the flat slab type dams, the flat front faces the water upstream. in multiple types, the front of the dam has several arches which face the upstream. A picture of this dam is given in the Annexure, at the end of this paper, as figure 1.Buttress normally is a structure, which has a composition of a system of curved beams. Each beam in such a composition is responsible for transmitting part of the water load and its dead weight to the dam foundation. The columns are proportioned in such a way that they develop uniform compressive stress, while they should be curved to avoid any load being eccentric at a particular point. Buttresses of large dams are normally built with contraction joints, which caters to the development of secondary tensile stress in the structure….(Buttresses)While discussing the physics involved in designing the buttress dams, the concerned engineers consider the same forces here as they would do while building an arch or a gravity dam. Accordingly, three types of forces would come into play while building a buttress dam. These are the forces exerted by the water and concrete plus the normal force exerted in the upward direction by the earth.
The public education system of Saudi Arabia consists of approximately 19 universities and about 25, 000 schools spread through the country, in addition to other colleges and educational institutions. All these institutions offer students a free education, free books, and free health services.The modern system of education in Saudi offers the State – of – the – art quality of instruction in various diverse fields of the arts and sciences. Though the core system remains the study of Islam, yet it encourages its students to learn diverse subjects in order that its citizens are prepared for life and are ready to work in a global economy.In 632 AD, centuries after the birth of Islam, education for both male and female was made a necessary requirement for all Muslims because the teaching of prophet Mohammed in the holy books – the Quran and the Hadith always emphasized the importance of education. The world of Islam emerged as a seat for learning during the period that Europe was mired in the ‘Dark Ages.’ It was during this period that Muslims made major contributions in the fields of medicine, astronomy, art, physics, and philosophy. This period was called the Golden age. Muslim scholars and scientists became the pioneers in the methods of these subjects and this is what laid the foundation for all the modern sciences which was made available in the 18th century to the European universities.Education is perceived as the dissemination of certain principles and ideas, but in reality, it teaches people how to go about their lives in a formal social context. In respect to these values, it is imperative that children, especially those with lesser capabilities be made stronger through the educational process which will hold for them the promise of a better future.
TOPIC: NUMBER: LAB SESSION: COURSE: DATE: AIM/OBJECTIVES:1. To determine the concept of radioactivity and the random nature of the process2. Familiarize ourselves with the exposure methods3. To the effect of ionization radiation on the health of humans4. To determine the optimum operating voltage of the Geiger Muller5. Measures the background countTHEORY: The Geiger counter is simply a detector filled with a gas, which produces some sort of impulses, which may be counted electronically. The Geiger relies on the ionization effect to produce the impulse. An incoming particle produces free charge in the sensitive volume of the detector via the process of ionization of gas atoms. Due to the charge creation, the free charges are swept up. This current pulse causes a momentary potential difference to appear, which is detected, amplified by the amplifier and counted by the electronics of the system. The behavior of the system is affected by the magnitude of the potential difference applied between the anode and the cathode. The behavior is illustrated inform of a curve of pulse height against applied voltage. EQUIPMENTS:1. Geiger counter and its controlling unit2. Sealed radioactive sources3. Sample holder4. Tweezers5. Lead bricks for shieldingPROCEDURE:Determination of operating voltage of a Geiger counter1. The EHT was given about 5 minutes to warm up after putting it on.2. Place a radioactive source in a stable position in the holder below the Geiger tube window and approximately 2-3cm away from the window.3. Slowly the EHT was increased until the system starts to count. This was referred to as threshold voltage4. The record of count rate vs. EHT was taken5. The midpoint of the reading’s plateau was selected as the operating point.Determination of the slope of the Geiger plateauUsing the count rate C1 (beginning of the plateau) and the count rate C2 (almost 100 to 10 volts beyond C1). Both count rates were allocated operating voltages V1 and V2 respectively. The values of V and C were used to determine the slope of the plateau using an equation.Determination of counter Dead TimeOnce the system is set up in an optimum condition, source 1 is placed on the split holder and the number of count rates per second is measured as N1. While the source is still in place, source 2 is placed in the holder and the equivalent count rate per second taken, as N12. Source 1 is now removed and the number of count rates per second is taken as N2. Finally, this can be used to calculate the dead time. RESULTS:EHT (+_)COUNTU(+_)COUNT RATE(+_)U800237191547917.75188402543981598708.3588027459165902839920291501709568.739603058217410109.0810003139517710199.1011003441018511159.12120060815246210615.4710803198117810379.22114035373188116210.12The figure below shows a scatter plot graph that demonstrates the relation between EHT (volt) and the Count Rate. From the results above, the slope of the graph is obtained by: Difference between EHT/Difference between the count rateDISCUSSION:The slope and the percentage slope of the curve can also be worked out from the count rates. The period of time, during and immediately following an ionization event, when the system is insensitive to a further radiation, is referred to as the Dead time. After placing the material in the holder and setting the voltage to a certain value, we stills didn’t record any count rate until we attained a certain value of EHT. This is because the energy is very low below that point to be able to separate them very fast. On the other hand, the behavior of the system depended on magnitude of the potential difference applied between the anode and the cathode.CONCLUSION:Radioactive material can be used to determine the operating voltage of the Geiger counter, the slope percentage of the plateau and the dead time of the counter. This simply involves radioactive material and recording its EHT and counts rate at a certain amount of time.ASSIGNMENT:What produces the background count measures?The count measure occurs due to the radiation released and emitted by the material in the holder. When a specimen or material is in exited state, it means that it has absorbed radiation of a quantized amount. When the sources are cleared off the bench, the exited specimen will emit radiation to return to the ground level Effects if all results of background were collectedCollecting all the values will add errors to the results because the atom may undergo other reaction in the atmosphere which may result in absorption or emission of a radiation.Why is the dead time correction significant at high count rate but not at low count rate?This is because dead time occurs at very high ionization and high counts but not at low counts.Can a Geiger counter be used to determine the energy of the x-ray photons?Yes. At the x-ray region, there is a characteristic of high energy and low wavelength. The energy is used to change the vibration of molecules and determine their identity. A Geiger counter is characterized by high energy in the region of x-ray.BibliographyCurtain University of Technology Laboratory Manual: Medical Physics 161(26-31)
Emotions are an attempt to express outwardly, to express what we believe. How a person feel is a reflection of how he thinks. Negative thoughts produce negative emotions and positive thoughts produce positive emotions.Laws exist about emotions just like there are laws about physics. Every emotion is a result of some thought that preceded that emotion. If a person has a healthy body then how he thinks causes how he feels. How he feels affects how he behaves. And, how he behaves produces results (Pennington and Haslam, N.D.).Attitudes are inclination or propensities, or tendencies, to react in a favorable or unfavorable way toward an object or any situation. Attitudes reflect a person’s likes and dislikes toward other persons, objects, events, and activities in their environment. Attitudes can have a significant effect on the behavior of a person at work. In the world of work we are concerned with attitudes toward supervision, pay, benefits, promotion or anything that might trigger positive or negative reactions. Employee satisfaction and attitudes represent one of the key areas of measuring organizational effectiveness. Attitudes toward supervision, pay, benefits, promotion, or anything that might trigger positive or negative reactions. Employee satisfaction and attitudes represent one of the key areas for measuring organizational effectiveness. Because of the importance of the links of task, contextual, and ethical performance with important measures of organizational effectiveness, one of the key goals of managers should be to create linkages between employee performance and their satisfaction. However, it is not always easy to change a person’s attitudes about their work. The reason is that, attitudes toward work may be only one important aspect of the person’s structure of attitudes. They might be linked strongly to other important ones, making them deeply embedded, and thereby limiting how much managers can succeed in altering the way
Magic Fountain By Magic Fountain 0 Upward fluid movement The first person(s) to do an experiment on upward fluid movement were two Egyptian brothers,the Banu Musa brothers who invented a double-concentric siphon.2.0 Explanation on the Heron’s experiment I have watched the video through the link provided, and it is strange to see what is happening. The joint pressure connecting A and C is higher than the pipe from B into A, As long as the total weight of water from B to A is less than that moving from A to C, water will keep going up (Munson amp. Okiishi 2009, 75). You can also make it flow faster by increasing the length of pipe A to C while maintaining the length of the pipe from B into A. The fluid motion in this case is powered by gravitational force. You must have a pipe in a U shape which allows the liquid to calm down in the pipes while the level becomes equal and high in the two ends. Looking at those pipes, you might notice that they have different diameters creating an illusion (Kezerashvili amp. Sapozhnikov 2000, 1). This causes an imbalance when water is put in the thick end, and no water in the thinner opening of the pipe. The construction made in the pipe make the liquid not to come to equilibrium. as a result, the water in the thick end exert weight pushing the water down the thick pipe. The kilogram of water that was situated at the most elevated point on one end moves in the opposite direction to the following side, precisely as a pendulum would when swigged (Kezerashvili amp. Sapozhnikov 2000, 1). The overbalancing mass of water getaways from the slight end because the channel is so short, it is impractical hold 1 kg of water. On the peculiarity, you comprehend that the surge is redirected to the thick end of the channel, where it extends the measure of time required for the liquid to accomplish concordance while encountering the tight end. The structure will accomplish amicability in the unmistakable measure of time that it takes for the water to pass through the restricted tube. Note: This charm Fountain examination will certainly for two reasons: at first, it relies on upon pneumatic power, which runs out once the first holder gets filled.Furthermore, the fundamental thing that goes to the second compartment is vaporous pressure and not water. In this manner, it moves the water in the second compartment to the third, yet nothing refills the second holder! No water ever moves into that holder. The Basic physics at play here are: gravity, mass, downward force, and pressure. This experiment may not always work in a simple laboratory with ordinary apparatus like.3)Fluid pressure is given by the formula hρgChange in pressure = p1-p2 = h1ρ1g1- h2ρ2g2 Let H2 be = 18cmThe liquid used is pure water P2= 18/100 *9.81 * 1000 = 1765.8Nm-3h2 – h1 = p2 –p1 =1765.8 – 1200 H1 = P/ρg = 1200/9.81*1000 =12.2cmTherefore, increase in height = 18-12.2 = 5.8cmList of ReferencesMunson, B., amp. Okiishi, T. (2009).Fundamentals of fluid mechanics(6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley amp. Sons. Kezerashvili, R., amp. Sapozhnikov, A. (2000). Magic Fountain. Retrieved November 13, 2014, from http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0310/031003