In recent times, restorative justice has come to be loosely defined as an approach to judicial matters than focuses on the needs of the victims as well as the offenders. This approach is taken in lieu of attempting to satisfy the abstract principles of law and order or the desire of a community or individual to apply punishment. When restorative justice is applied, victims are given an active role in the dispute, while offenders often deal face pressure to deal with their actions. In order for us to evaluate the merits of restorative justice, in particular as it pertains to youth justice in the United Kingdom, we will focus first on the history of restorative justice in the U.K. Later, we will offer an analysis of the development of restorative justice policies in the United Kingdom and examine its effects on youth. Finally, we will conclude with an insightful critique of restorative justice and some suggestions for the future.In 1992 Gordon Brown, who would go on to become the Labour Prime Minister of Great Britain, proclaimed that government must not only be tough on crime, but tough on the root causes of crime. Brown’s proclamation, in this case, is truly an exercise of restorative justice principles in action. Restorative justice, although not always in name, had first became a notion of relevance in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. However, it was not necessarily new as there had been occasional instances of victim-offender mediation by individuals for quite a long time, particularly in special schools and therapeutic communities. Most of the early mediation services were largely dependent on visions of particular people or groups, including professionals from probation and psychology, and religious groups such as Anglican clergy and Quaker meetings. Quakers in particular have had a long-standing involvement in restorative approaches.When restorative justice, in the United Kingdom, first shot to relevance in the 1970s and 1980s, many were quick to dismiss it.
Common sense notions of power and power relations also speak of power with respect to whether it is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ – i.e. – whether it is used for positive or negative ends. Although this is an important element of study, the understanding of power relations in Psychology primarily suggests that these relationships are Positive (Hollway et al., 2007). This simply means that they do affect events and outcomes. The outcomes in question could be beneficial to one or more parties involved, could be harmful, or could be in part beneficial and in part harmful. In any of the preceding cases, it becomes important to understand the power relations between elements as part of developing a global understanding of the situation (Hollway et al., 2007). Importance of Power Relations in Everyday Life As the field of Social Psychology has evolved, it has become all the more important to understand the role of power and power relations in social phenomena. Power is inherent in all social relations, whether it is at a micro or a macro level (Phoenix, Hollway Elliott, 2009). Thus, it is necessary to understand the impact of the existing power relations in different situations, so that the data collected and observations made may be interpreted more accurately. Power relations are dynamic, and affect all parties concerned in some way or the other (Hollway et al., 2007). Thus, power should not be viewed only in terms of how the more powerful affect the situation, but also how the less powerful response to their lack of power. As a situation develops, power may flow from one participant to another, and it is necessary to understand this dynamic when interpreting the changes in people’s responses to the situation. Thus, it becomes apparent that power is not only relational but also contextual (Hollway et al., 2007). Different people may take power given the situational circumstances. Such a critical analysis of the data is necessary for not only for a more holistic interpretation of facts. but also for the development of the stronger theory of human functioning (Hollway et al., 2007). Over the years it has become evident that power affects all interactions and relationships across the board. Even a simple interaction with a stranger when where one individual asks another for directions is associated with an exchange of power, no matter how imperceptible. When one person asks another for something, they give them the power to satisfy/help them or to disappoint them. If the respondent answers in a positive manner (either by giving the directions or by apologizing for not knowing) they pass power back to the asker. On the other hand, if the respondent rebuffs to the asker, he/she may attempt to re-establish the balance of power by attributing negative dispositional traits to the respondent. Most people are oblivious to such minor exchanges of power. particularly as these power relations rarely impact their lives on a significant level (Langdridge, Taylor Mahendran, 2007). But sometimes even power relations that significantly impact someone’s life may be overlooked. In real-world settings, examples of such overlooked instances can be seen in racial discrimination against colored people and discrimination against women (Hollway et al., 2007).
Davies Bhugra relates that the humanistic model was developed and sought to emphasize human nature as essentially positive and valued choices and purpose in life (92). Its basic assumption is that what is being considered normal or abnormal is subjective to and dependent on the therapist or clinician’s own frame of reference. The therapist’s goal then is to provide opportunities for the client to achieve his optimum potential by letting him be himself on the way to self-discovery (103).There are various approaches to the humanistic model and for the purposes of this presentation, includes Carl Rogers’ person-centered therapy, George Kelly’s personal construct psychology, Eric Berne’s transactional analysis, Abraham Maslow’s transpersonal psychotherapy, and Victor Frankl’s existential approach.Rogers is considered to be the founder of contemporary counseling. His person-centered therapy espouses that individuals are capable of finding solutions to their problems by providing a counseling environment in which they are given unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding (93).It is assumed that each person has a natural tendency to better himself- to expand, to extend, to become autonomous, develop, and mature – in the process of self-actualization (94). Self-actualization is a state in which the person has a positive self-regard or self-value and it is open to continuous change.As a child, the person receives love and affection from significant persons in his life and develops a positive self-regard and this way the self-actualizing tendency is promoted. However, there are times in his development that he receives love and affection only when he pleases adults or behaves according to their notion of what is appropriate and desirable. This then develops conditional self-regard in the person and the goal to self-actualize is being blocked or distorted.Rogers believes that psychopathology is a result of the tension between the person’s inherent desire to attain self-actualization or growth and the conditional self-regard that he received from others.
In other words, new tests can be developed to describe the elements included in any particular theory. Anderson, Herriot, Hodgkinson (2001) devoted an entire article to the necessity of “Pragmatic” Psychology being applied at work, wherein both methodological rigor and practical relevance are high. Unfortunately, they also claim that this is not where organizations are heading in their use of Psychology. It is therefore essential that the practitioner or test administrator understand and appreciate the limitations of the tests they administer, the need for stringent processes on part of tester, and the necessity of aiming for objective and unbiased results.There exist many sources of random error in psychometric testing and its subsequent interpretation. In order to minimize such errors, researchers apply various technical criteria to ensure the psychological soundness of tests. However, some degree of systematic bias remains inherent in psychometrics, preventing accurate measurement. Although psychometric testing serves to indicate an aspect of a participant’s behavior, psychologists (and any test users) should understand that test limitations do exist. In fact, the error is a necessary component of measurement, and therefore must be considered in all analyses of results. According to Cohen Swerdlik (2005), error variance is “the component of a test score attributable to sources other than the trait or ability measured” (p.96). Therefore, it is assumed that a test taker has a ‘true’ score that would exist if not for the error.Sources of error variance include test construction, administration, scoring, and interpretation. Examples of these sources during testing range from the test-room temperature to the presence or absence of a test giver. Examples of these sources during testing range from the test-room temperature to the presence or absence of a test giver. A test is reliable when it consistently measures the same thing in the same manner.
There are a variety of possible reasons behind these perceptions, some of which will be addressed here. After providing a short biography, this paper will address some of the background elements that might have influenced his theories, mention three of the theories themselves in terms of their contribution to psychology, note some objections leveled at Jung’s ideas, and conclude with my own personal thoughts on his theories.Carl Gustav Jung was born in 1875 on the Swiss shore of Lake Constance to Paul and Emilie Jung, a village pastor and the youngest daughter of a famous-but-eccentric theologian (Stevens, 2001, p. 2). Jung’s father died when he was still in school and, although his first career choice was that of a medical doctor, he was precluded from pursuing this career path due to the fact that he could not afford to do so. he opted instead, to go to work as an assistant at the Bergholzli asylum proximate to Zurich (Daniels, 2003, p. 24). He met and developed a friendship with Sigmund Freud, with whom he corresponded often until a series of philosophical and perceptive differences caused the break (Stevens, 2001, pp. 18-24). He married and had a family and, although seemingly happy with his wife Emma, nevertheless engaged in several well-documented affairs. After World War I, he spent much of his time traveling and writing much of the work we have today. He died in 1961.There are many aspects of Jung’s life and experiences that can be seen in his subsequent work. so much so that they lie far beyond the scope of this paper. There are a few, however, that should be mentioned to provide context for the theories and his contribution to society which follow.The first is the environment in which Jung developed. In speaking of the period of time between the 1870s and 1930s, one author notes that “the major disciplinary and theoretical forms of modern psychology and psychotherapy were established” (Shamdasani, 2003, p. 10).
The individual responds to certain stimuli as a reaction to what is occurring within themselves. Would it not be important, then, to understand more than merely the internal workings of the person, but to fully comprehend the impact this individual is having on the external world around them: human behavior.Human interaction could be considered a likely situation by which to measure human behavior, which is increasingly important within the modern business world. Douglas McGregor, a renowned theorist on human behavior, theorized that works within an organization fit into two specific categories, lazy and generally inherently unresponsive to corporate needs (Theory X) and the worker that can be motivated and stimulated by individual desire to strive to excellence (Theory Y) (Kopelman, Prottlas, Davis, 2008). In this scenario, the worker is inherently driven to either a motivational state and response according to their individual personal agenda. Does the worker share a desire to succeed or does the worker simply enjoy taking direction from superiors? How the individual responds in this role is the essence of human behavior. Having offered this, it would be somewhat irrational to suggest that the unconscious should only be the focus of study as it tends to omit the effect on the general environment. Missed deadlines, poor overall on-the-job performance, and other trappings of inferior, inherent ability must dictate a theory for the workplace manager. How best to motivate the unmotivated? Under McGregor’s theory of human behavior (and motivation), studying only the unconscious as a primary goal would not allow for solutions: Something which psychology provides as an entire field of study.Intelligence tests are capable of measuring human intellectual capacity and should be given similar regard in a variety of testing situations. Depending on the variety of testing instruments and the model by which it was constructed, human capacity might well be measured effectively.
During this period May decided that he wanted to study theology and moved back to the United States to attend school at the Union Theological Seminary. in 1938 he received his bachelor of divinity degree and went on to work as a minister for two years (Reeves 1977).One of the turning points in May’s life was when he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and spent three years living in a sanatorium. During this period he faced death and spent long hours alone, in contemplation. he became particularly interested in existentialist philosophy, reading such seminal writers as Soren Kierkegaard, who had a profound influence on his personal philosophy and intellectual development (Reeves 1977). It wasn’t long before May became wary of his career as a Congregationalist minister, and as a result, he quit his job and began to study psychoanalysis at the White institute (Reeves 1977). It was here that he met such seminal thinkers as Harry Stack Sullivan and Erich Fromm. Later May would enroll at Teacher’s College, Columbia University to pursue his doctorate in psychology (Reeves 1977). His time spent as a minister greatly influenced his intellectual pursuits at Columbia, as his friendship with existentialist theologian Paul Tillich soon led to his further pursuit of humanist philosophies, and ultimately existential psychology. In 1949 May received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Columbia. May later went on to become a teacher at the William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Psychoanalysis (Reeves 1977). May also worked as a lecturer at the New School for Social Research and was an itinerant professor at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton (Reeves 1977). May also wrote an extensive amount of books on psychology and the human experience, perhaps the most famous of which are Love and Will and the Meaning of Anxiety. May died in October 1994 at Tiburon in San Fransisco.
Women are sometimes labeled as nags, whereas men are labeled as wife beaters. This paper explores the different expressions of aggression by men and women. It presents different viewpoints, opinions, and studies by different sociologists and psychologists regarding gender differences in aggression.“Aggression is an intentional behavior that is done to cause harm or pain to another person” (Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2008). The important point in this definition of aggression is the intent to cause harm to another person. Harm caused to another human being through accidents is not considered as aggression. Aggression can either be physical or verbal, and it may be successful or unsuccessful (Spaulding, 2008). Nevertheless, whatever form aggression may take, it is always important to note that aggression may be caused by various factors and reasons. Biologists will claim biological reasons for gender differences in aggression. sociologists will credit socio-cultural factors, and some psychologists will lay claim to both socio-cultural and biological reasons for gender differences in aggression. These points shall be discussed in this paper.Aggression is often attributed to biological factors. These biological factors mostly have something to do with the body’s hormones. Testosterone in adult males is “about ten times as high as those in adult females” (Goldberg, 1993, as quoted by Sanderson, 2001). This hormone is largely credited for aggression, dominance, and competitive behavior in men. Many biologists and practitioners believe that men are naturally prone to more aggressive behavior because of this hormone. In the process, they are also more prone to physical outbursts of anger and aggression as compared to their female counterparts. Research studying levels of testosterone in prison inmates revealed that those convicted of violent crimes hadhigher levels of testosterone than those convicted of non-violent offenses.
The manner in which this has been presented time and again needs to be stressed more on the lines of the programs that are shown across the board and the advertising that is done courtesy the different brands and products in the name of commercialism. These need to be looked at in detail and in this paper, we explore the reasons as to why the same is so very rampant and what echoes the sentiments of these stereotypes to remain within the lounge rooms where our television sets are placed. We might care to say one thing or the other that is in complete opposition to these stereotypes but we do not dare do something about it. The whole thinking mindset thus needs to be changed for the better if we want to abolish the whole concept of the ever remaining stereotypes present within the media. (Fiske Hartley, 2003)Media is a part of social psychology. Hence the branch of human psychology that deals with the behavior of groups and the influence of social factors on the children is indeed the social psychology and as we are getting the hang of things from the advertising and persuasion perspective of it, these both are seen as being quite imperative here. Also, the stereotypical setting of showing girls indoors as opposed to boys in the field and carrying out masculine acts suggest that there is a certain amount of gender ambiguity that is present in the ads of present times. These put more emphasis on the understanding that the advertising professionals of today lack imagination, creative touch, and the much-needed understanding of their responsibility towards the children in particular and the whole society in general. (Frawley, 2008) There has been a lot of hues and cry with regards to the equality rights of the women as compared to the men in the society in current times but less said the better in the real role played by the advertising professionals where they have more often than not failed to capitalize on the fact that they have a perfect platform to get their act together and serve for the betterment of all concerned and more specifically the young ones when one talks about a concise context here.
Most commonly assessment has a written format being consisted of a series of questions referring to the curriculum – specifically the part of the curriculum delivered by the tutor. However, assessment can be developed through different methods in accordance with the tutor’s plans on curriculum delivery. When other scientific sectors are involved in the educational framework, like in the case of psychology, assessment is based on the findings of clinical research – conducted in this case through an interview with the learners related with the specific research. in any case, the use of additional practices like the observation or the evaluation of written tests is possible within the context of a psychological assessment project in education. In most cases, assessment in education is related to the identification and the evaluation of the cognitive capabilities of learners as well as with their response to the methods used by teachers/ professors for the delivery of the curriculum. In other words, assessment can also work as a tool for the evaluation of the performance of teachers/ professors within a specific educational context.The value of the assessment for the identification of the failures related to the delivery of the curriculum or its understanding by learners is significant. The specific issue has been examined by Bowen et al. (2005). The above researchers used a series of data collected ‘using the Elementary School Success Profile’ (Bower et al., 2005, 491) and came to the conclusion that ‘preassessment knowledge was not highly correlated with obtained data. preassessment expectations matched obtained data only about 41% of the time, and knowledge varied by domain, source, and grade level’ (Bower et al., 2005, 491). In accordance with the above study, teachers in elementary schools should be given appropriate training in order to improve their knowledge on the learners’ perceptions and conditions of life. this knowledge would help them at a next level to understand and evaluate more effectively the response of learners to the methods used by teachers for the delivery of the curriculum.