A public bank can be issued if it is necessary in order to prevent a real risk to the fairness of the trial or if the salutary effects of the public ban outweigh the deleterious effects to the free expression of those affected.According to Media Law Resource Center (MLRC), 50 state survey (pp 81) “open court” principle presumes that the public poise in the honesty of the court system and the agreement of ensuring that there is justice is made in openness and in public. The reasons for doing this are to ensure that an effective evidentiary process is maintained. The evidence process is very important when it comes to handling lawsuits. It is the quantity of the available evidence which determines whether to prosecute the accused or not (Boyd 50). The accused is innocent until proven guilty, and this can only be determined by the amount of evidence that the court has against him.In a free and democratic society, the Dagenais/Mentuck rules should not be applied. This is because the public will be excluded from some of the information if the rules are not applied to statutory. The court is there to ensure that there is justice and that culprits are put behind bars. It is the right of the public to know how justice is provided.According to the Canadian Charter of rights and freedom, there should be reasonable limits in relation to what should be published. The court has the right to withhold some information in relation to some lawsuits so as to protect some parties. It is with great concern to note that all this is done to benefit the mere citizen (Jacob 20). The representative of the citizen is the government. The government is supposed to ensure that its citizens are up to date on how the country is doing and whether justice is being served. Judges are human beings and can be subject to discrimination and bribery. No one is perfect, and that is why there should be openness when it comes to court rulings and the information is available to the general public.
There is near consensus amongst the members of Parliament and the general public for discarding this concept. In the Iraq war issue, Prime Minister Tony Blair empowered Parliament to vote in support of the war. This was defective on two counts. First, Parliament should be empowered to declare war, without having to rely on any transfer of power by the Prime Minister. Second, there is no safeguard to prevent a future Prime Minister from waging war, without the consent of Parliament.The executive governmental powers constitute some of the prerogative powers. For example, the Crown is empowered, among other things, to conduct foreign relations. It is also empowered to conduct international affairs, declare war and sue for peace. The Crown can deploy the armed forces, appoint ministers and dissolve Parliament. However, the exercise of these powers necessitates the advice of the government.Her Majesty has been provided with certain constitutional powers, which she can exercise as a personal prerogative. These include the power of immunity from prosecution in the courts. Another such power is immunity from tax. Furthermore, the Queen enjoys proprietary interests in royal fish. Thus, the Royal Prerogative is an admixture of powers, rights, immunities, duties, and obligations.The empowerment of the Crown to conduct foreign relations and international affairs, to deploy the armed forces to a limited extent, to appoint ministers, dissolve Parliament and provide assent to bills, and to declare war or sue for peace, constitute its prerogative or executive powers. However, most of these powers can only be exercised by Her Majesty the Queen, after obtaining the advice of the government.There are a few powers that the Monarch can exercise independently. such as the dissolution of Parliament, creation of peers and providing assent to bills. In addition, the Queen can exercise some constitutional powers, as a part of her personal prerogative.
And whether or not they are rich or poor people all have their reasons in which they ride public transportation.Bryan, the man I interviewed for this portion of my observations, rides the bus from the north side of town into downtown. He is a security officer at a local hospital. His uniform consists of a tan button down short sleeve shirt with a blue label with gold trim. Bryan’s pants are dark blue with a tan stripe down the side with gold trim. Furthermore, he wears black boots and wears a shiny black duty belt upon which he keeps his handcuffs and radio strap.Once Bryan, a five foot eleven somewhat slim blond haired blue eyed white male with small rectangular glasses, travels downtown, he gets off at one of the first two bus stops and walks two blocks east over to where the train station for Metro rail is located. Once he arrives at the rail station, the “taps” his Q-Card, Metro’s fare card, and boards the train upon its arrival. Usually, he reads a book while traveling from home to work.The train stops 10 times before it reaches the final destination at the Transit Center. There, he walks off the rail towards the escalators. He, then, rides the escalators up to the overhead walkway connecting the train station to the transit center. While on the walkway he takes the number one elevator down to the first floor near the stop for the number 4 line, which heads down towards his final destination, a local hospital.Upon arrival, he taps the card on the Q-reader and found my seat. Once I sat down, I opened the book I was reading, Breaking Dawn. The bus, then, left the transit center only moments later. A young black woman, sitting near me, and an Asian guy, across the aisle from her, was talking about movies.Bryan caught the tail end of their conversation as he finished my book. Bryan, then, decided to join in the conversation. They began to talk about the number of comic book movies that were coming out of having already come out“I’m looking forward to The Wolverine movie due out next year,” Bryan told the young black woman, in turquoise scrubs. She was perplexed.
Many generations of children grew up on stories and series about a wizard with a lightning bolt on his forehead. However, these books series were condemned for "propaganda of black magic." After the appearance of a series of such books, numerous children were willing to study in boarding schools, and the number of boarding schools has significantly increased in the United Kingdom. The Guardian told about all these issues in a selection of 20 facts about Harry Potter, and all those were involved in the 20th anniversary of the first publication of the story in the world. The circulation of the book series "Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone" in 1997 numbered only 500 copies, 300 of which immediately went to libraries in the world. Fans and collectors are willing to pay £ 30,000 for each of these series by Rowling. In the book "Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire," a young wizard fights in a duel with Lord Voldemort. He accidentally causes the dark knight’s wand to reverse images of the characters Voldemort killed. Harry’s father, James, appears in front of his mother Lily, whom, according to the story, he helped to escape and died. What is Harry Potter to you? Rowling herself later admitted that it was her mistake, which was corrected in subsequent reprints of the series. The release of the first book about Potter in the series in 1997, almost no one noticed. That day, people were more interested in the election of the Prime Minister of Ireland, Bertie Ahern, his relationship with the then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair, the performance of "Spice Girls" and the love life of Princess Diana. Rowling designed the books about Harry so that their characters would grow with the readers. Each book was published until the next school year, raising deeper and more mature topics. For example, the Ministry of Magic opposes the bureaucracy of the White House and executives of the United Kingdom. In 20 years of existence, Rowling’s bestseller series have become material for research in the humanities. Scholars undertake to develop intertextuality in books, try to find manifestations of pagan views in the story about the wizard, undertake psychoanalysis of the characters’ actions, and undertake to analyze the events of novels from the point of view of the Holocaust. In several US states, Rowling’s books were burned because they allegedly encouraged children to practice black magic. "Behind the innocent face is the nature of satanic darkness. Harry Potter is the devil, and we need to destroy him," Pastor Jack Brock announced during a funeral service in 2001. Joan Rowling wrote her first book as a single mother, occasionally visiting Nicholson’s cafe and locking herself in the back room of the Elephant House in Edinburgh. The coffee shop now operates as a Chinese restaurant, and the house is so popular with tourists from all over the world that it seems the queues there go on forever. The fascination with the Harry Potter series became such a fever that the market for adult readers was huge. But they were embarrassed to appear in public with a children’s book. That’s why the first "adult" edition appeared in 1998. All the same, just with more gloomy covers. Nowadays, this book is popular among children and adults.
Speaking of betrayal, Shakespeare tries to show the essence of this phenomenon. The Danish king Claudius kills his brother, thereby betraying a loved one, and the country, and his own honor. His betrayals are basically vile and criminal. Bearing in his artistic image, the seal of Claudius, the Danish king, multiplies his adultery with the wife of the deceased. On the example of the death trap arranged by the young Danish king Claudius and prince, we see that the actions of the first are strictly thought out and terrible in their criminal courtesy. To discuss the reasons that led to the betrayal of the memory of her husband by Hamlet’s mother, Queen Gertrude is quite difficult. we can only emphasize that young Gertrude committed it consciously. Hamlet is deeply disappointed in his mother, who was once the idea of a woman for him. The young prince does not understand how she, who seemed so fond of her father, could have committed such vile haste. Omitting the petty betrayals of the servants of the Danish throne, including the young prince and Claudius, dictated by the banal desire to curry favor, we will dwell in more detail on the betrayal of Laertes. In this hero, in our opinion, the very involuntary betrayal manifested itself, due to an unfavorable set of circumstances for him. Dejected by the death of his father and indignant at the obviously non-Christian burial of the latter, Laertes easily finds himself in the networks of deception skillfully arranged by Claudius, and then, upset by the death of his sister, he has no strength to listen to his former friend and find out the truth. Summing up all of the above, on the issue of trickery and deception in Hamlet by William Shakespeare, we can say that the topic of betrayal in Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet” is multifaceted, as it is reflected in the images of Hamlet and Claudius. The author not only reveals to the reader the essence of this phenomenon in the images of the young prince and Claudius but also tries to comprehend both its true causes and philosophical sources. Shakespeare’s betrayal does not have a homogeneous structure: a person can be aware of it and unwittingly commit treason, only in one betrayal invariably – in the play that it brings to a young person’s choice. The theme of revenge in Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet” is embodied in the images of Hamlet, Laertes and Fortinbras, and Claudius. Compositionally, in the center, stands the prince, and not only because of his personal significance. Young Hamlet’s father was killed, but Hamlet’s father killed Fortinbras’s father, and Hamlet himself kills Laerte’s father, triggered emotionally by deception and trickery of Claudius. In “Hamlet,” Shakespeare’s humanistic approach to this moral problem breaks the character’s tragedy’s decision on revenge. It is very easy to solve the Laertes problem. Upon learning that his father was killed, he is not interested in the circumstances of the death of Polonius, hastily returns to Denmark, raises a riot, breaks into the palace, and rushes to the king, whom he considers being responsible for the death of the old courtier.Laertes rejects all other moral duties. He does not care that Polonius himself exposed himself to the blow of Hamlet. Upon learning of the death of his sister, Laertes becomes even more determined in his intentions to take revenge on Hamlet and enters into a vile conspiracy with the king to kill the prince. If Laertes reaches the extreme limit of villainy in his desire to take revenge, Fortinbras reveals a complete disregard for the task of revenge. We do not know the reasons for this, but the circumstances described in the plot allow us to say that young Fortinbras has no real reason for revenge. His father himself summoned Hamlets father to a duel and was defeated in honest martial arts. Having learned from the ghost of the father the true cause of his death, Hamlet vows to avenge his death killing Claudius, from this moment on, the thirst for revenge takes first place in his life, but for this he, a follower of humane views, must commit evil himself. Hamlet accepts the task of revenge towards Claudius. Hamlet is motivated by love for the king and equally hatred of Claudius, who was not only a murderer but also a seducer of Hamlet’s mother. When Hamlet had the opportunity to avenge the death of the king, Claudius was in prayer, and such a death, according to Hamlet, would be a reward for Claudius. Hamlet decides to hold off, but, putting off his revenge, Hamlet scolds himself for inaction and lethargy exhibited by Claudius. Having fulfilled the oath given to the ghost of the king, Hamlet betrays himself, betrays Hamlets principles and beliefs. Only God is able to give and take life from man, such as Claudius. Hamlet acted as an avenger for what he himself did in relation to others trying to kill Claudius. Evil pays for evil, as shown by the examples of Claudius and Hamlet. Thus, the theme of revenge is present throughout the play, serves as a motive for vile deeds and betrayals of both Claudius and Hamlet, and itself engenders evil, which is a great moral problem. In Shakespeare’s play, two principles clashed, two systems of public morality: humanism, which affirms the right of every person to his share of earthly goods (Hamlet), and predatory individualism (Claudius), allowing one to trample on others and even all. The humanistic ideal was in the interests of the people and of all mankind. The predatory egoism of Claudius corresponded to the worst aspects of life practice, both of the old ruling feudal class (Claudius) and the rising bourgeoisie (Hamlet). In the example of Claudius, Hamlet notices the insincerity of people, flattery, and degrading human dignity. In the play, the idea that evil has penetrated into all the pores of society does not leave Hamlet even when he talks with his mother about her guilt before the memory of the former king. Hamlet says: “After all, virtue in this fat age / Gotta apologize to the vice/praying stubbornly to help him” (play “Hamlet”). All such Hamlets speeches expand the scope of the play, giving it great social meaning. The misfortune and evil that struck the Hamlet family is only an isolated case, characteristic of society as a whole, in reference to Claudius. For young Prince Hamlet, the foundation of order and justice is morality. Hamlet refuses revenge as an obsolete form of punishment. He dreams of justice and tries to affirm it with his actions. However, Hamlet, like his ancestors, usurps the right to decide the fate of Claudius. The purpose of his life is to establish moral laws in his father’s country through the shame or extermination of those responsible, in his opinion, that “something has rotted in our Danish state”. Shakespeare shows that not only is reality tragic in which evil Claudius is so powerful, but it is also tragic that this reality can lead a beautiful person like Hamlet to an almost hopeless state. The solution Hamlet is looking for is not what is better, more convenient, or more effective, but that one must act accordingly with the highest concept of humanity. The choice Hamlet faces is this statement:”.. obey / Slings and arrows of a fierce fate / Ile, rushing to the sea of troubles, defeat them / The confrontation?” Hamlet still thinks about the murder of Claudius. Hamlet has been silently suffering from evil represented in the image of Claudius, or fighting against it is only one side of the issue. Submission to fate may manifest itself in the decision to voluntarily die. At the same time, the active struggle can destroy the young person. The question "to be or not to be?" merges with another – to live or not to live? The theme of death constantly arises in Hamlet’s reasoning: it is in direct correlation with the awareness of the transience of the being. The young prince hates Claudius. For young Hamlet, living being is so hard that to get rid of its horrors, it is not difficult to commit suicide. Death is like a dream. But Hamlet is not sure whether the mental torment of Claudius and Laertes ends with death. Dead flesh cannot suffer. But the soul is immortal. What future awaits her "in mortal sleep"? Hamlet cannot know, because he is on the other side of the human existence – "an unknown land, where there is no return to earthly wanderers." Hamlets reasoning is by no means abstract. Before Hamlet, Claudius of great imagination and subtle sensitivity, and death appears in all its painful tangibility. The fear of dying, about which Hamlet speaks, arises in himself. Hamlet is forced to admit that thinking and foreboding of death deprive a person of decisiveness. Fear sometimes leads to abandoning action and struggle. This famous monologue reveals to us that Hamlet has reached the highest limit in his doubts before the revenge of the king Claudius. It is true that the magnificent words in which Shakespeare clothed the thoughts of his hero were remembered by everyone as the highest expression of doubt and indecision, reflected in Hamlets speeches on Claudius’ revenge One of the most striking problems of the play is the problem of choice, which can be considered a reflection of the main conflict of the play “Hamlet”. For the thinking persons (Hamlet and Claudius), the problem of choice, especially when it comes to moral choice, is always difficult and responsible.Undoubtedly, the final result in the play “Hamlet” is determined by a number of reasons, and first of all, by the value system of each individual personality (the images of Hamlet, Claudius, and Laertes). If in his experience, a person is guided by higher, noble impulses, he most likely will not decide on an inhuman and criminal step, will not violate the well-known Christian commandments: do not kill, Do not steal, Do not commit adultery, etc. However, in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet,” we are witnessing a slightly different process. Hamlet in a fit of revenge, kills several people, and Hamlets actions cause mixed feelings, but condemnation in this row is in the last place. In “Hamlet,” upon learning that the death of the king fell at the hands of the villain Claudius, Hamlet faces the most difficult problem of choice. The famous monologue “To be or not to be?” embodies Hamlet’s spiritual doubts making a difficult moral choice to kill or not to kill Claudius. Life or death? Strength or impotence? Unequal struggle or shame of cowardice? Hamlet is trying to resolve such complex issues. Hamlets famous monologue shows a destructive spiritual struggle between idealistic ideas and brutal reality. The insidious murder of the king, the indecent marriage of the mother, the betrayal of friends, the weakness and frivolity of the beloved, the meanness of the courtiers – all this fills the Hamlets soul with exorbitant suffering. From the example of Claudius, young Hamlet understands that "Denmark is a prison," and "the century has been shaken". From now on, Hamlet is left alone with the prudish world ruled by lust, cruelty, and hatred. Hamlet constantly feels a contradiction: his consciousness clearly says what he has to do, but he lacks will and determination. On the other hand, it can be assumed that it is not the lack of will that leaves Hamlet for a long time. Hamlet is hated by Claudius, for whom there were no laws of kinship, who, together with his mother, betrayed the honor of the king and took possession of the crown. Hamlet is deeply disappointed in his mother, who was once the idea of a woman for him. The meaning of life for Hamlet becomes revenge on Claudius in memory of the king and the restoration of justice. "But, how could this matter be carried on so as not to tarnish oneself". Faced with the contradiction between dreams of life and living itself, Hamlet faces a difficult choice, "to be or not to be, to obey the slings and arrows of a fierce fate or to collide on the sea of troubles, to defeat them by confrontation, to die, to fall asleep." ‘To be’ – for Hamlet, means thinking, believing in a person, and acting in accordance with their beliefs and faith. But the deeper he knows people, his life, the clearer he sees triumphant evil and realizes that he is powerless to crush him with such a lonely struggle. Discord with the world is accompanied by inner discord. Hamlets former faith in man, his previous ideals are crushed, broken in a clash with reality, but he cannot completely abandon them. otherwise, he would cease to be himself. "The century has been shaken – and it is worse than anything that I was born to restore it!" Claudius, for Hamlet, is not just a sacrificial creature, Claudius is the man to be killed for the sake of justice. As the son of the king, Hamlet must avenge the honor of the family, kill Claudius, who poisoned the king. The fratricide brings evil around him. The trouble with Hamlet is that he does not want to be a successor of evil as in revenge for Claudius – because, in order to eradicate evil, Hamlet will have to use that very evil. It’s hard for Hamlet to take such a path. Hamlet is torn apart by a split: the spirit of the king calls for revenge, while the inner voice stops the "act of evil." The tragedy for Hamlet is not only that the world is terrible, but also that Hamlet himself must rush into the abyss of evil in order to fight it. Hamlet realizes that he himself is far from perfect, and, indeed, his behavior discovers that the evil that prevails in the world, to some extent, also stains him. The tragic irony of circumstances leads Hamlet to the fact that he, acting as an avenger for Claudius, himself also kills the father of Laertes and Ophelia, and the son of Polonius takes revenge on him. In general, circumstances are such that Hamlet, carrying out revenge, is forced to smash right and left. Hamlet, for whom there is nothing more precious than living, has to become the squire of death. Young Hamlet, trying to revenge Claudius wearing a mask of a jester, engages in combat with the world filled with evil. The young prince kills the courtier Polonius, who watches Hamlet, reveals the betrayal of his university comrades, refuses Ophelia, who could not resist the evil influence, and is embroiled in intrigue against Hamlet.
Normally, individuals and institutions develop codes of ethics for their personal and professional lives to promote harmonious and acceptable behavior within their respective environments. Although a number of approaches to developing codes of ethics are available, the underpinning rule demands all standards of ethics to ensure clarity and objectivity in the values and principles, plainly indicating the implementation and monitoring plan, and a plan for periodical ethical auditing.For an individual or organization to succeed in a personal or professional world, there is a need to put in place a concrete statement that determines the values and principles that party cherishes. These values include personal integrity, responsibility, honesty, excellence, and respect. These values have proved to be effective as far as both personal and career advancements are concerned. – Personal integrity – one needs to engage in constructive behavior that has the benefit of enhancing individual or organization’s image. In order to ensure personal integrity, an individual should always build their reputation and avoid any behavior that questions one’s credibility. – Responsibility – to conduct one’s self in a wise manner that attracts dependence and opportunities. Responsibility calls for accountability in every undertaking.-Honesty – ensures credibility and trustworthiness in all endeavors and consequently leading to more opportunities towards honest persons. Excellence – This means always aiming for the best quality in productivity and output in school or professional lifestyle in accordance with the prevailing evaluation criteria. Since this is a continuous process, a person can undergo a continuous process of perfection, as there is no limit to this principle. Respect – it implies obey prevailing regulations, all stakeholders, and third parties. By being respectful at all times, one earns respect and integrity that in turn that helps in boosting their ethical perception. Through responsible upbringing, most parents have been able to instill these crucial values into the systems of their young ones through constant guidance and correction. This forms the basis of ethical development as high ethical values and good morals begin from as early as during the childhood years of a given person. Individuals can acquire ethical principles from learning activities at school or while attending religious teachings where they inculcate a myriad of moral teachings that over the years form their ethical standards. Various approaches through which parents, mentors, teachers, role models, and guardians impart the ethical values exist with the one commonly used by parents at home being the end-based approach. This method involves evaluation of the benefits or otherwise consequences of a particular course of to the family members or the public. Through understanding the consequences, individuals especially the children can reconsider their actions thereby shaping their own ethical principles (Hatcher Aragon, 2000).
The first section will explore the representation of women in 1930s film, concentrating on how women were objectified. The second section will focus on how 1930s cinema, pre-code, portrayed women as having to choose between a career and love. Section 3 will look at the role of women in 1930s film and theorise that some women, notably Norma Shearer, could transcend stereotypes. Finally, I will explore how women’s roles in the cinema evolved from the beginning to the end of the Depression, and section 4 will examine criticisms of women in 1930s cinema and Section 5 will be a conclusion. Annotated Bibliography Berry, S. (2000). Screen style: Consumer fashion and femininity in 1930s Hollywood. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press New. This book will be useful in assessing the impact of the 1930s films as it details how Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford and Marlene Dietrich influenced women filmgoers as role models of self-determination, and shows why the public is fascinated with these strong-willed women and others. Dawson, J. E. (1995). Hollywood’s image of the working woman. Las Vegas: University of Nevada. This dissertation will facilitate to explore the roles, which women have taken on the silver screen, how women are portrayed, and psychological aspects and influence of films to women. Feuer, J. (1993). The Hollywood musical. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. This book will assist in the understanding of the origin and evolution of the Hollywood musical, as well as how it has affected society over the years, especially the chapter ‘Dreamworlds and dream stages’, which details how Hollywood musical provided audience with escapist entertainment from the difficulties of war and depression faced in the 1930s. Kolbjornsen, T. K. (1998). ‘Dansingi Hollywood: punktnedslagi film-musikalenshistorie’, dissertation, Villanova University, Philadelphia, PA. This dissertation explores musical film aesthetically and how spectators are transformed by the experience of watching these Hollywood musicals such as Busby Berkeley shows in the 1930s and an exploration of dance as an aesthetic sign and discussion on how women are transformed into kinetic ornaments. Lovasz, K. (2007). Technologies of self-presentation: Women’s engagement with mediated representation from the era of silent film to the Internet age. dissertation, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. In this dissertation, Lovasz explores identity theory, which explains how women relate to patriarchal culture, by exploring a woman’s imagined and virtual cultural experiences, including those of film. Davies, C. (1988). New women, new culture: The Women’s Weekly and Hollywood in Australia in the early 1930s. Dissertation Brisbane: Griffith University Press. This book is very important in this research as it explores how the new woman, from the period, after the censorship policy came into play, came to be and how she affected culture, including how women were portrayed on the silver screen, and it examines how the Hollywood portrayal of women in the 1930s affected women in Australia. Siegel, M. B. (2009). ‘Busby Berkeley and the projected stage’, Hudson Review, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 106–114. In this article, Siegel discusses some of the films of Busby Berkeley, a filmmaker of the 1930s who pioneered dance movies, which reveals his projected dance dreams. therefore, it will assist in assessing 1930 films.
First, it requires individual responsibility for non – participation. The second side transfers the responsibility onto other factors such as the elites, institutional practices, structures of society, and the administrative policies in society. The first face of the democratic apathy concept depends on the ideology of free choice, and this allows individuals to express apathy towards any issue that they dislike. However, individuals must pursue other choices, which may not result in apathy. On the other hand, the second face of this concept imposes a condition on individuals, whereby, individuals may presume that apathy is a state of mind. They may also consider that political outcomes brought about by several forces such as structures, institutions, or manipulation or exploitation by the elite of society. At that specific juncture, individuals may assume that they cannot control such manipulation by the elite, or change the structure of institutions. This is because the level of knowledge of these individuals makes them presuppose in such a manner. The outcome is a submissive attitude by individuals towards democracy. Both these faces render individuals subservient to the forces of democracy. and impose responsibility in different ways on them (DeLuca, 1995, P.10-11).Political life comprises the very spirit of life. Liberalism requires the government to provide adequate protection to the private life of individuals, who are self – sufficient. The Greek philosophers referred to individuals who lead a private life without participating in public affairs, and who were irresponsible towards and unmindful of public life, as idiots (DeLuca, 1995, P.10-11).According to C.B. Macpherson, a political theorist, democracy connotes something bad for some individuals. Every individual knows that democracy implies the rule of the people, by the people, and for the people. A democratic government should act according to the wishes of the majority of its citizens.
The paper shows that the given problem has been slowly been assimilated by other states that have seen the need to adapt to it while others have been dictated to adopt the idea. For instance, the third world countries which depend mostly on financial assistance from the West have been forced to strictly follow this policy through the World Bank or even the IMF. Despite the policy having competition from states that prefer socialism to capitalism, it has continued to dominate the business world especially after the collapse of the socialist era (Barry 1993). How the policies of liberal business have managed to dominate in business up-to-date For many years, the liberal form of economy has been dominating the business world. Furthermore, updating of the classical liberal economy to the now neoliberalism has contributed numerous terms of dominating the business empire. For instance, it has played a vital role in the economic policymaking in the US and the UK, dominated economic policymaking in the US and the UK. Although the theory has faced numerous oppositions in the business world, it has continued to dominate some parts of the world in its own way. A good example is the third world countries have been forced to adopt the liberal policies through organizations like the IMF and the World Bank (Jason 2005). There was a comeback in the old religion of classical liberalism, through academic economics, and then in the real field of public policy. The neo-liberalism has been clearly viewed as an economic theory, as well as, a platform of policymaking. Due to its capitalism nature, the market is free for individual choices that are able to meet the ultimate goals of economic success together with its distributional procedures (Barry 1993). In most cases, the state has very little command in terms of property rights, law enforcement, and limiting the amount of profit an individual or company has made. For this reason, a state cannot act as a mediator because of mistrust amongst the business partners. The policy on liberal economic theory is mainly based on the regulation of welfare state whereby, there is the privatization of public assets, tax regulation, and business regulation. Additionally, it has embraced the investing class too. Internationally, liberalism encourages the liberated transit of goods and services across the borders globally (Andrew 2008). The policy has been a success by ensuring that different corporations, individual investors, as well as, the banks are free to transact any form of business without being limited by the boundaries of a state despite such action being not part of the liberalism policy. In the 1970s, economists viewed the liberal theory as just a temporal solution towards the economic instability at that time. This is because the key Asian regulations’ policies never solved their solutions at that particular moment. The only possible solution was to shift their attention to the liberal policies, which was their only way out to counter the obstacles that hindered them from making any substantial profit (Andrew 2008). However, the policy proved to be adoptive on a more permanent basis rather than being a temporal solution. Such policies have made it possible for the likes of politicians such as Margret Thatcher of the UK and her US counterpart Ronald Reagan to be on the map of success under their parties’ administration in the 1990s hence solidifying its dominating ground in the economic world (Sawyer andArestis 2004).
Secularism’s future doesn’t look too optimistic.Secularism implies a plurality of cultural choices. Secularism is not about the absence of faith: indeed it is about the assertion of faith – faith in freedom and people, not dogmas. Space where one can pause and acknowledge the other, the one who is different, the alien, the non-believer. where one can negotiate the public sphere without the need to the foreground or privilege one’s own mode of worship (Menon 2004).It is the governments of nations that wield the greatest influence on how secularism, as accommodated in the constitution, is supported, suppressed or misinterpreted. Let’s analyze the situation in the United States of America first, the vanguard of the modern industrial age.The American Constitution omits any mention of God and instead assigns supreme power to "We the People". However, there had always been controversies, violations, lawsuits and ambiguity related to the constitutional principle “Separation of State and Church” (Jacoby 2004). “Right-wing religion, money and political clout have driven the rise of religious correctness during the past thirty years” (Jacoby 2004). The upholders of religious fundamentalism have never concealed their contempt for secular laws and practices, even if that would mean influencing the federal government to disallow same-sex marriages, or to run propaganda machinery in the guise of books that claim that the “Grand Canyon was created in six days” (Jacoby 2004). But what does the American public think of it all?A poll conducted by Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, reveals an “astonishing disconnect between Americans general approval of faith-based funding and their deep reservations about what specific churches might actually do with government money” (Jacoby 2004). 71 percent of those polled supported tax benefits for social services that are faith-based.