The Bureaucracy and Public Policymaking in the United States

Policymaking is not just about its outcome but most importantly the process by which it has been made, because the crux of public policymaking is the constant interaction among its key players: the institutions that draw the structures and rules which govern the making of decisions. the interest as represented by a group and individual stakeholders who would gain or lose in the policy. and ideas that would give logic to the policy (John, 1998, cited in Overseas Development Institute, 2007, p.1. Kirst, Meister Rowley,___, pp.248-249. Gormley, __, p.100).” This interaction of its key players in many ways has resulted in the policy, which may be beneficial to some but burdensome to others.Public policymaking in itself is normally complex, as it goes through five tedious stages: “agenda-setting, policy formulation, decision making, implementation, and evaluation (Fischer, Miller, Sidney, 2007, p. 43)” – of which the agenda-setting is seen the most crucial stage (Thomas Dye, as cited in Gertson, 2004, p. 52) by which policymakers critically take on specific issues (Kirst, Meier, Rowley, 2007, p.247) involving hundreds of actors widely differentiated by their backgrounds, goals, perspectives, preferences, etc.The complexity of public policymaking is most evident in a democracy, as people are granted their constitutional rights to participate and to be heard in the policymaking process, much more in a democracy as big as the Federal government of the United States of America, not only because it is understandably laden with extensive issues, but also because it is surrounded with many varied aggressive players competing for their stakes, believing that theirs is what merits the government attention. Needless to say, you have 50 states to consider.The hugeness of the US government has also adversely affected policymaking in a way that the US Congress with 435 Representatives and 100 Senators (Chambers, 2009, par. 24) is too heavy to act on time, consequently, to function effectively, that it “divided itself into tens of committees and hundreds of subcommittees, all more or less independent of Congress as a whole.

Corporate Social Responsibility

This paper seeks to delve deeper into this aspect of the business, and seek answers to the critical issue of the social and environmental commitment of multinational companies, their corporate agenda and the impact of the same on their stakeholders. For the purpose of this study, the case of The Body Shop will be explored and analyzed.Contemporary multinational organizations today are caught in the middle of a heated debate, surrounding the legitimacy and credibility of their claims regarding their social and environmental commitments. In the process, they are being pushed towards including broader public goodwill, and beyond their conventional commitment towards their shareholders. However, incorporating environmentally sustainable practices within their corporate agendas and sustaining their competitive positioning in the market, at the same time, is a difficult task. Needless to mention, that not many can claim to have struck a perfect balance, without getting embroiled into controversies and their modus operandi being questioned or challenged. And the few that have managed to come close. continue to defend the righteousness of their actions.The Body Shop exemplifies one such situation, where the company seems to have got it right in the beginning, but over the years, ended up in controversies, putting the company on the pedestal, and forcing its management to justify its actions, with regard to its mission and values, which boasts of environmental and social commitment and broader public good (Rosenthal, 1994, Pp. 15 – 17). This brings up the question, whether corporate social responsibility can go hand in hand with the core corporate motive – that of maximizing profits. whether the commitment to social and environmental causes and contribution towards society can co-exist along with a commitment to the company’s stakeholders. and whether CSR is a farce or a fact? The same is discussed through the case of The Body Shop International Plc – a UK based multinational cosmetic brand, which boasts of its commitment towards the environment, via its ‘green’ and natural products and its contribution towards social and environmental causes.

AntiSocial Behavior Enforcement Support and Rehabilitation

Consequently, he has no real capacity for love, kindness, or trust, and can be too carefree about life.The family and negative parental role modeling has been attributed to antisocial behavior. Robins (cited in Wickliffe 2008) made a follow-up study of white children that were referred to a psychiatric clinic for antisocial behavior. It was found that these children’s fathers were found to have problem behaviors as well. Thirty-six percent of them did excessive drinking, 21% had poor study habits, 26% were non-supportive or neglected their children, and 20% were physically cruel. Additionally, 48% of these children’s mothers and 23% of their fathers were either psychologically disturbed or mentally handicapped.In Scotland, the government has issued Antisocial Behaviour Orders (ASBO) to help in the enforcement of antisocial behaviors (Scottish Government Publications 2007). The ASBO is described as a civil order meant to protect the public from behaviors that are likely to or directly cause harm or distress wherever this happens. However, the person affected by the behavior and the person behaving antisocially should not be from the same household. Areas like retail stores, parks, and transport hubs are also included.For a person aged 12 years and above, this order contains the name of the person who is prohibited from doing something to other persons based on the conditions described in the order. For example, it may specify against verbal abuse or entering defined areas. Conversely, the ASBO is not a criminal penalty or is not intended to punish the offender. Therefore, this type of enforcement is very considerate as it regards offenders in a way that will guide them, especially because the perpetrators are young people.For adults, the ASBO is ‘intended to tackle both behavior which is likely to escalate to the criminal level.

The Ways to Become Successful

The first case is emotional blackmail, which appears to be the most effective means of making it to the top without investing oneself heavily on the issues that matter. This occurs through establishing an emotional connection and using it to one’s own advantage, where it is applied at the right time to exert the most pressure on the subject to give in to one’s demands. As such, the story depicts this with clarity, where the persona of the story uses tears to will the parents into submission, as there is no desire whatsoever to have lunch at school. The second use of tears as a form of blackmail is portrayed in the nuns’ cases, where tears are the only thing that comes out of the persona in the story when the nuns want the persona to engage in an activity (Cisneros).Consequently, emotional blackmail is an effective way to be successful by wooing people to avoid emotional pain or even sympathize with one’s emotional pain, where crying is now the means of blackmail against subjects in power. This also acts as a form of manipulation, where there are several incidences in the story showing how manipulation serves to achieve success. This leads to the second form of blackmail, which involves having damaging information on someone and using it to one’s advantage as is seen in the case of the nuns against the persona. The nuns ask the persona, where they live, where the persona points to dilapidated apartments, leading to shame and embarrassment, this proves the use of information to exert power against other people and to have one’s way with rebuttal or consequences. The consequences are borne by the person, on whom compromising information exists, leading to their full cooperation and even fulfillment of one’s wishes. The above two-mentioned form of blackmail is also mentioned in "The Circus" by William Saroyan, as means of getting being successful, where information is applied to manipulate individuals to achieve their potential. "The Circus" by William Saroyan portrays information as a way t success, where individuals use information as a motivating factor to work hard or harder in order to ensure that they are successful. Louis Dagget uses information as to his path to success, where he takes to heart the words of his superiors in ensuring that he gets to be a lion tamer (Beckhoff 20).Consequently, information becomes as a means of success, where he now seeks to work in a circus irrespective of the position, but as part of the circus crew altogether. furthermore, means of achieving success are through undermining one’s confidence, which is different from blackmail. Undermining confidence serves as a means of being successful by demeaning one’s sense of self-worth leading in a person giving up his or her standing or position. Undermining one’s confidence dwells on the weaknesses that one has and knows about himself or herself. As such, “A Rice Sandwich” portrays this way of achieving success, where the nuns through public humiliation undermine the persona’s confidence and sense of self-worth. This leads to the persona relinquishing their quest for school food and future serving of canteen food as the entire school population in the canteen knows about her poverty.

Companies Based Education Training and Developments

In most cases it is the employees who operate these machines, therefore competent employees must be hired. The employees who have the necessary skills and knowledge are indispensable in the company.Different companies produce different varieties of products and also have different methods of producing these products. There is a need for the employees to be internally trained based on the kind of activities that the company is engaged in. However, in many years the companies have shown laxity or failed completely to provide in house training programs for the employees. Sometimes employees are urgently hired to fill the vacant seats which perhaps have just been created by the death of a former employee or an incapacitated employee. This action always does not create room for the training of the new employees (McGuire Jorgensen, p.267).Other companies might fail to provide sufficient in- house training programs because they lack quality training programs due to their high initial capital outlay. This especially affects small companies which perhaps have just been established and still new in the business market. Most companies also tend to make an assumption that college, universities, and various learning institutions do exist to provide training to the students on how they should positively contribute to the business community. The fact is that these learning institutions don’t actually exist to teach students how to be productive employees or business leaders in the market (Mckeena Beech, 2008, p.36). If you read keenly the mission statements of some highly recognized learning institutions and public universities, one will totally fail to believe that they are trying to teach students how to be good employees and to contribute positively to the global market. There is nothing in the mission statements that makes one believe that students are taught business skills. For instance, Harvard University is a well known and recognized learning institution in the world but in its mission statement one will have nothing to believe that they teach students how to become good business people and employees.

The UK Airline Industry

According to SCP, the industry structure is deduced from salient information about the number and size distribution of buyers and sellers, entry and exit conditions, product differentiation, vertical integration and diversification.Pertaining to the UK airline industry, Button (1989, p. 197) stated that ‘The key point is not how many airline companies serve the market, but rather the degree and nature of competition which exists between them.” Clearly, the industry is not one wherein entry barriers are understandably high because of the existence of government franchise and high capital investment in order to operate. This is why Pryke (1987) said that considered ‘route-by-route, the airline industry is incurably oligopolistic’ (p.9).At one time, the airline industry was government-owned and controlled and seen more as a public service. Understandably, the competition was non-existent. In the 1980s, however, the national airline company was privatized and the industry was deregulated. More than other European Community countries, the UK is the only member to have implemented a relatively long-term policy of liberalization within its domestic and international scheduled airline industry.Today, there are many variants, generally classified into two main groups: the regular, full-service airlines, and the relatively recent low-cost carriers. Low-cost carriers have entered the market and established themselves by penetrating significant parts of the markets. Whereas before, the industry used to be regulated and dominated by government players, it is now shaped by competitive offensives of companies. There is therefore the need for a market-oriented approach to product optimization (Pels, Njegovan Behrens, 2009).Pels, et al. determined that in the new competitive environment, the three key dimensions of passenger choice appear to be airfare, surface-access costs and frequency.

A Response to a Potential Terrorist Attack on Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets

Resources mean assets and human personnel, including all systems and processes contained therein. The scope of responsibilities in security and safety includes detection of any kind of intrusion and initiating appropriate actions to ward off and prevent harm or damage to the county, and in preparing, responding and recovering from potential terrorist attacks.On a national scale, the level of protection in resources encompasses critical infrastructures and key assets which are identified to be of primary importance. This paper is written the objective of presenting a plan to work with private and public stakeholders to prepare for, respond to, and recover from a potential terrorist attack on critical infrastructures and key assets. The plan would include the elements of the National Incident Management System (NIMS), as required.The danger and havoc that terrorism creates in terms of loss of human lives, properties and destruction of the environment cannot be underestimated. As such, local and national agencies have painstakingly prepared for a comprehensive and implementable process to address such eventualities through the National Incident Management System. According to the US Department of Homeland Security (USDHS, 2004, 2), the NIMS embody pertinent concepts, principles, terminologies and process required for the efficient coordination of all responding agencies in terms of preparing, responding and recovering (PRR) from all domestic incidents including terrorist attacks. The NIM elements that provide the framework for all concerned agencies to follow in PRR are as follows: (1) Command and Management which identifies authorized personnel to work on PPR and appropriate emergency measures. (2) Preparedness outlines planning including the definition of objectives and alternative courses of action.

Considerations for a Successful Acquisition

The theoretical research shows that the ability of an organization to manage the changes in organizational culture is the most important factor that determines the success or failure of an acquisition. There are also other factors such as strategy formulation, acquisition planning, and execution of the plan which go a long way in determining the success of the acquisition process. The analysis of the case study shows that the acquisition turned out to be a success primarily due to the identification of proper synergies from acquisition for both the acquired and the acquiring company. Furthermore, BT remained flexible in its approach, communicated well, and ensured that it used the key learning points from its earlier failures. All these factors along with diligent planning and smooth execution of the plan were critical to the success of the acquisition.The engineered wood product sector, namely timber I joists is primarily manufactured in the US with only a few players within Europe. It is the most dominant supplier of timber I joist in mainland Europe. The CEO stated in his annual address that growth in the engineered wood products sector over the forthcoming years would inorganic and found in mergers and acquisitions. The case study can be used as an ideal approach for making a successful acquisition or likeminded businesses when considering an acquisition. The particular case study was used as a considerable amount of information is available for public viewing via journals, press releases, and documents on the internet.Inorganic growth through mergers and acquisitions has been one of the key strategies of growth for many corporations around the world. Typically when organizations face the challenge of venturing from scratch into a market where there is a high degree of competition among the existing players, they resort to mergers and acquisitions.Inorganic growth through mergers and acquisitions has been one of the key strategies of growth for many corporations around the world. Typically when organizations face the challenge of venturing from scratch into a market where there is a high degree of competition among the existing players, they resort to mergers and acquisitions. In this case, an acquisition would remove competition out of the market place, not because there is a high level of competition but to primarily limit the options of customers as opposed to competing on price. Entry through a merger or an acquisition arms the organization with enough knowledge about the market and places it at par with the existing players.

Iconology of St Peters Rome

During the first three centuries of the Christian era, Christianity evolved a new faith one that can’t be taken in exclusion of the social, cultural, and religious framework of the late Roman Empire. Therefore, Christian architecture has to be seen in the context of a Roman-Hellenistic world. Early believers didn’t have the means to found a Christian architecture, their congregations, and mission meetings were held in whatever place suited the occasion. Prior to 200, only the state religion erected temples in the tradition of Roman and Greek architecture. The situation radically changed, in the second century, the number of Christians massively increased especially in Minor Asia. By 230, Christians started to figure in councils, the palace, the senate, the forum. That Christian expansion provoked major standard changes in the state leading eventually to an authority conflict. The Christian segment of the population had to face the challenges of officialdom. The refusal of Christians to participate in public worship and their claim of secular power has added to the complexity of the situation. The government’s reaction to their demands was violent, a big amount of Christians were executed and arrested. In consequence, cemeteries had to be constructed to grasp the number of martyrs. In fact, it becomes inevitable to start edifying some architectural buildings destined to serve the new needs of Christians, to work as a cemetery for martyrs as well as a shelter for congregations. Therefore, both religious and social factors favored the construction of Christian community houses. These community houses developed to the actual form of churches by the fourth century of which the beginning was marked by the reign of the first Christian emperor, Constantine. The latter saw himself as a prophet who is “divinely appointed to lead Christ’s church to victory” (Krautheimer, 39) therefore he employed serious efforts to raise the church’s rank and to draw many pagans towards it. The period of his reign was indeed considered as the Golden age of Christianity.

Capitalism and Progress for Business

According to Fulcher (2004), in the traditional form of business, the merchants used to invest money in order to get better returns in the forms of goods and monetary valuations. In a similar context, the capitalist production in the present scenario mainly depends upon the exploitation of wage labor. In the capitalist society, labor is considered to be vital as they are engaged in more work activities that facilitate to increase the production and ultimately the consumer. Furthermore, the author’s view reflects that in the market, production along with consumption frames the basis of economic activities. As ascertained by him, market fluctuations give rise to the basis of the hypothetical form of capitalism that does not result in any productivity. In this regard, this mechanism of capitalism theory frames the key operational purview of the capitalist economy. According to Cammack (1998), with the advent of capitalism, liberal democracy has been diminished. Liberal democracy represents a governmental form that operates following the principles that are implemented to protect the rights of the minorities. The domination of capitalism in the economic sector worldwide has acted as a key force to overpower liberal democracies. In the recent scenario, in the midst of capitalist society, the minor section in the society is being exploited with a motive to earn more profit margins. Furthermore, inequality within the capitalist society has taken a greater height as mentioned by Cammack (2009) Guimaraes (2012). The authors highlighted the viewpoint of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that expresses views related to globalization. In accordance with this viewpoint, globalization has been considered as the ‘win-win’ process by the economists but public opinions regarding the concerning view were quite hostile. The trend of inequality and the above-mentioned perspective relate with the capitalist society wherein most of the firms operate within a competitive world economy with the profit motive. In relation to capitalism in the modern era, the corporate sector has taken over a majority of the market scenario. In this regard, Crouch (2011) explores that in the midst of liberal society, capitalism is entering by the mode of two vibrant thoughts within the societal context. The group that fears the expansion of the government sector within the society prepares itself to tolerate the exploitation of the private sector. Whereas, the other group is ready to encourage the growth of the governmental sector in order to reduce the expansion of the corporate sector within society. Furthermore, in keeping with the notion of whether capitalism is facilitating the business and societal development or not, Dicken (2010) expresses the global shift and its implications over society. In accordance with today’s global economic shift, the market and the trade scenario have vastly changed. The Global shifts have shown a considerable amount of growth in the economy that has been mainly contributed by capitalism. As explored by Fulcher (2004) Gamble (2009), capitalism faces the challenges pertaining to the economic crisis as well. They mainly focused on the fact that in the society wherein there is a dominance of capitalism, there is no requirement to search for any other alternatives. The authors state that in order to bring about reforms within the society, it is necessary to indulge changes in capitalism.