Of Purpose for Grad School of Economics

The rapid change in international trade and commerce cannot be blamed for this phenomenon because development can be positive or negative. Earlier, economic crises/problems affected small nations. But now, economic problems are haunting economically stable nations and the union of nations. For instance, the economic crisis is not a new phenomenon for the African and Asian nations. On the other side, the European nations (say, the EU) is facing an economic crisis as an imminent threat. Besides, the EU is trying its level best to overcome the economic crisis but time will prove the effectiveness of the measures taken.So, one can see that the global economy is no longer an isolated island that exerts a positive or negative influence on any specific nation. Within this context, the whole world is trying to unearth the grass root level reason behind this rapid change. Still, one can see that a clear cut solution is not yet formulated by any nation. In addition, the responsibility of an individual who is deeply interested in economics is to help the world to overcome this crisis with ease. So, my interest in economics and my effort to pursue an MBA are inspired by the current economic state.The major subject for my under graduation was political science. One can see that political science and economics are interconnected. For instance, political decisions influence economic development. At the same time, political interest and lobbying by multinational corporations deeply influence the decisions of politicians. When I was an undergraduate student, I used to ponder upon the relationship between political science and economics. In the beginning, my interest in political science helped me to analyze the importance of democracy in the international context. For instance, democracy helps the world nations to be at the forefront of development.On the other side, the nations under dictatorship never accept democracy because dictatorship is totally against the rule of the people.

Political Science Letters

A team was formed by sir Grooves that met in April and May 1945. These meetings were top secret and were with the aim of drawing up a list of targets. The primary criterion for choosing the targets was that the cities targeted must not have been damaged by previous bombings, this allowed for the accurate measurement of the effects of the bomb.Upon the death of the president, the new President, Harry S. Truman, approved the formation of another committee in May, which was given the mandate of being an advisory group to report on the atomic bomb. The committee approved the use of the bomb against a war plant. The bomb turned out to be effective, and it was a major step in the country in the promotion of security and foreign threats.The president personally asked me to thank you on his behalf for your involvement in this project. The people of the United States would like to thank you and your partner for the information you provided. Your efforts will definitely be rewarded.On 5th October 1953, I Eisenhower appointed you as the Chief Justice following the death of former Chief Justice, Fred Vinson. The choice I made to appoint you as Chief Justice was made after a recess appointment.You, Earl Warren, is a person who has a national name for integrity, courage, and uprightness. This is exactly what is needed in our courts today. You represent the kind of political, social, and economic thinking that I believe is needed in our courts. It is my humble hope and wishes that you continue to uphold these values in your work.You were formally nominated on 11th January 1954, and the United States Senate confirmed this nomination on 1st March the same year, through the use of a voice vote. Through this, you can clearly see the hope and trust that the members of the senate have bestowed on you.I the president of the United States hope that I can rely, on you, on to bring the necessary change in the Supreme Court.

Computed Tomography Scanning for Diagnosing Appendicitis

Bushong (2000) maintained that there are at least five advantages offered by computed tomography over conventional radiography: (1) better contrast resolution, (2) no superposition of tissue, (3) less scatter radiation, (4) 3D imaging capability, and (5) capability for bone mineral assay.The standard practice at the Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) in Abu Dhabi is that a CT scan of the abdomen is requested after initial clinical examination and blood works have been performed in the Emergency Room. However, if the patient is either very young or an adult female, the ultrasound is the modality of choice. When the prior ultrasound yields inconclusive results, it is only then that a CT scan is performed on these two groups of patients. From the proponents’ observation, though, all patients ultimately undergo a CT scan for diagnosis of appendicitis, whether clinical examination and blood works find the symptoms typical or atypical.As imaging science advanced considerably through the last three decades, contrasts have been used with CT scans, particularly the oral, rectal and intravenous types. As a CT radiographer in SKMC, the proponent observed that some radiologists prefer non-contrasted examinations for the diagnosis of appendicitis, while others prefer contrasted CT examinations. To date, no standard protocol is in place at the SKMC regarding the use of IV contrasted and non-contrasted or plain CT scans. The non-existence of such protocol is believed to stirring some confusion among the emergency room (ER) doctors. Hence, the proponent’s decision to undertake a study on this area.According to Perkins, Kahan and McCue (2008), a CT scan with oral and IV contrast is recommended for diagnosis of appendicitis. Some practitioners prefer the use of rectal contrast to avoid unnecessary delays in appendicitis diagnosis and treatment intervention.

Animal Rights

There is no denying the fact that the testing of chemicals, drugs, cosmetics, and consumer products on animals and using animals for scientific experimentation is indeed wrong and cruel. No amount of scientific development justifies extending a cruel treatment to speechless and innocent animals and animal testing is something that is utterly inhumane and detestable. The reality is that the issue of animal testing happens to accrue a highly emotive and polarized response from our society because varied sections of the society tend to evince conflicting attitudes towards animal testing. Many people who consider themself to be the upholders of scientific research do support animal testing as they believe that animal testing is something that is essential for the progress and propagation of science in society. Such people also believe that allowing animal testing is something that is in the interest of human progress and there is nothing wrong with animal testing. There are other people who oppose animal testing owing to a variety of reasons, ranging from religious beliefs and aspirations to ethical and moral theories and constraints. Animal testing should be totally banned and prohibited because the use of animals for scientific testing and experimentation causes immense suffering and pain to the animals.It is a fact that the use of animals for testing purposes in psychological, medical, and biological research and study causes untold suffering and pain to the innocent and speechless animals. Many times animals like apes, monkeys, rats, rabbits, and dogs are used for scientific testing because they tend to have the organ systems that happen to be quiet similar to human organ systems (Judson 16). Thereby scientists and research scholars use animals for scientific testing so as to enhance the knowledge as to how varied drugs, pharmaceuticals, consumer products, and chemicals will impact the humanbody and the varied biological processes associated with it (Judson 16).

Variety of Meanings of Symbols in Different Cultures

The tricky part of using symbols in appeals such as advertisements is that the meanings of symbols are built upon the cultural ideas and values of the society in which they’re produced. Meaning is transferred as a result of the understanding of the symbol as well as the way that this symbol is used in association with other symbols that also depend, to a large extent, on the understandings of this same society. The clues that are conveyed through these combinations of images educate the audience regarding how they should feel about various things. This is true whether the symbols are used to sell a product or to illustrate a story. By studying the visual clues presented through these combinations of symbols, an individual can gain a deep understanding of what the company, artist or illustrator is attempting to convey about themselves and social values. Since the symbol has to be understood by the public in order to effectively send an understandable message, there is an interactive cause and effect relationship involved in each symbol used in which the audience both determines the content and is instructed by it. This type of examination of how symbols are used and combined is what Roland Barthes called semiotic analysis. To fully understand the significance of the symbol and the way in which it can convey different meanings depending upon the society in which it is used, it is necessary to establish a fundamental vocabulary for the subject before applying it to specific examples.Essentially, the science of semiotics is an examination of symbols used in a particular culture or context to discover its meaning at various levels. “Semiology therefore aims to take in any system of signs, whatever their substance and limits. images, gestures, musical sounds, objects, and the complex associations of all these, which form the content of ritual, convention or public entertainment: these constitute, if not languages, at least systems of signification” (Barthes, 1964).

Christian Existentialism

Tillich claimed that religion provides one with the strength ‘to be’. The hopes and passions of religion, that are ultra-rational, give society hope to conquer despair. Existentialism isn’t so atheistic that it wears itself out showing that God doesn’t exist. Rather it declares that even if God did exist, that would change nothing…His existence is not the bone of contention (Sartre, 1943). Christian existentialism is not compatible with traditional Christianity. Christendom has basically organized religion in which somebody loses himself in a group mentality. For Kierkegaard, religion is a personal event, not a community affair. I do not believe that these philosophies can strengthen the Christian faith in today’s world. Existentialism tends to attract those people that think no one else understands them. It gives them the idea that it’s alright and even encouraged to be alone and isolated from others. It takes people away from any sense of social belonging. This is so different from Christianity which encourages believers to gather together and praise God in a church setting. Kierkegaard contends that somebody should submit themselves totally to God without reasoning, yet traditional Christianity encourages us to know more about our God and his purpose for our lives here on earth. Therefore our choices must be in line with God’s plan for us. …Existentialism states that the world is absurd, and there is no hope. Christianity states that the world is absurd, and it is a wonder there is hope. Pessimism had gripped intellectual Europeans ever since the turn of the century. How could anyone pretend that the human race was governed by reason that advances in science and technology were for the greater good when humans were not only capable of genocide but had the ability to annihilate themselves (Ingelhart, 1988). For French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, the only certainty in the world was death. However, Christianity states that the world is wicked but humans should look forward to a time in the near future when a new earth system will take over where there will only be peace and happiness. Existentialism is opposed to rationalism and traditional Christianity is not. The destruction of wars throughout human history proves that there can’t be a rational understanding of God or humanity. Existentialism asserts that man is free from imposed moral values. Traditional Christianity believes in God’s transcendent universal moral values. Existentialism asserts that each person is their own authority concerning truth. Traditional Christianity insists that God is the absolute final authority over His creation and all things. Kierkegaard had argued that Christians must live in a state of anguish caused by their own freedom of choice. They must first confront the fundamental Christian paradox, the assertion that the external infinite, transcendent God became incarnated as a temporal finite being, Jesus. To believe this requires a leap of faith… but, according to Christian existentialism, if the individual Christian can never really ‘know’ God, one can and must choose to act responsibly and morally.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened”(National institute of mental health, 2011). It is an anxiety related psychological disease which may occur after a person faces certain physical or psychological trauma. The psychological trauma could be with respect to the threat of death or threat to physical or psychological integrity. It is not necessary that these threats are against the person alone. the threats against the beloved ones can also cause PTSD. Threats of natural disasters like flood, storm, earthquake, fire etc and manmade disasters like terrorism, prison stay etc can cause PTSD. For example, after the 9/11 World Trade center attack, many of the Americans experienced PTSD because of the threats from Al-Qaida. This paper analyses the cause, symptoms and treatment options of PTSD. “PTSD starts at different times for different people. Signs of PTSD may start soon after a frightening event and then continue. Other people develop new or more severe signs months or even years later. PTSD can happen to anyone”(Medline Plus, 2011). The real cause of PTSD is still unknown to medical science. However, it is believed that various genetic, environmental and social factors are contributing to PTSD. The entire stress management mechanisms of the body are changed as a result of PTSD. “It affects the stress hormones and chemicals that carry information between the nerves (neurotransmitters). Having been exposed to trauma in the past may increase the risk of PTSD”(Post-traumatic stress disorder, 2011).Normal people and people with PTSD respond to abnormal behaviors differently. Normal people gradually forget about the abnormal event whereas for the PTSD patients, the memories of the trauma keep on agitate them in their future life. Such people may not feel better unlike normal people. their conditions may become gradually worse. Frightening dreams, avoidance, arousal etc are some of the symptoms of PTSD. Patients with PTSD may not show many interests in normal activities and the memories of the threatening event happened in the past or going to happen may destroy their normal life. Fever, headache, fainting etc are some other symptoms which co-occur with other major symptoms. “Chronic physical signs of hyperarousal, including sleep problems, trouble concentrating, irritability, anger, poor concentration, blackouts or difficulty remembering things, increased tendency and reaction to being startled, and hypervigilance to threat” (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 2011) etc can also appear symptoms of PTSD. Since PTSD has many symptoms, it is difficult to treat it with a single medicine. In order to reduce different types of symptoms, different types of medicines are required to treat PTSD. PTSD patients may show signs of depression, anxiety, mood changes, delusions etc. “Medicines that act on the nervous system can help reduce anxiety and other symptoms of PTSD. Antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac) can be effective in treating PTSD”(Post-traumatic stress disorder, 2011). Behavioral therapy is another treatment option for PTSD. References 1. Medline Plus, (2011). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/posttraumaticstressdisorder.html 2. National institute of mental health, (2011). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml 3. Post-traumatic stress disorder, (2011). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001923/ 4. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), (2011). Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/posttraumatic_stress_disorder/article.htm

Fruitful and Fun Experience Semester

In this essay, I will try to condense all the things that I learned from studying these three books with an emphasis on the last two in the essay. The book, “Good Reasons with Contemporary Arguments” by Lester FaigleyAnd Jack Selzer, is one of the most informative books I have read in a long time. The book, in essence, teaches you how to argue with authority. Here I found out that argumentation is a very powerful and effective tool not only to getting your point across but also a getting what you want in general. It talks about why people argue and when they do why do some win and some do not. Before I read this book I had a very haphazard method to argumentation. Basically, I just said what I want to get across and hoped that people would agree with me. But with this book, I found out that arguing actually is a science and that there is a method to all this argumentation. I learned that there are two goals of an argument, these are position and proposal. In a position, one has to take a stand and make an argument about it. In a proposal, one proposes to solve a certain problem and proposes a solution to the problem. I learned about the tool called rhetoric. pathos, ethos, and logos. I also learned how to understand an argument. This helps in weeding out a weak argument. This is very useful for me because I would be able to spot a weak argument and avoid it. It also taught me to recognize arguments, and that they are present even in everyday conversations. This book has taught me to appreciate a good argument and to formulate an even better one on my own. The book A Long Way Gone Memoirs of a Boy Soldier by Ishmael Beah is the true story of a boy who is forced to become a soldier in the war. In the process he becomes cold and bloodthirsty. the struggle here is his desire to escape his situation and his long and harrowing journey to becoming a child again. The book at first was not easy to read, for some like me who never experienced war and has lived a comfortable life the beginning of the book is a bit hard to digest. I could feel the horror and the fear that Ishmael felt, it was almost like watching a very gruesome war movie. The thing stuck to me was that in the war movies and stories that I know of the soldiers are usually young men or grizzled veterans. In this story, the soldier is more of a schoolboy than a soldier. Eventually, the book begins to pick up when Ishmael realizes that he must leave Sierra Leone if he ever wants to become a normal human being again. The mood of the story begins to change when he sets off to find the peace he has been longing for. The book has interesting characters and themes. There are important lessons I picked up from this book. The one that stuck with me is that in life no matter what happens there is always hope. No matter how hard the road that Ishmael had to travel he still persevered and in the end, he found what he was looking for. This proves that no matter what happens in life if we strive for something better we will most likely receive it. The journey that Ishmael undertook is proof of this. The book Sizwe’s Test: A Young Man’s Journey through Africa’s AIDS Epidemic by Jonny Steinberg, is another book that I picked up valuable lessons from.

Studying Comparative Politics

Our world since its origination has been a ‘hotbed’ of activity. Activity in the sense, the central component of this world, we humans have been showing activeness both mentally and physically, which have transformed our globe from a primitive one to an advanced one. Advancement, which is visible in all spheres of our life, as well as in the ‘sphere’, we live. And, that advancement is also seen in one of the important activities of the ‘sphere’, the activity of politics. That is, before the establishment of towns and cities, the concentration of people was in villages, where they lived a way of life, governed by local politics. With the advancement, humans spread out to new territories. And in course of time that territories became cities, states, and eventually countries. Along with this evolution of humans and territories, the political setup, which ruled a village, also evolved and new political setups came into being, to rule cities, provinces or states, and countries. These political setups got evolved or constituted according to an area’s culture, history, needs of the people, etc. So, there may be a vast difference in the way, politics is conducted in one land, when compared with another one. And this activity of comparing, in course of time, also evolved into a specialized field termed as comparative politics.Comparative politics, a branch of Political science, studies the world’s different political systems by comparing as well as contrasting, the inbuilt aspects of each country’s political system. The field of Political science is a vast one, and from the beginning of the 20th century, the growth of comparative perspectives in Political science is seen in all the areas of the discipline. The issues, subject matters, views, etc of Political science, which were treated as isolated cases before, were studied under a comparative approach now.

Democracy in America

This paper briefly analyses the areas which need further modifications or improvements in order to make democracy stronger in America.America is a country most of the people like to immigrate because of the immense freedom, liberties, and opportunities existing there. Perhaps America is the only country in the world which is developed equally well in most of the areas of human life. If China can compete with America with respect to economic development, they are far behind America with respect to the protection of human rights and freedom of expression rights are concerned. Sometimes the United Kingdom can match the United States in these areas. But they are also far behind America in terms of strength of democracy. The U.K. is not a truly democratic country since the monarch is believed to be the head of the United Kingdom at least on papers. In short, America is the richest and most civilized country in the world and the major reason for such huge developments is nothing but the strength of stainless democracy.At the same time, many political gurus believe that American democracy has a lot of space for improvement. In their opinion, the American constitution, style of government functioning, civil liberties, Electoral College, presidential power, procedures of selecting Supreme Court judges, etc are some areas that should be improved further in order to make the American democracy perfect.American Political Science Association (2004) has mentioned that the ideals of equal citizenship and the responsive government may be under growing threat in America at present because of persistent and rising inequalities. In their opinion, disparities of income, wealth, and access to opportunity are growing more sharply in the United States than in many other nations, and gaps between races and ethnic groups persist (American Political Science Association, 2004, p.1). America is a capitalist country.