The Key Competencies of a Project Manager

The key competencies of a project manager are immense but a few of them are mentioned within the length of this paper.Within the literature review for this topic, the emphasis would be laid on the fact that project managers commit their own selves whole-heartedly towards the cause of the project at hand and that they exhibit some of the very intrinsic traits within their professional duties and their personal capacities which make them stand head and shoulders with the rest of the employees within the organization. It is their single-ness in terms of management expertise which is given its due credit and thus they are appointed as the ones who will lead the organization towards success whilst accomplishing the results that are envisaged in the wake of a peculiar project. The literature review will explore the exact basis upon which project managers have achieved higher ranks, broke new grounds, taken care of new possibilities and in essence made their mark within this field of management itself. The key competencies of a project manager entail a number of strengths on his part and the time is right to make a clear cut understanding of the very same in the following paragraphs. (Frame, 2002)Decision making in science and indeed any other field of study is a difficult thing and for this, one needs to understand what are the basic ways in which a decision can be arrived at, without wasting much time and using the best tools and techniques in order to achieve the same. These decisions are very crucial to the outcome of a project and a project manager is accountable for the very same. At times, certain things should be kept in mind like the fact that information is the single most significant thing in this whole process. Decision-making is indeed a verycomplex and well-developed area, one that has to be looked at by the researchers and lecturers with particular care.

How to Distinguish What Is True

The different ways of knowing can help us in this regard by helping us distinguish between the truths and what we assume to be truths through our perception, emotion, reason and language. This could, in turn, help us distinguish between something that is true and something that is believed to be true merely by helping us to take into account all these personal factors and then viewing the fact objectively without their influence thereon. In short, our ways of knowing can help us distinguish between something that is true and something that is believed to be true.The different “ways of knowing” lead us to different ways by which to approach ideas. Science, for example, is“knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through the scientific method”(Merriam-Webster.com). This way of knowing elaborates on different theories, which are based on tests and experiments. The proof is what assists us in underlying a statement, whether correct or incorrect, which, in a way, justifies reality but might not be believed to be true. We cannot debate logic in mathematics, for example, since 2 + 2 has been proven to equal 4. everyone around us knows it and cannot say otherwise, and, thus, it is the truth. Precise laws are a result of deductive reasoning. though deduction can be wrong, at least one is able to dispute it until it is proven to be true. Science has progressed at a great pace since the industrial revolution. it uses rational methods to explain rational phenomena, and does not foster superstition. We can, therefore, say that the rationality helps us in distinguishing between that which is true and that which is believed to be true. Even though there are certain “religious truths” that can not be rationalized either way and rationality would be of no use to us in such cases.

Stem Cell Research

We all begin as a zygote (a fertilized egg with sperm). Zygotes mature from a single cell into a eukaryotic organism by means of what is known as differentiation. What this means is that the cells of a newly formed zygote are normal cells that require the undergoing of differentiation in order to form a complete organism during gestation. Differentiation is simply a process of assigning cells to a specific function and task. Remember in Science, form follows function.Let us assume that a group of cells which have been created through normal cell division (mitosis), are exposed to a specific hormone conducive to kidney function. These new cells will interpret the information from the hormone specific to renal form and function, as a guide to become kidney cells. The very fact that stem cells are able to be influenced by chemical pathways. makes them beyond valuable. What this means, is that cells that are exposed to a specific chemical pathway that influences them to become renal cells. will theoretically do so by synthetic transfer to an individual in renal failure who will simply not make it to the time frame in which a kidney may become available. This is also the case with those who have suffered permanent and debilitating damage (as in the case of Christopher Reeves). Truly, stem cells are hoped for not only the ill but for the human race. in hopes of outliving a general life expectancy conducive to our current time period.Having summarized what stem cells are and what they may be used for, we can begin to approach the controversial topic using first, the principles of structural functionalism. We know structural-functionalism to be a theory that dictates that societies’ very function and stability are maintained by individuals acting in similar manners. In fact, structural-functionalism relies on individuals being not so many individuals as different units of the whole (society as the whole) such that the continuation of the human race depends on such nonautonomy within the individual.

Negotiation Plan for Interview with the Mayor of Boston

The setting is perfect. In the calm, pure waters of a lake, someone with vested interests wishes to throw a stone to create ripples. The mayor of Boston has no issue as such yet he wishes to create an issue about the lesser representation of women in the hiring committee of Central Medical Centre headed by Mr. Jonathan Brown. The person, who is bent upon raking it, seems to have some hidden agenda. When a politician raises an issue, it is done mostly with a motivated desire. In the present case, the Mayor of Boston is aware of the impeccable track record and the excellent reputation the hospital enjoys under the leadership of Mr. Jonathan Brown, and he, therefore, is not interested in joining issues with him publicly. He desires that the deliberations be kept absolutely confidential. The hiring policy as envisaged and implemented by Mr. Brown is ideal as per his philosophy but he is out of step with the demands of the time. Mr. Brown’s convictions are right according to him, he has given a sterling medical institution to the public, he is taking care of his staff well, he has no trade union problems, the salaries and perquisites which his staff is paid is significantly higher than what is prevalent in the industry, he treats the staff very well and they adore him as a noble person, and the single point agenda of the Mayor of Boston is proportional representation of the female doctors in the hiring committee.- What kind of negotiator is on the other side?The negotiator on the other side is a politician, the Mayor of the city of Boston. Building one’s own power castle is the primary agenda of a politician, there could be rarest of the rare exceptions. By showing his concern for empowering women, he is playing to the gallery. The women employees of the hospital are happy with the administration of Mr. Brown and they are treated very well and get one of the best pay packets in the industry. The negotiator must be having some political compulsions and his desire to discuss the issue with Mr. Brown in confidence indicates that his intentions are not totally insincere. He feels that it is a policy issue and as the Mayor of the city, it is his duty to set right the things.- What are your interests?My interests are simple and straightforward. I have been pursuing this policy successfully for the past 35 years. I have no grudge against the womenfolk, absolutely nothing! What I pursue is the principles of the science of ergonomics—finding proper individuals for the proper assignments. I am convinced that women make good nurses, temperamentally they are suitable for that post, and I also believe that they make good doctors as well. But there are real problems in summoning them to the hospitals in case of emergencies, as women have the primary responsibilities at home. In the overall scheme of administration as envisaged by me, I do not intend to offer them the position of doctors.- What are your counterpart’s interests?His concern for the welfare and rights of women seems to be superficial in the present case. He is just counting his votes, and by raising a women-related issue, he is appealing to their emotions with the ultimate aim of converting the sympathy wave into votes. He is visualizing a formidable vote-bank in women and he is planning to turn the tide in his favor. But he is also aware of raking the issues against a reputed hospital, where the presence of the women in the hiring committee is about 16%.

Maraviroc A New Hope for the Future of the HIV Infected Patients

“The development of CCR5 HIV drug that specifically targets virus resistant to first-line therapy is very encouraging for the future of HIV therapy”This statement is very true, before many many people died of HIV, AIDS, they suffered in pain and humiliation and eventually died wrecked in severe pain. AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, it is caused by a virus called HIV, which means human immunodeficiency virus, as soon as one gets infected by it one’s body tries to make anti-bodies to fight the infection spreading into the body. firstly one gets HIV then AIDS occurs much later on many don’t even get really sick till after many years of getting HIV. it is contracted by having sex with an already infected person or by sharing a needle that can be in the form of doing drugs or simply through a blood transfusion. Many new-born babies contract HIV through their mother and the carrier is breast milk, that’s why a woman who already has HIV should never breastfeed their child! (Libman, marathon,2007)Even though this drug is by far no means eradicating HIV but it is, in fact, providing people a chance to live a bit longer than before and that to me is an achievement whether many people approve of this drug or not but it is at least a ray of hope that one-day science will develop a cure that will completely heal people with HIV, this is at least a beginning in that direction.The test was conducted by two double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies — Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) 1 and MOTIVATE 2 — with patients who had R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) only. They had been treated with or had resistance to three antiretroviral-drug classes and had HIV-1 RNA levels of more than 5000 copies per milliliter. The patients participating were randomly assigned to one of three antiretroviral regimens consisting of maraviroc once daily, maraviroc twice daily, or placebo, each of which included optimized background therapy (OBT) based on treatment history and drug-resistance testing.

Investigation Techniques

These changes may include minute details like turning off lights or opening of doors or windows etc. The investigator must start examining the body and should be careful to avoid damaging any evidence present at the crime scene. Carefully observation of the ground around the body is necessary. The investigator has to search for items of evidence or those which have some evidential value like some stains, marks, etc. The investigator should remember that every crime scene has three dimensions and for that reason a thorough search is necessary. The investigator can use another technique of locating the evidence – by throwing a flashlight on the ground at a slanting angle, which is very crucial also during the daytime. Through observation and documentation of the items are also important especially in the order in which the items were placed. Close attention should be given to each and every minute detail as one approaches the body or the exact place of the crime incident. It is also advisable not to dismiss any such material until its evidentiary value can fully be determined. Details in the form of footprints or drag marks or in some cases the marks on the ground or sign of minor destruction are most valuable for further investigation. These are the regular investigation or the routine pattern which are being discussed. But the analysis of the collected evidence is an area of study. With the help of modern science and technological advancements, there are plenty of cutting edge investigation methods used to detect the actual criminal.With the forensic scientists looking for more sophisticated techniques to form the latent fingerprints, cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming has gained much popularity. (Bessman, Nelson, Lipert, Coldiron, Herrman). CA fuming is one of the many improved ways used to develop the latent prints and also has been in use for many years now.

Barriers to Learning

Also, the author will provide several solutions to each identified barrier to learning.Organizational learning can be acquired through constant reading, listening, or even thinking. It is necessary for the growth and sustainability of an organization. The rapidly changing global market environment creates a tight competition among the local and international businesses. In order to cope with the business challenge that has resulted from globalization, organizational learning is recommended to help the organization in keeping up with the constant changes in the world of business. In line with the economic changes, new theories and learning techniques emerge almost every day. (Gephart et al., 1996)Learning is not always effective because it is possible that a member of an organization would choose not to share his knowledge within the organizational team or subordinates. Sometimes, adequate training and other learning-related support are provided to the team but despite the high investment costs on training and time invested in teachings, many still fail to learn and be successful in converting the knowledge into actions needed in accomplishing the goals set by the organization. For learning to be effective, the organizational process of learning should be carefully analyzed, developed, monitored, and aligned with the innovative goals of an organization. (Cummings and Worley, 1993)There are a lot of internal and external factors that could directly affect the learning capacity and efficiency of each individual and the organization as a group. As part of the study, the author aims to elaborately discuss the different theories behind the barriers to learning.Several issues in relation to the Knowing-Doing Gap, Argyris Action Science, Senge’s Dance of Change, and Psychological Limitations to Strategic Thinking will be carefully analyzed to give us a better understanding of why certain learning processes are more successful and beneficial to a group than the others. In line with the topic, the author will provide several solutions to each barrier to learning.

John Stuart Mill and His Practical Works

Our world becomes wider, our imagination richer and our life more colorful and zestful as a result of our companionship with the travelers of the spirit and the pioneers of thought.” (1960:1). The same is the case with renowned philosopher of Victorian times John Stuart Mill, who has left indelible imprints on the pages of history by dint of his intellect, valuable philosophical works, and theoretical frames. He had completed the profound and scrupulous reading of the prominent Greek, Roman, Latin, and English philosophers and intellectuals at a very young age. His father developed taste for learning and literature in him when he was only three years old. it is, therefore, he could easily read the original works of great classical thinkers and authors including Aesop, Lucian, Diogenes, Herodotus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Laertius as well as contemporary authors like Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Jeremy Bentham, and others, in his early school years.His writings depict the vastness of his knowledge and acquaintance with the Classics as he describes differences of views among the philosophers on morality in his essays on Utilitarianism in these words: "Neither thinkers nor mankind at large seems nearer to being unanimous on the subject, than when the youth Socrates listened to the old Protagoras and asserted (if Plato’s dialogue is grounded on a real conversation) the theory of utilitarianism against the popular morality of the so-called sophist." (1853:2).His works and writings, full of classical allusions, regarding traditional thoughtfulness and contemporary updates, wide open various dimensions of vigilance and wisdom to the readers and students alike. “Mill’s contributions”, Zaidi writes, “to the political science, economics, and sociological theory, as well as social sciences, serve like a guiding star for the intellectuals, freedom-lovers, legislators, and torch-bearers of human rights in past, present and the future years to come as well.” (2004:128).

Understanding the Olympic Marketplace

The Olympic Games occur as a series of preparatory business activities involving the establishment of brand partnerships from a marketing perspective in which well-known companies such as PepsiCo and Coca-Cola bring their own, unique brand power into the forefront of Olympics activities. However, should Olympics promoters rely on the brand strength of other well-known companies to lure higher volumes of consumers to the Games, or can the Olympics (as a single organization) rely on its own singular brand to accomplish the same goals and build consumer interest?The one-brand strategy occurs when a company or organization which carries a multitude of brands remains focused on utilizing marketing to create a singular brand image that incorporates all existing brands into a single unit. The one-brand strategy might very well be an efficient model by which to promote the upcoming 2012 London Olympics by relying less on the power of other brand sponsorships and creating a singular brand image that appeals to a wider variety of potential customers to the Olympic Games. This proposed research study intends to test the hypothesis of whether Olympics promoters can actually utilize the one-brand strategy, over that of traditional brand partnerships, to build consumer interest in the Games and increase total revenues.the contemporary consumer to attend the Olympic Games and to understand their individual viewpoints of brand sponsorships. These objectives are intended to offer a clear picture as to whether the Olympic Games promoters can utilize a one-brand strategy or whether powerful brand sponsorships are the most viable marketing option for these events.Marketing is certainly not an exact science as maintaining an understanding of a very diverse group of consumers both domestic and foreign requires substantial marketing research.

Guidelines on Writing a Research Proposal

The research proposal delivers the basic information behind a research. reasons for the research, stating the problem at hand as well as how the researcher aims to address the said issue. And with it, the researcher thus proposes a hypothesis to the said problem at hand.According to Stephen Wegren, a Political Science Professor at the Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas in the United States: “A research proposal is the presentation of an idea that you wish to pursue. A good research proposal presumes that you have already thought about your project and have devoted some time and effort in gathering information, reading, and then organizing your thoughts. A research proposal is NOT a project to be thrown together in one night with ideas off the top of your head. Thus, one might say that the research proposal is a second step, following the selection of a broad topic.”1The proposal being passed should have the very problem the researcher wants to tackle. As per Stephen Wegren, the key component to a good research proposal is the addition of a good research question, being the basis of the research in the first place.However, having a good research question doesn’t necessarily mean that one has an excellent research proposal. A research proposal is composed of various parts, all working towards the single goal of proving that the research at hand is worth as well as documents and reports the various methods that the researcher shall utilize to be able to continue with the said research.The first part to the research proposal is the Statement of the Problem. The problem being tackled by the researcher must be a clear and concise statement, tied together with support questions, an explanation on why the study is needed, as well as how the research shall contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding the subject. Here, the researcher explains the topic at hand gives and a brief background on it and reports the problem being tackled.