Jury Trials and Plea Bargaining

Some of these issues have been addressed through a variety of initiatives but the perception still persists that a judicial system that is skewed towards the mighty, the rich and the influential have a built-in bias against the poor litigants and other members belonging to the lower strata of society. The view is that justice is not blind, instead, there is a tiered or layered dispensation of justice which favors the elite of this country and disregards the rights of the common poor people. As they say, justice delayed is justice denied, as the rich can exploit the loopholes in the system, hire the best lawyers and use all the means and devices to delay a trial by numerous postponements and appeals. This is the prevailing view today, which requires government action to remedy this bad situation in order to improve the administration of justice and restore the people’s faith in the system. Discussion Court administration falls under the rubric of public administration and many people do try to improve its efficiency through various reforms and initiatives. Judges and the other court personnel, both at the trial and appellate tribunals, try hard to find new ways to process the cases more speedily through more efficient use of both judicial time and court facilities to avoid the so-called litigation crisis increasingly seen today and experienced by litigants (Swanson Talarico, 1987, p. 40) which should translate to a smoother functioning and avoid these costly delays. The judicial administration has previously persistently resisted attempts at reforms due to a prevailing view that judicial independence is paramount regardless of however it works with the other government agencies, mainly the police, in the administration of justice. Its independence is a stumbling block at introducing reforms because any attempt to do so is interpreted or easily misunderstood as undue interference in the so-called separation of powers doctrine, it being the co-equal branch of the other two branches of government, the executive and the legislative. This view has slowly changed over the years, as there is now an increasing realization that the sheer number of cases, both civil and criminal, have swamped the courts. This has necessitated a good number of initiatives which shifted the focus from adjudicative to administrative justice. De-clogging the courts – one good way to clear the courts is to prevent many less serious cases from even reaching the formal court system by dealing with it as early as possible while it is still in the pretrial stage. This is achieved by a number of ways like diversionary schemes, arbitration, mediation, plea bargaining and administrative penalties in an assembly-line manner which is utilitarian in nature, as contrasted to the previous rights-based theories of justice like the human rights and due process issues which are both inefficient, prone to delays and expensive (King, 2009, p. 186) because of economic considerations which trumped social considerations due to chronic budget deficits and other fiscal constraints today. Many of the rights of the accused are seen to be causing excessive delays, like the right to be presumed innocent, right to an attorney, right to remain silent, right to post bail and the right to file an appeal.

Trust in Relation to the Attachment Levels of Child and Mother Relationship

The physical connection is created when the baby is growing in the secure womb of its mother and it is well familiar with each and every touch of its mother. After taking birth the child physically gets separated from the mother and starts a new life as a separate living being but yet the physical needs don’t finish. The child needs mother for complete growth. In this, the psychological growth is very important. This attachment is very necessary for the overall development of the child. A deep trust between both of them develops through the attachment. Many psychologists have proved that the mental or psychological attachment of the mother with the child provides social, emotional as well as psychological pedestal which the child needs for developing decision-making capacity independently. The more secure the child is, the more he becomes courageous and confident. “Psychologists research shows that the quality of care infants receive affects how they later get along with friends, how well they do in school and how they react to new and possibly stressful, situations.” (Beth Azar, PsycNet 2009) This research paper aims at investigating the relationship between mother-child attachment and the trust establishes in the children and the security comes from the attachment with their mother. As per the research of Elizabeth Meins and Harris Paul “Even when the attachment system is not obviously activated, and children are simply unsure about the available evidence, the present results suggest that children prefer information from their mother rather than a stranger, and the strength of that preference is moderated by their attachment status. (Meins and Harris) This research paper tries to investigate the correlation between the trust and the attachment of the child and his mother. For this research paper, the previous research of Paul Harris and Elizabeth Meins will be considered as a major source.

Are Confucianism and Islamic Ethics Applicable in the Contemporary World

Are Confucianism and Islamic Ethics Applicable in the contemporary world? Confucianism is a type of religion that bases its believe on the basis that life ought to be lived fully and there is nothing like heaven and the afterlife because the two are beyond our human capacity. It teaches its believers on the need to treat each individual equally, to have respect towards one another and in total developing a holistic approach in terms of good relations towards one another, developing good moral and ethical values and therefore enhancing good virtues in every individual. It is in other word translated to mean living good and happy life to every individual without having ideals that are translated to mean nothing at all. For them therefore, reason plays a major role in one’s life than just a mere faith while one is on this world. On the other hand, the Muslim faith also advocates for equity among its members. That every person is equal to the eyes of God and nobody should receive more equality than just the other. The two faiths share a common understanding from the view point of respect of life and with no unfairness in dealing with one another. The major underlying concept for Confucianism is their consideration of truth as being reason from which everything is laid out. Out of reason, every individual will realize the common good, the ethical principles, how to live rightly, and the doctrine of the mean are the key guides in realizing our heaven here on earth. The doctrine of the mean is the central point in the book Confucius Lives Next Door: What Living in the East Teaches Us about Living in the West By T.R. Reid. “Drawing on five years of living with his family in Japan, Reid credits this social phenomenon to the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 b.c.)”, when he says that the peoples’ culture is centered on moral virtues. That everyone is called to the virtue of mean. That is to say that the extreme ends of every action ought not to exist in every individual. Every person need to receive equal treatment with no biasness. The Japanese cultural experience has taught him the fundamental grace that every person is called to. The grace to put the needs of others before ourselves. In this way then we are in a position to enjoy the common good which can only be realized when we practice the doctrine of the mean. If every individual on the other hand is able to practice the doctrine of the mean that he says is in between the extremes. or rather put it this way that the five virtues: “jen yi—righteousness/justice li—religious/moral action chih—wisdom hsin—faithfulness” (Class notes) are the key guides in bringing societal harmony. Only then can we say knowledge leads to virtue, when people are ignorant, their personalities are disorganized, for the unruly desires and passions then control them. By contrast, when people truly know what is good, that is, when they know what promotes harmony, they do what is good (p146). The reason therefore why the western countries will never eliminate the rate of crime, poor economy, poor performance in leadership roles, is lack of good ethical principles that are not based on good reason leading to a society that is based on individualism and egoism motives. T.R. Reid continues to tell us that the Japanese culture is indeed a true culture that every one of us needs to emulate so as to live a true life here on earth. The principle of the common good as narrated in T.R. Reid’s book: Confucius Lives Next Door: What Living in the East Teaches Us about Living in the West can only be realized if and only if we treat others not as our means to an end as Kant puts it but as an end in themselves. We need to know that no human being is created to suffer but all of us need to enjoy life and get help from one another with no partiality. The moral and ethical principles are the basis towards attaining the common good. which is in this regard practicing good leadership, justice in dealing with one another and therefore bringing the equality that all is yearning for. Plato’s pupil Aristotle held that the common good is that ability of attaining total freedom and happiness. Happiness would refer more to the satisfaction of man’s spiritual powers through the kind of activity which perfects those same faculties on account of its being directed to noble objects. This doctrine implies maintaining some kind of moderation in our actions. It involves some kind of employing practical wisdom and awareness of the need for moderation in every decision making situation. So the best way for us to achieve the good which should be the goal of every American citizen is to behave in terms of morality in accordance with the “mean”. In order for us to achieve the good which is in this regard happiness, moderation needs to be in place. For Aristotle, acting moderately is allied with virtue. Courage for example, is the mean between cowardice and rashness. It is further important to note that while one would concede the doctrine of moderation can assist us to avert social and moral problems in certain explosive situations, it is difficult to admit that there could be a universal parameter for knowing what a moderate course of action should be. Thus acting moderately becomes relativistic. In this way therefore no one will be able to say or judge a course of action as morally good or bad since our individual perception of “moderation”, in action must differ. Since every individual exists in his or her own unique situation, this means by implication that each individual has to figure out for himself or herself how to act in his or her own unique situation. But in conclusion, the two faiths invite us to embrace the human heart. the heart of togetherness and love towards enhancing peaceful coexistence in this world. Works Cited Frankena, William K., (Ethics 2nd Edition), New Delhi: prentice Hall of India Ltd., 2001. Class Notes T.R. Reid., Confucius Lives Next Door: What Living in the East Teaches Us about Living in the West. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Early Childhood Education Theory of Constructivism

To constantly improve and develop everything that surrounds us is human nature. Hence, all spheres of human life, including social, political, and economic processes, face deliberate transformations and changes that are supposed to simplify specific aspects, increase effectiveness, or improve final results. The sphere of education has not become an exception. Historically numerous reforms took place in our country, however, only a few of them managed to reach successful implementation. Currently, various authors research sphere of education trying to define the most effective approach, elaborate appropriate instruments of its positive influence, and depict favorable results and consequents of its practical usage. Educational topics have managed to attain such big popularity in mass media due to undisputable urgency and the importance of education. Today the majority of the population comprehends the significant role of education in people’s life. Indeed, it is hard to imagine modern technological progress and such an advanced level of social and economic development of our country without the powerful influence of an effective educational system. Taking into account that educational methods affect the human’s rate of perception and people’s acceptance of information, which in its turn influences on entire human’s performance as a representative of the working-class, specialists are making attempts to raise population’s awareness about social problems and flaws of current educational approaches.Lately, the biggest attention is drawn to the phenomenon of constructivism, which several decades ago have not been mentioned in any teaching journals. Although nowadays constructivism has managed to obtain great popularity, still there is no mutual opinion regarding the effects of this educational instrument.

The Success of Antidiscrimination Legislation

Various measures have been introduced through the years for the limitation of the phenomenon of discrimination in the workplace. however all of these measures (or at least the majority of them) have been proved to be inadequate taking into account the current social and cultural characteristics of most of the countries internationally. The extension of the phenomenon of discrimination could be understood only through a brief presentation of the conditions that people belonging in specific groups of the population face in the workplace. On the other hand, the current paper focuses specifically on the problems faced in the workplace by people belonging in minority ethnic groups. For this reason, inequality in the workplace will be examined and discussed specifically for the people belonging to these groups. no reference to another group of the population that currently faces inequality in the workplace will be made. Moreover, because the reference to the legislation that has been developed for the protection of the employment rights of people belonging in minority ethnic groups is necessary, a specific legal framework has been chosen as an indicative example of current legislative efforts made towards the protection of the rights of people belonging in minority ethnic groups in the workplace. the legal framework chosen is that of the UK.The presence of ethnic minority groups in the UK (as in most developed countries internationally) could be characterized as significant. In accordance with a relevant report ‘92.1 per cent of the UK, population described themselves as white (though not necessarily British). the remaining 7 per cent(4.6 million) belonged to non-white ethnic minority groups’ (ESRC, 2007, online report). In other words, people that belonging in ethnic minority groups play an important role in the development of British economy – through their work in various industrial activities – their presence in various scientific fields, like the legal profession, is rather limited.

Power and the People in Ancient China

Any emperor, who practised evil, faced the wrath of heaven in the form of natural calamities and disasters. If the said emperor still continued with his immoral practices or did not heed the warnings of heaven, then heaven would appropriately withdraw his mandate. Revolution would thus emerge because of the breaking of social and political order.The leadership of ancient China came to be greatly influenced by a man called Kong-Fuzi. Confucius, as he came to be referred to in the West, was the main influence on which the Chinese people based their society. The generally believed norms derived from this man are that every person should accept the roles designed by the life processes, of which these roles and duties are geared towards others. The people are supposed to diligently obey and respect their heaven-sent rulers, of which these rulers have a duty to be benevolent. This trend of obedience should be channelled down to children who are supposed to obey their parents. in general, all persons have a duty to honour their ancestors.Confucius also taught the need for rulers to set examples to their subjects, every person is required to be kind, and none should do to others, things that would not wish were done to oneself. Courtesy and moderation were also emphasized, with women required to submit to their fathers during their childhood, to their husband when married and to their male children once widowed. Women later came to be taught how to become industrious at the same time remaining submissive and exercising humility. Confucianism became the recognized and most dominant system of ethics that was closely followed and has sometimes regarded as a religion. Taoism was also developed and consequently became the chief religion of ancient Chinese with the main emphasis derived from the Tao meaning way (Gernet 65).Taoism had a major impact on the people as it urged them to just sit back and take no action. People were supposed to submit themselves and follow whichever way they were swayed like a stick in moving water.

The Linguistic Acquisition Device

He was able to give an evident account of the case of Victor of Aveyron who showed severe difficulty in developing language skills after years of isolation in the woods where he only interacted with animals. Subsequent observed improvement in language acquisition by Victor of Aveyron and a similar case of Genie in the United States seemed to provide reliable backup towards the theories of Chomsky. In the two cases of feral children, isolation from human interaction at childhood was attributed to the slow rate of language acquisition.The film Secret of the wild child is a reflection of how one United States girl commonly known as Genie was discovered in 1970 after suffering from physical abuse over a decade of isolation. The ensuing efforts to make her learn language proved difficult to achieve and this led to the advance element of Critical Period Hypothesis. In this theory, it is emphasized that there is a period mostly from infancy to adolescence when a human being has the highest potential of gaining native language competency. Outside this time limit, a child will experience severe difficulty in learning a language. The case of Genie who was discovered having been isolated for more than the critical age was an evidence of this research finding. This theory further asserts why adults find it difficult to learn the language than children as they have exceeded the critical period.After 13 years of isolation and deprivation, the mother of Genie left her abusive husband.Her mother, grandmother and herself had gone into the Social Welfare office in Temple City, California, to learn about resources for the blind in November 1970. It is at this point that a social worker grew curious over the possibly abnormal posture of the young girl who also looked younger than her actual age. The social worker’s initial thought of autism of the girl compelled her to enquire and subsequently.

Whether It Is the Managers Responsibility to Make Sure the Contract Is Being Adhered To By both Employees and the Organisation

The primary concern of organisations is to ensure effective performance through employees, normally done through the Human Resource Management (HRM) function of the organisation, where it becomes the responsibility of HRM to introduce effective policies and methods to achieve goals, and also carry out employee performance appraisals for further improvement (McKenna and Beech, 2008).Unlike a physical contract of employment which can be seen and signed by both employees and employers, the psychological contract is a more subtle, even invisible set of expectations of rights and privileges, and obligations that employees and organisations have from each other, which are not part of a written agreement, but still impose a significant amount of influence on people’s behaviour (McKenna and Beech, 2008. Lester and Kickul, 2001. Guest, 1998). Rousseau (2001) as cited in McKenna and Beech (2008), takes a more one-sided approach in his definition of the psychological contract when he says that it “concerns the expectations, right and obligations employees believe to exist between them and the organisation” (Pg 42). Research suggests that organisations can only achieve their objectives through co-ordinated efforts of their members and that it is management’s responsibility to achieve this through other people, where people, unlike physical assets, are not owned by organisations, and bring with them a complexity of perceptions, feelings and attitudes towards the organisation, management styles, their own responsibilities (work roles), and working conditions (Guest, 1998, and Patterson et al, 1998 cited in McKenna and Beech, 2008). The authors argue that these factors are normally embedded in the individual’s psyche, and form part of the psychological contract.Research also suggests that the human factor of organisations, where human behaviour is influenced by different social, cultural, and individual factors, must be taken into account whilst managing people, as these factors play important roles in how the individuals form their perceptions, which means they are vital in understanding how people form their psychological contracts (McKenna and Beech, 2008). e

Ethics in Organizations

The management of HP stated that one of the most difficult yet important choices they have ever made was firing the people whose acts were not meeting the ethical standards of the organization.Whether it is in the form of legal or moral responsibility, ethics should be considered as their priority by the modern organization. Organizations have a lot of things going on in their minds in today’s highly competitive world. They must also be familiar with all the technological advancements, the product and services of their competitors, the effects of globalization on the operations of the firm, and the threats and opportunities present within their own industry.As the priority of the organization, ethics will not only affect its decision making and culture but also its goals. In order to achieve success, an organization must integrate business ethics with its vision, mission, values, goals, and strategies. Ethical values are considered to be social in nature and therefore the alignment between the processes will be concerned with the definition of the definition and relationship of relational expectations. The major goal of an organization practicing ethical values should be to work for the greater good of all. The internal relationship in the organization i.e. the one existing between the leaders and the followers and the external relations of the organization and its clients should benefit the society at all prizes.It is the responsibility of the organization’s leaders to keep an eye on the vision, values, mission, goals, and strategy of the organization. However, in order to compete in the markets of the 21st century, it is important that the organizations should make ethics their priority. Priorities are things that are considered to be most important. For an organization, some things are way too important than the others. Ethical values must gain recognition as an elite and most significant successfactor for modern organizations. As a result of this, the people will be treated well and an ethical culture emerges from it (Brimmer, 2012).

Impact of Horror Films on Children and the Society

Television is one of the major causes for the same. Television has become an integral part of an individual’s entertainment in the modern world. People from all age groups spend a major part of their free time watching the television. So it follows naturally that they are influenced by what they watch on the television. Nowadays, concern regarding the impact of movies, video games, and the Internet has become a regular feature of the debate regarding social issues. In recent years, there has been a shift in the nature of the movies and video games produced towards more horror and violence. The issue of violence and horror in cinemas runs parallel to the advent of television for recreational purposes. People, especially young children, when following horror programs on television and watch movies portraying violence and gory, the question arises what influence do these programs have on the minds of the children and the society on the whole.Edward James Muggeridge is the Father of the motion picture. He was the creator of the first movie. The original purpose of television and movies is to provide entertainment. Over time, different genres of movies have surfaced, catering to the choices and preferences of all types of people in the society. One of the genres that have emerged is the horror film. The popularity of horror movies is depictive of the fact that people enjoy this genre and often prefer it over the romantic or classical genres. Some of the horror films stay number one on the charts for many weeks at a time. Examples of famous horror Hollywood movies include The Shining, The Silence of the Lambs, Exorcist, Psycho, Night of the Living Dead, Texas Chain Saw Massacre, Wait until Dark, and Drag me to Hell. The success of these movies has led to the production of even more horror movies (Rickitt 11). The very names of the films are suggestive of the sheer horror and violence that they contain.