As part of the wanting to let the people know the things left unknown, there are several points that have to be cleared and furthered stretched from the long story which was translated several times, having English as the sixth one. The first point that can be derived from the long and different narratives of places visited and devastated by the Spaniards is the point saying that the repetitive tortures and stories of killings, butcheries and burnings which lasted for many years appear like a culture that runs in the blood of the Spaniards. Except for Queen Isabel who according to the author as a kind heart and should be blessed by heaven, the rest of the greedy Spanish people is a full version of evil masked with the purpose of spreading Christianity and heaven’s blessing for the people.Understanding this blood of terror that reached and proliferated from America to the New Kingdom of Granada, we get to know the possible emergence of terror not just in the future but in the present globalized world. More than that, it is also significant to express the ‘otherness’ of the Indians in their own country. Aside from losing their right for decisions concerning their lives and politics in their own land, they also lost the real path and direction to where they wanted themselves to be because of the fear of meeting death in the hands of the executioners.The message here as we underscore this point is that we can never tell how it all ended or if at this point in time it is still happening. We usually mind our own lives and only take notice of history in class or during tests. But the evil, the pain and the picture of butcheries stay unknowingly. Time moves like things that change but some things just evolve through time. The repetition of events and ways, means and processes of killings and snatching of children from the breast of their mothers only give a hint to all of us that things can be repeated at any cost and at any time.
The first Italian War, 1494-98, was caused by Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice. He found an ally, Charles VIII of France, and convinced him to invade Italy. In 1494, Ferdinand I of Naples died, and thus Charles VIII invaded Italy, starting at the peninsula with 25,000 men. From there onwards the French took Italy unopposed — until their taking of Naples, which provoked a reaction, and thus the League of Venice was formed against them, cutting off Charles’ army from France. In the Battle of Fornovo, Charles was forced to withdraw back to France, and Ludovico, having betrayed France in Fornovo, retained his throne, only until 1499, when Louis XII of France (Charles’ successor) invaded Lombardy and seized Milan. By 1500, just a year after, Louis XIII of France and Ferdinand I of Spain agreed to become abettors, and thus, started marching south from Milan. By 1502, French and Spanish forces had seized control of the kingdom. However, disagreements arose about the terms of partition, and this led to a war between Louis and Ferdinand. By 1503, Louis having been defeated at the Battle of Cerignola, and Battle of Garigliano was forced to withdraw from Naples, and is now left under the control of the Spanish viceroy, General Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba.Meanwhile, Pope Julius II, being concerned with expanding the territory of the Republic of Venice, that the League of Cambrai was formed in 1508. This was the agreement of France, the Papacy, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire to restrain the Venetians. By 1509, the League destroyed most of the Venetian Army, but it failed to capture Padua. The Pope, now seeing France as a greater threat, left the League and joined arms with Venice. For the following year, the Veneto-Papal alliance was repeatedly defeated, so the Pope proclaimed a Holy League against the French, which rapidly grew to include England, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire.The French, having their leader Gaston de Foix killed in 1512, was forced to withdraw from Italy by the Swiss who invaded Milan, and reinstated Maximilian Sforza to the ducal throne. The Holy League was powerful, yet only until the death of Julius, who, when he died, left the league with no effective leadership. Then, Charles, I of Spain was elevated to Holy Roman Emperor, causing a fit with Francis I (Louis’ successor), who wanted that position.
It is evidently clear from the discussion that ontology concept discusses the existence of cabbages and apples. For example, Douglas Adams uses his Madagascar experiences to explain how the concept of evolution. Further, ontology focuses on why the above categories exist. Specifically, ontology delves into the reasons why dogs, cats, humans and other animals were placed into our material world. Next, the study of ontology includes determining the significant purpose of the existence of vegetables, fruits, and other plants. Answering the first ontology topic, the person’s describing the physical features and actions shows the existence of the dog, cat, human or other animals. Hearing an animal that barks definitely shows the dog exists. Seeing the animal’s long hair Seeing an animal that has two arms, two legs and speaks Spanish shows a human exists. Seeing an animal gallop indicates the existence of the horse. Next, ontology zeroes in on the reasons for the existence of the above living things. Observing the dog will show that the dog exists to ward off the cat’s intrusion into the dog owner’s home. Likewise, the dog exists to safeguard the dog owner’s car from trespassing thieves. Observing the cat in its own free environment shows the cat exists to eat rats and mice. Eating the rats and mice reduces the pests’ population. With lesser population, people are assured of lesser rodent attacks. Delving into ontology’s existence topic, authentic thinker Albert Camus espoused the philosophical concept of Existentialism. Existentialism states that each individual uses his or her existence or experiences as the basis for generating the individual’s own philosophies, values, and concepts. People use their preferred philosophies, values, and concepts to add meaning to their existence. Further, different individuals go through different paths add meaning to their lives. A hungry individual can generate meaning in his life. First, the individual observes how another person cooks food. Next, the individual uses the observation to cook the individual’s food.
Various chapters in the book illustrate different forms and aspects of human-animal interrelationships.The chapter starts by Soldier boy introducing himself as the favorite horse for Buffalo Bill (Cody) and boasts about his pedigree, strength, and speed as a stout horse. Soldier boy is at Fort Paxton just after arriving from a 40-day scouting expedition. Everyone at the fort is awaiting the arrival of the orphaned niece of its commander, Brigadier General Thomas Alison (Mark 10).A strong bond exists between Buffalo Bull and his horse, Soldier Boy. As the horse narrates he, was Bill’s favorite. While in scouting missions, they rode together for several miles. The horse even acknowledges that Buffalo taught him how to drag wounded soldiers out of the line of fire. The relationship between Soldier Boy and Bill was both companionship and friendship.The Spanish sister-in-law of the general’s deceased brother, Mercedes, writes to Alison from France. She explains that Catherine’s parents wanted her to go him because he is in bad health and is also about to retire. In the writing, Mercedes explains that Cathy has a good mind and is good-hearted. She also explains that Cathy has a sense of justice and loves animals.Humans can develop a strong love towards animals. As Mercedes writes, Cathy loves animals to the extent that she refers to them as her worship. She says that Cathy shows little cruelty and oppression towards animals. Showing no form of cruelty and oppression to animals is the best relationship people should have with animals. The author uses Cathy to communicate to his audience of the importance of showing care and kindness towards animals.In chapter three, General Alison informs his mother in San Bernardino, California, of the arrival of Cathy. Cathy has conquered everyone including both the soldiers and Indians with her good heart and winning ways.
Cost includes the cost of goods manufactured, which includes raw materials, processing, labor, etc. and the cost of goods sold that includes the operating expenses. The operating expenses and initial investment would be covered under the assigned budget. Mostly, businesses that are entering into a market try to set a price that covers their cost while helping them earn a reasonable amount of profit. Hence, the pricing methodology is pretty simple, they add a markup to the total cost of the product. There are several pricing options available based on which we can decide the price of an item of ChurroZ Pricing Strategies A product can be priced according to several strategies. A business should decide on a pricing strategy based on its marketing strategy, as well as the market it is moving into. We are discussing the following two pricing strategies here: Price Skimming – Using this strategy, a business charges a relatively high price for a short period of time exploiting newness of the product. The main target of the strategy is to ‘skim off’ customers who are willing to pay a high price for getting the product sooner. The prices are reduced as the demand goes down. This strategy is effective for extremely innovative products or for products being introduced to a market so that they can take advantage of customer involvement and attraction towards the product. ChurroZ are Spanish donuts and they are being introduced in New Zealand on a cart for customers on the go. As the product is being introduced in the market, the business could think about utilizing Price Skimming as a strategy because it is a relatively new product for the New Zealand market and customers would be interested in trying it. Later, they bring the prices down if the demand falls or the competition increases. Penetration Pricing – In this pricing strategy, a business sets a relatively low price to enter a market to attract maximum customers and induce trials. The objective of the strategy is to make the customers switch from their existing brands due to the lower pricing. The target is to increase market share, sales volume. This strategy is not suitable for ChurroZ as it is a new product and there is very little or no competition currently in the market. Various Price Allocation Techniques Cost plus pricing – this technique is the most commonly used and popular with manufacturers. It involved adding up all the costs associated with the manufacturing of a single item and then adding up a desired profit to find the price. This is a fairly simple and transparent technique and it involved minimum complexity. It is most suitable for business startups or if entering a new market. Competitive Pricing – Another strategy of pricing is to price your product based on the prices of the competitors. However, this strategy is a risky one as it can back fire if it induces a price competition among businesses. Hence, business should only compete with others of their own size and strength. This strategy is not suitable for startups as they would looking to stabilize themselves and understand the market and their customers and blend in accordingly. Demand Based Pricing – Demand based pricing is the method in which an analysis of consumer response to a range of prices reveals the highest acceptable price. This is a relatively new method that relies on research and time. A company before deciding on a price and launch the
The events that shaped African American history and converted the blacks from being slave to free people were forced transportation of black people for slave trade,American Revolution,the Great Awakening,the very famous war of 1812 and the civil war.Slave trade is the first incident that shows the deprivation of Black population of their basic human rights as blacks were transported to other lands for labour purposes Second in line is the event of Great Awakening, which helped people to recognize their existence according to their religion, as Great Awakening resulted in unity of Americans and Christianity faith. Third important event is the American Revolution that started in 1775 as clash between the Great Britain and the thirteen British colonies in America. During American Revolution, blacks wanted their rights and human treatment from Americans. British unwillingness to sign the commercial agreement, British support to Indians on American frontiers and failure of British army to withdraw from American territories were the causes of irritation for Americans due to which, the war of 1812 was there. Civil War is the last important event that helped the blacks in gaining freedom as at the end of civil war, formal identity was given to black people as Americans. AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY (1600-1877) African American history revolves around arrival of African American or black American ethnic groups in US. Migration of black people from Carrabin and transportation of slaves in 16th century changed the history of the region. Five very influential events took place from 1600 to 1877. The events that shaped African American history and converted the blacks from being slave to free people were forced transportation of black people for slave trade, American Revolution, the Great Awakening, the very famous war of 1812 and the civil war. Slave trade leads the other events in the African American history. In 1619, first slave was brought to Jamestown as a servant. This event opened the doors for bringing non-Christian black people as servants in the US. Number of slaves rose to 25000 in 1700 in American colonies1. Next in order was Great Awakening, known as watershed period in American life. Great Awakening swept the colonies by having greater social and religious effects on the people’s life. Period of 1730-1740 is known as revivalism period that spread throughout in American colonies2. Individual spiritual experiences got importance over the routine church proceedings. After the period of Great Awakening, the next mega event in African American history is American Revolution. It began in 1775 due to conflict between Great Britain and thirteen colonies. After the end of revolution in 1783, another mega event is the war of 1812. War was fought between America and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815 but peace treaty for ending the war was signed in 1814. Than the reconstruction period started in which black people were granted American citizenship with full rights. Mid eighteenth century saw a big shift in American policies towards black and black people also shifted to south for living the lives as per their own wishes3. The impact of all the events on African American history 1600-1877 shall be discussed in detail in this paper. Great emphasis shall be laid on the war of 1812, because of events taking place during this period. Spanish and Portuguese settlers brought Africans with them in the new world. About 2,75,000 Africans were brought to south and north America at the start of 16th century. First African slave was brought to Jamestown in1619. More Africans were then brought to those areas having good land for cultivation but labour was short. Many slaves used to die during transportation due to inadequate food and medical treatment. Earlier the differences in treating European and African slaves were almost negligible but soon they started differentiating whites from black people in 27th century. Virginia
This research will begin with the statement that slaves had a tendency to run away from their masters if they got a chance. In order to recapture escaped slaves, their masters would advertise details relating to the slave in highly descriptive forms so that they slaves could be captured and returned. The bounty for the slaves depended on the distance from their master’s property and how much the master valued a particular slave. Similarly, people who captured slaves would also advertise to return slaves to their owners in order to get rewarded. The runaway slave advertisements were often very descriptive. These details can be utilised to surmise historical facts from these advertisements. Various compilations of these advertisements exist but perhaps the most famous one are those compiled from various Virginia newspapers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Subtle differences exist between runaway slave advertisements from various regions and periods as well as from various newspapers. These differences can be used to elucidate differing attitudes and functions of slaves and slave owners around the United States. Evidence is referenced here and comparisons have been drawn in order to highlight regional variations in slavery and servitude in colonial America. After going through a number of advertisements for runaway slaves, the first thing to notice is that slaves could be other than African American too. There are references to native Indian, partially Spanish and other ethnic slaves who had escaped too. (Radford University) Reference may be made here to an advertisement in The Boston Newsletter dated July 23rd, 1716 for an Indian named Min. Similarly, another advertisement from The New York Gazette dated to October 2nd, 1749 concerns a Spanish Mulatto fellow named George. However, another thing to notice is the fact that slaves with ethnicities other than African American are more distinctly available in the coastal strips of the United States. Furthermore, other than regularly captured and sold out slaves from African jungles, certain slaves were previously free men. The previous advertisement for the Spanish man declares that he was previously a privateer. (Radford University) Again the slaves found in the south and Middle America regions were distinctly slaves for generations and were African American in ethnicity. These free men turned slaves are more distinctly noticeable in coastal American states especially New York and Boston that served as major harbours. Demographic differences also exist in the usage of slaves from state to state. While the plantation owners used slaves largely for tending to the crop and other such affairs, the slaves in the more urbanised backgrounds were house hold helpers. The slaves who helped out on farms were diverse in terms of their professions. While it is believed that most slaves on plantations were merely farm labourers, but slaves were employed elsewhere as well. There are advertisements for black smiths, chimney sweepers, wood workers, shoe makers etc. One such example is of an advertisement placed in The New York Gazette on September 25th, 1749 relating a runaway slave who is a chimney sweeper. Another similar example comes from an advertisement in The American Weekly Mercury on October 16th, 1729 where a runaway slave with the name of Mulato John is declared to be a Shipwright by Trade. In comparison, most runaway slave advertisements from the urban centres were for house workers. (Radford University) In terms of gender, most of the household slaves were young females. Most advertisements point to this fact. On such advertisement from The New York Gazette from November 13th, 1732 is about a slave girl named Sarah aged 24 years working in a home. Another advertiseme
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………4 Thesis Statement………………………………………………………………………………….4 Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………4 Preliminary Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………….5 Study Implications…………………………………………………………………………………7 Work Plan…………………………………………………………………………………………7 References…………………………………………………………………………………………9 INTRODUCTION Formulaic language has been playing a key role in second language teaching. A beginning learner utilizes more idiomatic English expressions focused on daily communication templates. Alison Wray’s (2002) definition of a formulaic sequence of words has been the most popular one: Formulaic Sequence is a sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words or other elements which is, or appears to be, prefabricated: that is stored and retrieved whole from memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language grammar (Wray, 2002, p. 9). Wray claims that the adult learner primarily is more focused on individual words and is concentrated on a non-formulaic approach to language learning (Lewis, 2000a. b). This thesis is devoted to identification of an ability of adult language learners to retain information about what words appear together in their input of adj+noun pairs, verb+noun pairs, and or noun+noun pairs. It is supposed that any drawbacks in non-natives’ knowledge of collocation associations between words is caused by an inadequate input. THESIS STATEMENT The fluency-oriented repetition of individual sentence contexts has an impact on collocation learning for L2 learners, and thus participants will primarily notice and remember chunks of words in their input through an organized testing process using the adj-noun, verb-noun, and noun-noun pairs placed in a sentence. METHODOLGY A general selection criterion was a key trigger for my further research. Theoretical background is based on relevant academic articles, academic texts, and books. The participants were asked to undergo a short training session in which they were exposed to a number of target adjective-noun, verb-noun, and noun-noun combinations embedded in sentences called a naming phase. Sentences were presented to participants on a computer screen in a random order. The participants were asked to say the noun aloud if they recognized it. The respondents are Spanish speaking Americans. All the participants are enrolled in one or two of the ESL programs for a L2 learner of English within their city’s community base. They are all lower level income participants, with lower level educational backgrounds. PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the adjective+noun, verb+ noun, and noun+noun word pairs, the nouns were recognized more reliably when they followed the verb with which it was paired. These collocations were easily
Marijuana is used widely in many parts of the world and people prefer it as it is more natural form of drug. However, the usage of Marijuana is not legalized in many developed and developing countries. Even though marijuana is a natural drug, its threatening impact on people’s health has made it a drug to be avoided in all cases.(Thesis) Marijuana is a drug which is smoked and also consumed as a tea and also along with food items. This drug is banned by the government from usage as it has great potentiality for drug abusing. In developed country like USA, the Marijuana’s cultivation, selling and distribution is restricted due it‘s potential life threats. The government also found that this drug has no medicinal properties and hence cannot be legally allowed to be used by its citizens. However, there are many ancient records that suggest marijuana usage, since it is a drug which has the capability of rescuing a person from health ailments. But as the scientific and medical world denounces the usage of marijuana it is banned in most countries. History of Marijuana The history of Marijuana can be dated back to 2737 B.C. and the country which praised about its medicinal property was China. Marijuana is a drug which was used by ancient people to create euphoric experience in them. The use of marijuana historically moved from China to India and then to northern Africa. It was in the period of A.D. 500, that this drug got introduced in Europe. Generally speaking, the psychotic effect of marijuana was first recorded in the medical records of the Chinese emperor Sheng Nung. As per (Narconon International) The first direct reference to a cannabis product as a psychoactive agent dates from 2737 BC, in the writings of the Chinese emperor Shen Nung. The focus was on its powers as a medication for rheumatism, gout, malaria, and oddly enough, absent-mindedness. Apart from Chinese, the Muslim people also consumed it as an alternative recreational substance as the Quran prohibited the use of Alcohol consumption. It is through the Muslims, that this addictive drug arrived in North Africa and Persia. Even though, the marijuana was known for its intoxicating properties, more weight was given to its medicinal properties. However, it was in the 16th century that the Spanish introduced cannabis to the English land where it was later cultivated as an alternative for tobacco and for fiber. During the 20th century, the marijuana was only allowed to the show business world and the usage of marijuana among jazz musicians persuaded the music lovers to the use the drug extensively. However, the drug caused many health risks to its users. hence the government of many countries banned the drug for public’s safety. Marijuana has medicinal value and can be used moderately It is a known fact that, everything in the world has good and bad sides. In the same way, marijuana has some medicinal qualities which have been strongly illustrated by the people of ancient cultures. This hemp plant has been used vivaciously by ancient men to treat many health disorders according to the recorded ancient documents. In his book (Shohov 11)states that Scientific evidence verifies that marijuana has the following therapeutic effect. relief form nausea and increase appetite, reduction of intraocular(within the eye) pressure, reduction of muscle spasms and relief from chronic pain. In the same way marijuana also helps in treating the symptoms of cancer, multiple sclerosis and AIDS. Marijuana is found to be useful
This suggests that a system for eliciting parental views should be built into any assessment tool for autism, and that extra language support for non-native speakers of Spanish or English should be provided to ensure that this group is not left behind. There is a wealth of knowledge that parents can contribute if a method can be found to elicit their views and record them in a consistent and comparable way. Parallel to the input of parents, there is the standard procedure of child development screening carried out at specified stages during health and educational interactions. The BRIGANCE Standard Diagnostic Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills (Glasgoe, 1999) was first devised in the 1970s and has been refined and extended since then to cover a wider age range and a more clearly defined set of criteria. In its present form, it is widely accepted as a good standard instrument which allows both effective local assessment and wider collation of results across the United States which can be used to build a picture of changes in the patterns of child development as they emerge. This test certainly does pick up significant numbers of cases for further investigation but it is not specifically designed to screen for autism. Parents and broad-based standard testing are therefore a crucial first line and very basic level of screening which are effective for the majority of children. A screening instrument in the UK for very young children around 18 months of age called the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers or simply CHAT has a series of yes/no questions. The questions in section one are general, such as does your child enjoy being swung, bounced on your knee and these are answered by the parent.