Brehm, J., (2006). Luis Miguel Valdez. Magill’s Survey of American Literature, 1-6. BiographyOne of the most influential Chicano playwrights of his time, Valdez created a drama dedicated to social progress and to the full exploration of Chicano identity.Luis Miguel Valdez was born on June 26, 1940, in Delano, California, the second of ten brothers and sisters. His mother and father were migrant farmworkers, and Luis began working in the fields at the age of six. Because his family traveled to the harvests in the San Joaquin Valley, Luis received little uninterrupted schooling.In an interview, Valdez discussed one significant, and ultimately fortunate, consequence of such a disruptive early life: His family had just finished a cotton harvest; the season had ended, the rains begun, but because their truck had broken down, the family had to stay put. Leaving school one day, Luis realized he had left behind his paper lunch bag, a precious commodity in 1946, given the paper shortages and the family’s poverty. When he returned to get it, however, he found his teacher had torn it up. She was using it to make papier-mâché animal masks for the school play. Luis was amazed by the transformation. Although he did not even know what a play was at the time, he decided to audition and was given the leading role as a monkey. The play was about Christmas in the jungle, and the following weeks of colorful preparation were exhilarating. A week before the show was to begin, however, his father got the truck fixed, and the family moved away. Valdez has said of the experience: “That left an unfillable gap, a vacuum I’ve been pouring myself into ever since.”The pang of that early disappointment sparked a fascination for the theater and a wealth of creative energy that was to bring Valdez remarkable success in the years ahead. Despite his intermittent schooling, he won a scholarship to San Jose State College in 1960. There he studied theater history and developed a lasting enthusiasm for classical Greek and Roman drama. His own work also began to take shape, and his first one-act play, The Theft, won a regional playwriting award. In 1965, he directed his first full-length play, The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa, which audiences greeted warmly.After receiving a degree in English in 1964, Valdez spent several months traveling in Cuba before joining the San Francisco Mime Troupe. In 1965, he returned home to Delano and joined the newly formed United Farm Workers Union under the leadership of César Chávez. During this time, Valdez began fully to explore drama as a vehicle for social justice. He developed a form suitable for his migrant-worker audiences: a short skit, or acto, designed to inspire Chicanos to political action.These actos, often improvised on flatbed trucks for workers in the fields, proved so powerful as political weapons that Valdez’s life was threatened during the grape strike of 1967. Immensely popular with the workers, the actosaroused hostility in the growers, whose exploitative labor practices the plays satirized. Valdez has recalled being “beaten and kicked and jailed. . . . essentially for doing theater.” Still, he persisted, and the actosgained so much attention that the Teatro Campesino, or Farmworker’s Theater, toured the United States performing the works in 1967.From then on, Valdez’s work began to reach increasingly larger audiences. He left the fields late in 1967 for Del Rey, California, where he founded the Centro Campesino Cultural. Between 1969 and 1980, the troupe toured Europe four times and won an Obie Award. Despite such acclaim Valdez remained true to his Chicano, migrant-worker roots. Moving the troupe to Fresno, California, in 1969, Valdez founded an annual Chicano theater festival and began teaching at Fresno State College. As its audience grew, the troupe became more technically sophisticated but continued its efforts to “put the tools of the artist into the hands of the humblest, the working people.” The troupe moved in 1971 to rural San Juan Bautista, from which it toured widely among college campuses, while remaining deeply involved with the concerns of its own community.Having spent his entire career well outside mainstream, commercial theater, Valdez decided in 1978 to reach for a still larger audience. The result was Zoot Suit, a Broadway-style dance musical about the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial and the riots that followed in Los Angeles in 1943. Though still quite political, the play succeeds in being genuinely entertaining, particularly in its film adaptation. Like Zoot Suit, Bandido! (1981) and “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” (1986) both reach for more general audiences and explore the Chicano struggle for identity against the limiting stereotypes imposed by an Anglicized history and American media. Such plays, as well as the successful 1987 film La Bamba, which Valdez wrote and directed, speak not only for Chicanos but also to white audiences, forcing them to reexamine their preconceptions about who Chicanos really are. These works also testify to Valdez’s extraordinary journey from migrant farmworker to one of the most vital Chicano voices in American drama.AnalysisFrom the earliest and simplest actos to the complex sophistication of “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” nearly three decades later, Valdez’s plays have displayed a remarkable consistency of theme and purpose. Certainly, his work has evolved in scope, depth, and technique, but his basic objectives have remained constant: to expose social injustice, to satirize the oppressors, and to dramatize, in all of its fullness and variety, the struggle to achieve a viable Chicano identity.Born into a family of migrant farmworkers, Valdez knew firsthand the effects of oppression and exploitation. It was therefore quite natural that his first short plays would deal with the struggles of the farmworkers to unionize. These early actos were improvised using a unique collaborative method: Valdez would simply ask striking workers to show what had happened to them during the day. Employing masks or crude signs to indicate different characters — workers, scabs, growers, and so forth — the strikers, under Valdez’s direction, produced skits of engaging immediacy, broad humor, and a pointed political message. Their purpose was to raise consciousness, deflate the opposition’s authority, and point to a solution. Yet the plays were quite entertaining as well, often transforming and releasing the workers’ immediate feelings of fear and frustration through comedy and withering satire.Though some of the actos, such as Vietnam campesino (1970), can seem too bluntly didactic, Valdez learned much from them about making theater a vehicle for inspiring social action. He also sensed, eventually, the need to ground the Chicano experience in something more enduring than immediate political struggle. He returned to the ancient wellsprings of Aztec and Mayan culture to provide such a groundwork for the contemporary Chicano identity.In his introduction to Aztlan: An Anthology of Mexican American Literature(1972), Valdez frames the problem of Chicano marginalization explicitly:His birthright to speak as Man has been forcibly stripped from him. To his conqueror he is patently sub-human, uncivilized, or culturally deprived. The poet in him flounders in a morass of lies and distortions about his conquered people. He loses his identity with mankind, and self-consciously struggles to regain his one-to-one relationship with humanexistence. It is a long way back. . . . Such is the condition of the Chicano.That “long way back” took Valdez to pre-Columbian Mexico. What he found there were the achievements of Aztec and Mayan civilization, their astonishing developments in medicine, art, poetry, hygiene, urban planning, and religion, all of which he compares favorably to their European counterparts of the time. To combat the degradation of centuries of Anglo racism, of being seen as “foreigners in the continent of their birth,” Valdez wants to reconnect Chicanos to an ancient, proud, and venerable culture. Chicanos must, in his view, revive this connection and rethink their history if they are to maintain an identity in Anglo society.Valdez attempts this reconnection in a variety of ways. In Bernabé(1970), he creates a character, the village lunatic, who physically and metaphorically marries La Tierra (the Earth) and thus reestablishes the Mayan reverence for it. In Zoot Suit and Bandido!, Valdez reexamines history from the Chicano and Mexican perspective. Thus Tiburcio Vasquez, whom history had portrayed as a mere bandit working the California countryside from 1850 to 1875, becomes in Bandido! a revolutionary bent on political rebellion. Zoot Suit retrieves for the American conscience an overlooked period of intense racism culminating in the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial and the riots that followed. Both plays try not only to set the record straight but also to discover a source of pride for Chicanos in a history that has been unjustly debased.The consequence of Chicanos being cut off from the life-giving power of their history and culture is brilliantly dramatized in “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!,” in which Valdez explores the deeply problematic nature of assimilation into Anglo culture. In their desire to fit in with middle-class America, the members of the Villa family find themselves silenced and marginalized. Bit-part actors who rarely receive speaking roles, Buddy and Connie Villa have achieved a comfortable success, but their only connection with their own culture is the stereotyped Mexicans they portray on film. Their son, who enrolled in Harvard Law School at age sixteen, represents the possibility for the epitome of Anglo success. Yet he rebels against this assimilation and drops out of school, only to discover just how rigid the limitations are for Chicanos who reject an Anglo identity.Stylistically, Valdez is clearly not a realist, though some of his plays — those, for example, depicting actual historical events — employ elements of realism. In all of his plays, however, Valdez takes pains (often in the manner of Bertolt Brecht) to ensure that his audiences never forget that they are watching a play. He does not want to create the illusion of reality or to manipulate the audience into emotional identification with the characters. Plays within plays, characters who speak directly to the audience, radical shifts in time, and many other devices all serve to disrupt the illusion of reality and focus the audience’s attention on the artifice before them. Such strategies serve Valdez’s purposes well, for he wants audiences to maintain the necessary distance to reflect on the problems that his plays present and to relate them to the world outside the theater. Often the plays are open-ended or have multiple endings, and in this way, too, the audience must actively engage the play and resolve it for themselves. These methods do not provide a comfortable or easy theatrical experience, but the rewards of thinking hard about Valdez’s plays are indeed worth the effort.Las dos caras del patroncito First produced: 1965 (first published, 1971)Type of work: PlayThe boss trades places with one of his farmworkers and discovers how exploited they are.Las dos caras del patroncito (the two faces of the little boss) typifies, in many ways, Valdez’s early actos. The piece grew out of a collaborative improvisation during the grape strike of 1965 and dramatized the immediate and intense feelings of its audience. Like all the actos, it is brief, direct, didactic, intending not only to express the workers’ anger and urge them to join the union but also to satirize the growers and reveal their injustice. The play succeeds brilliantly by enacting a total reversal of what Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche termed the master/slave relationship.The play begins with an undocumented Mexican worker being visited by his patroncito, or “little boss,” who appears wearing a pig mask and smoking a cigar. Initially, both play their assumed roles of intimidating master and cowering slave to perfection. Soon, though, the patroncito waxes poetic over his Mexicans. Seeing them “barreling down the freeway” makes his “heart feel good; hands on their sombreros, hair flying in the wind, bouncing along happy as babies.” “I sure do love my Mexicans,” he says. The patroncito reveals a typical condescension, romanticizing the migrant workers’ lives and regarding them essentially as children. When the farmworker responds by putting his arm around him, however, the patroncito says; “I love ’em about ten feet away from me.”Their conversation takes a peculiar turn as the patroncito verbally coerces the farmworker into agreeing that the workers have it easy, with their “free housing” (labor-camp shacks), “free transportation” (unsafe trucks), and “free food” (beans and tortillas). The boss asserts that he himself suffers all the anxiety that comes from owning a Lincoln Continental, an expensive ranch house, and a wife with expensive tastes. At one point, he asks the farmworker, “Ever write out a check for $12,000?” The audience of migrant workers struggling to raise their wages to two dollars an hour would have felt the irony of such a question; the agony of writing out such a check is not something they would experience anytime soon, given their exploited condition.Yet the patroncito actually envies the farmworkers’ “freedom” and wishes to trade places. After some coaxing, the farmworker agrees, and the patroncitogives him his pig mask, whereupon the power relations between them are reversed. The farmworker now gives the boss a taste of his own medicine. He insults him and proceeds to claim his land, his house, his car, and his wife. The patroncito soon realizes that the game has gone too far. He does not want to live in the rat-infested shacks he so generously provides for his workers, or ride in his death-trap trucks, or work for such low wages.By the play’s end, the farmworker has so thoroughly abused his patroncito, calling him a “spic,” “greaseball,” and “commie bastard” — all the slurs the workers endured — that the patroncito calls for help from union activist César Chávez and screams “huelga” (“strike”). Thus the play brings him full circle from callous owner to union supporter and suggests that if the oppressors could put themselves in the place of the oppressed, they would see their own injustice.Zoot Suit First produced: 1978 (first published, 1992)Type of work: PlayThe Sleepy Lagoon murder trial of 1943 shows young Chicanos to be the victims of prejudice.Zoot Suit, though perhaps Valdez’s most commercial play, retains the political spirit of the early actos and anticipates the struggle for Chicano identity of Valdez’s later works. Because it is a musical, with terrific song and dance throughout, it is his most conventionally entertaining play, but because it dramatizes an overlooked episode in American history that reveals a pervasive racism against Chicanos, it is also one of his most powerful and socially relevant plays.Set in Los Angeles in the early 1940’s, the play centers around the trial and wrongful murder conviction of Henry Reyna and three other Chicano gang members, or pachucos. Act 1 explores the trial and, through flashback, the violence that leads up to it; act 2 deals with the efforts to appeal the conviction and free the pachucos. Throughout the play, Valdez gives the action an added dimension through the use of two extraordinary devices. One is the mythic figure of El Pachuco. He is larger than life, the zoot-suiter par excellence, the embodiment of Chicano pride, machismo, and revolutionary defiance. He dominates the play, though he is seen only by Henry and the audience. Indeed, he may be understood as a layer of Henry’s personality externalized, a kind of alter ego who continually advises Henry and comments on, at times even controls, the play. The second device is El Pachuco’s counterpart and antagonist, The Press. In Zoot Suit, the news media functions as an actual character who symbolizes the racist hysteria of public opinion during World War II. Significantly, it is The Press, rather than a prosecutor, that tries and convicts Henry.This racist hysteria (“EXTRA! EXTRA!, ZOOT-SUITED GOONS OF SLEEPY LAGOON! . . . READ ALL ABOUT MEXICAN BABY GANGSTERS!”) provides a crucial context for understanding the play. As the United States fought Nazis abroad, it imprisoned Japanese Americans at home, denied African Americans basic human rights, and harassed Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. The irony of Henry’s being arrested on trumped-up charges the night before he is to report to the Navy to join the fight against racist Germany is cynically pointed out by El Pachuco, who says that “the mayor of L.A. has declared all-out war on Chicanos.” In this climate, racial stereotypes, media-inspired fear, and repressive forces unleashed by war are quite enough to convict the pachucos, even in the absence of any real evidence.The trial itself is a mockery, a foregone conclusion, and thus Henry finds himself at the mercy of forces he did not create and cannot control. Even those who try to help him — his lawyer, George, and Alice, a reporter from the Daily People’s World — earn Henry’s resentment, for they, too, seem to be controlling his fate. In this sense, El Pachuco represents a compensating fantasy. He is always in control and indeed is able to freeze the action of the play, speak directly to the audience, rerun dialogue, or skip ahead at will. He is a kind of director within the play, and however vulnerable the other young pachucosare, El Pachuco remains invincible. Even when he is tripped and beaten by Marines, he rises up undaunted, clad only in a loincloth, like an Aztec god.Henry Reyna and the other pachucos are vindicated in the end, winning their appeal and a provisional kind of freedom. Yet Valdez presents multiple endings to Henry’s life story. He does so to make the audience see that Henry’s character still exists, as do the forces of racism that torment him, and the defiant spirit and cultural pride that will not allow his will to be broken.“I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” First produced:1986 (first published, 1986)Type of work: PlayIn a rebellious attempt to create his own identity, a young Chicano finds himself trapped by stereotypes.“I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” is Valdez’s most complex, ambitious, and satisfying play. Satirical, comic, filled with puns and painful insight, the play explores the search for an authentic Chicano identity against the limiting stereotypes and restricted possibilities afforded Mexican Americans in the 1980’s United States.The play is set in Los Angeles in the home of Connie and Buddy Villa, middle-aged Chicano bit-part actors. The conflict is sparked by the unexpected return of Sonny, their son. Defying his parents’ dreams for him, Sonny quits Harvard University Law School and thus forfeits his chance at the kind of Anglo success his parents have not been able to achieve. His return home, with his Chinese American girlfriend, and his announced intention to become an actor, writer, producer, and director — “the newest superstar in Hollywood” and “the next Woody Allen” — creates a crisis in the family that the rest of the play tries to resolve. In a tempestuous family quarrel, Sonny derides his parents’ acting; they have made careers playing stereotyped nonspeaking parts as maids, gardeners, bandits, and prostitutes.He proclaims his desire to surpass them. “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” then moves to a play within a play. Sonny films his parents and his girlfriend, Anita, but when his parents are called off to a Latino Actors Guild meeting, he decides to act in another way. He takes his father’s gun and holds up several fast-food restaurants. The climax of the play occurs when police and news crews arrive at the Villa home; a standoff ensues, replete with gunfire, bullhorns, and live coverage. The play then offers three completely different endings, with Sonny either killing himself, becoming a television director, or returning to Harvard, via spaceship, to finish his law degree.Valdez gives the play’s most compelling theme, the struggle against racial stereotypes to find a viable Chicano identity, a complex and layered treatment. Even the characters’ names — Buddy, Connie, and Sonny Villa — suggest a divided identity. “Villa” recalls the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, but their first names are all too typically Anglo. Their cultural frame of reference, moreover, is almost exclusively that of white films and film stars. Throughout the play, they compare themselves and one another to Otto Preminger, Woody Allen, James Bond, Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, and many others. Their understanding of themselves and their world seems to have been defined not by Chicano role models but by Hollywood film stars.Sonny alone recognizes this problem, and he rebels against it. He sees that his parents’ roles as “silent” actors signify their powerlessness, their marginalized stature in Hollywood, and the invisibility of Chicanos generally. Sonny also understands that by acting the film roles of Mexican stereotypes, his parents have achieved in their private existence nothing more than a “low rated situation comedy” and “a cheap imitation of Anglo life,” with a comfortable home, swimming pool, and all the other trappings of middle-class America. Sonny wants no part of it. Yet he knows how limited his options are:Here’s the main event: the indispensable illiterate cholo gang member-heroin-addict-born-to-lose-image, which I suppose could account for 99 percent of my future employment in TV land. Just look hostile, dumb, and potentially violent. Preferably with rape on the mind, know what I mean?Thus Sonny’s decision to leave Harvard and create his own films is an attempt to create and control his own identity, not as an imitation Anglo but as a Chicano. For all of his insight and ambition, however, Sonny feels trapped. When his parents abandon his home movie, titled Types in Stereo, Sonny decides to make his acting real. Yet he merely assumes another role, and a stereotypical one at that, of the Chicano bandit. He robs fast-food restaurants, symbols of the emptiness he sees in American life, and thus gives in to the pressures against which he had fought.The play’s multiple endings leave readers and audiences perplexed. Clearly, though, Valdez wants audiences to step back and reflect on the relationship between acting and reality and to consider the options open, or perhaps closed, to someone like Sonny. Ultimately, the play forces audiences to think deeply about their own stereotypes and to see, in all of its painful complexity, the damage such stereotypes can do.SummaryUnlike many of his contemporaries who prefer to explore psychological conflicts or the complexities of personal relationships, Valdez has devoted his work to dramatizing social problems. His plays, early and late, expose the injustice endured by Chicanos — not to elicit pity or to portray them as victims but to focus attention on the forces of oppression and to make Chicanos fully visible in American society. In plays that are satirical, unconventional, unpredictable, painful, and often hilarious, Valdez succeeds in abolishing the stereotypes and showing not only what Chicanos have suffered but also who they really are.Discussion Topics•Compare Luis Miguel Valdez’s use of history in Zoot Suit and Bandido!•What does “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” say about American society’s view of Chicanos? What does it say about the effect of American popular culture on ordinary lives?•How do Valdez’s plays show the influence of the dramatic methods of Bertolt Brecht?•How does Zoot Suit continue and expand upon the themes of Valdez’s actos?•In Zoot Suit, how does El Pachuco embody Chicano pride?•Does Valdez’s film La Bamba look at Chicano culture differently than his plays?Essay by: John BrehmBibliographyBroyles-Gonzales, Yolanda. El Teatro Campesino: Theater in the Chicano Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. Study drawing on previously unexamined materials, such as production notes and interviews with former ensemble members, to demystify the roles Valdez and El Teatro Campesino played in the development of a Chicano theater aesthetic.Elam, Harry J., Jr. Taking It to the Streets: The Social Protest Theatre of Luis Valdez and Amiri Baraka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. Explores the political, cultural, and performative similarities between El Teatro Campesino and Baraka’s Black Revolutionary Theater. An intriguing examination of the political theater of these two marginalized groups, Chicanos and African Americans, and their shared aesthetic.Flores, Arturo C. El Teatro Campesino de Luis Valdez. Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, 1990. This five-chapter study examines the importance, gradual development, theoretical considerations, touring, and “return to identity,” and the “steps to commercialization (1975-1980)” represented by Zoot Suit. A strong study with a bibliography. In Spanish.Huerta, Jorge A. Chicano Theatre: Themes and Forms. Ypsilanti, Mich.: Bilingual Press, 1982. Well-written and-illustrated study that begins with Valdez’s experiences in Delano in 1965. It contains an excellent immediate description with dialogue of these first energies and is written in the present tense for immediacy and energy. Provides some discussion of the beginnings of the San Francisco mime troupe and strong description of the actos and their literary history in Europe.Huerta, Jorge A. “Labor Theatre, Street Theatre, and Community Theatre in the Barrio, 1965-1983.” In Hispanic Theatre in the United States, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1984. Placed at the end of a longer study of Hispanic theater, this essay takes on more importance by indicating Valdez’s contribution in a continuum of history. Good on contemporaries of El Teatro Campesino; strong bibliography.Kanellos, Nicolas. Mexican American Theater: Legacy and Reality. Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1987. Begins with an examination of Valdez’s transformation from director of El Teatro Campesino to the urban commercial playwright of Zoot Suit in 1978. Cites Valdez’s contribution to the “discernible period of proliferation and flourishing in Chicano theatres” from 1965 to 1976, then moves on to examine other offshoots of the impulse.Morales, Ed. “Shadowing Valdez.” American Theatre 9 (November, 1992): 14-19. Excellent essay on Valdez, his followers, his film plans, his shelved Frida Kahlo project, and later productions in and around Los Angeles, with production stills. Includes an essay entitled “Statement on Artistic Freedom” by Valdez, in which he defends his nontraditional casting.Orona-Cordova, Roberta. “Zoot Suit and the Pachuco Phenomenon: An Interview with Luis Valdez.” In Mexican American Theatre: Then and Now, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1983. The opening of the film version of Zoot Suit in 1982 prompted this interview, in which Valdez reveals much about his motives for working, his view of Chicano literature and art, and his solutions to “the entrenched attitude” that will not allow Chicano participation in these industries. Much on Pachuquismo from an insider’s point of view.Pottlitzer, Joanne. Hispanic Theater in the United States and Puerto Rico: A Report to the Ford Foundation. New York: Ford Foundation, 1988. This volume provides a brief history to 1965 and discusses the Hispanic theater during the upheaval of the Vietnam War. Also examines the theater’s activities and budget and pays homage to the inspiration of El Teatro Campesino and Valdez. Supplemented by an appendix and survey data.Valdez, Luis Miguel. “Zoot Suit and the Pachuco Phenomenon: An Interview with Luis Valdez.” Interview by Roberta Orona-Cordova. In Mexican American Theatre: Then and Now, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1983. The opening of the film version of Zoot Suit prompted this interview, in which Valdez reveals much about his motives for working, his view of Chicano literature and art, and his solutions to “the entrenched attitude” that will not allow Chicano participation in these industries.
Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnoses and Symptoms ManagementRaCapella UniversityCapstoneApril 2020AbstractDo Latino Children that get diagnosed for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months? This is the bases for the research study. The significance of the study is that it will examine cases of Latino children not only in the United States, but in Venezuela as well. This data can be used to review diagnoses and determine if being diagnosed early with ASD leads to better symptoms management. Autism Spectrum Disorder is guided by cognitive and social psychological theories. These frameworks are empirically supported behavioral orientations. Prospective participants will be identified through community outreach efforts, and partnerships with clinics and autism network partners. The scientific community will benefit from the research, as data related to the late diagnoses will be shared with necessary stakeholders. Keywords: Autism Spectrum disorder, early diagnoses, late diagnoses, Latino childrenTable of ContentsCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. 5Background of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………….. ..6Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………………. 8Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………… 9Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………. 10Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………… 10Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………..…13Theoretical Orientation for the Study………………………………………………………………… 13Review of the Literature……………………………………………………………………………………. 14Synthesis of the Research Findings…………………………………………………………………….. 18Critique of Previous Research Methods……………………………………………………………… 20Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………22 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 22Research Question and Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………. 22Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23Target Population and Sample…………………………………………………………………………… 23Procedures………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25Ethical Considerations………………………………………………………………………………………. 27CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTS…………………………………………29CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………32Implications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. .. 32Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses………………………………………………………… 33Suggestions for Future Research……………………………………………………………………….. 34CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONResearch shows that Latino children are diagnosed late for ASD. The problem is to find out if children who are diagnosed between 18 and 24 months manage their symptoms better than children who were diagnosed late which is after 24 months. Research from Moody et al., (2013) shows that Latino children are diagnosed with ASD after 24 months of age. Studies have shown that some Latino children are diagnosed for ASD at 53 months (Moody et al., 2013), which is well past the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines of diagnoses between 18 and 24 months (CDC, 2019). In contrast, white children are screened and diagnosed for ASD before 24 months of age (Becerra, Von-Ehrenstein, Heck…Ritz, 2014). Research is needed to determine if Latino children who are diagnosed early within the recommended timeframes, manage their ASD symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late.Autism Spectrum Disorder is complex and there are still many unknowns regarding the disorder (Harris et al., 2019). Therefore, the themes surrounding ASD may vary. Social learning theoretical frameworks have assisted in identifying ways to prevent ASD diagnosing disparities by studying the children and their surroundings (Penner et al., 2013). Ethical procedures will include making sure all participants have signed HIPAA consents and are explained the parameters of the study. The standards will include adhering to the ethics code sections 8 and 9 from the American Psychological Association. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Latino childrenremains significantly lower than that of White children (Moody, Harris, Zittleman, Nease, Jr., & Westfall, 2019). Latinochildren are also diagnosed later than the recommended timeframes (Moody, et al., 2019). ASD diagnoses may include a myriad of symptoms. This leads to questions regarding symptoms management and if children who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. Screenings and diagnoses after 24 months are considered later than the norm (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).
The later the child is diagnosed can lead to additional symptoms or more severe symptoms (Koegel, Koegel, Ashbaugh & Bradshaw, 2013). Individuals with ASD often exhibit aggression, tantrums, and self-injury. These behaviors are often secondary symptoms that may develop if not addressed properly (Koegel, et al., 2013).This proposal will advance the psychology field by designing a study to examine early and late diagnoses, and to determine if children who are diagnosed early manage their symptoms better. The proposal will address what is currently known about ASD diagnoses in Latino children, what is known in children who are diagnosed early and how symptoms are managed in each group. According to Amaral (2017; Moody, et al., 2019), some possible reasons for late diagnoses includes language barriers, mental health stigmas, and reduced health literacy. The results of literature reviews, health record reviews and interviews will be essential to the comparative study. The study will review early and late diagnoses and determine if being diagnosed early; as opposed to being diagnosed late, leads to better symptoms management. The study is quantitative, as it gathers opinions from parents, mental health therapists and medical records reviews. This information is then turned into statistical data that can be tracked and trended.Background of the StudyBurnside, Wright and Poulin-Dubois, (2017) states that Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. This disorder can cause deficits in a person’s personality and behavior. This relates directly to Latino children because when these children experience ASD symptoms, they may be deemed as disruptive or labeled to have a behavior problem (Moody, et al., 2019). Children who are diagnosed early may avoid many symptoms associated with ASD (Zuckerman, 2014). Many of these children are not yet diagnosed with ASD, so, there are often few supports available to assist in managing their symptoms. ASD affects each child differently and may include a range of symptoms (Amaral, 2017). If the child does not have the proper ASD diagnosis or has not been diagnosed yet. It is important to know the background of the disorder and how it directly relates to the population being studied.There is a large discrepancy in Latino populations receiving late diagnoses for autism (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017), as opposed to being diagnosed on time. The timing of the diagnoses is an important factor, because this can determine the severity of the symptoms. In addition, the longevity of undiagnosed or late ASD diagnoses may make the symptoms unmanageable. So, it is very important to review how parents, school officials, physicians and other stakeholders manage the symptoms of each population. This population refers to children who are diagnosed early and children who are diagnosed late. Latino parents expressed concern regarding their child’s developmental difficulties at 17 months; however, children were not were diagnosed until 36 months later (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Latino children are diagnosed on average at 53 months (CDC, 2020). This is much later than the CDC recommended timeframes of 18 to 24 months (CDC, 2020).As a researcher, it is important to compare the timeliness of the diagnoses and see if being diagnosed early leads to better management of ASD symptoms. Early diagnoses have been linked to improved long-term developmental outcomes (Zuckerman et al., 2014), and late diagnoses could lead to severe behavioral problems. Once early diagnoses and late diagnoses are reviewed and symptoms managements is compared, steps can be taken to design additional studies, implement interventions, and develop outreach programs for these populations. The data obtained from the study will assist Latino parents in managing their child’s symptoms and locating resources for ASD. This information will also help families make better decisions about their children’s health and could help to eliminate the stigmas around autism spectrum disorder in Latino communities. Statement of the ProblemManaging ASD symptoms may differ in children who are diagnosed early versus children who are diagnosed late. Research support the fact that many Latino children are being diagnosed late for Autism Spectrum Disorder, (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). A late diagnosis is an initial diagnosis after the recommended ASD screening of 18 months to 24 months (CDC, 2019). Many Latino children are being diagnosed after 50 months of age (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). As a precautionary measure, the CDC (2020) suggests that children who has a sibling with ASD, be evaluated each year; as they might have a higher propensity for autism (CDC, 2020). Research is needed to review cases where children of early diagnoses. This research will be pivotal in determining how symptoms were managed.The problem is that comparative data is needed to investigate whether the children who are diagnosed early with ASD manage their symptoms better than the children who are diagnosed late. Several factors have attributed to the late diagnoses, so it would be interesting to see if these late diagnoses cause a problem when trying to manage ASD symptoms. Research is needed to compare symptom management and the age of diagnoses among Latino children. Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila (2017) states that being diagnosed at a later age comes with additional symptoms. Some of these symptoms may include lower intelligence quotients, behavior and academic problems. Additionally, Hispanic children are often subjected to substandard care (Chlebowski, Magana, Wright & Brookman-Frazee, 2018) after receiving an ASD diagnosis. How these symptoms are managed depends on the severity of the symptoms and the support available for parents (Koegel et al., 2013).This proposal is necessary because more research is needed to determine if there is a difference in symptoms management based on when the child was diagnosed. A carefully designed research study can ask the appropriate questions and obtain the necessary data to review symptoms management. Late diagnoses of ASD is an important issue because there are serious side effects when ASD is left untreated. The longer the child is untreated, the longer they are unable to manage their symptoms and get the care they need (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019).
Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study is to review early and late ASD diagnoses in Latino children and determine if children who are diagnosed early can manage their symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. The problem deserves new research because the number of Latino children being diagnosed late with ASD continues to increase (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017); however, research is needed to determine if being diagnosed early lead to better management of symptoms. The average age of Latino children at age of ASD diagnosis ranged from 53.03 months to 54.38 months (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). This is a major concern because these children are not receiving culturally tailored interventions (Matsuda, Brooks & Beeber, 2016). This study will design a research study to review symptoms of children who have been diagnosed early and children who have diagnosed late. There will be comparative research to determine if the children who were diagnosed early were able to manage their symptoms better than the children who were diagnosed late. Researchers must be able to capture the feelings and concerns of Latino parents and their views on autism. Significance of the StudyThe research will advance scientific knowledge because it will solicit opinions from Latino parents with autistic children. Parents of the autistic children will be interviewed to discuss the age of their child at the age of diagnosis, and if they were able to manage their child’s symptoms. The study will include children who have been diagnosed early and late. The study will rely on numbers or statistical information, the study will also focus on medical record reviews, observations, case studies. The study will add to the existing literature of ASD, as it will bring in new perspectives and examine symptoms management in depth. The inquiry is original as it will examine cases of Latino children in urban and rural areas. The study will provide evidence-based rationale and best practice models for conducting the study. This study will also focus on the feelings, actions of parents, mental health workers and children with ASD. Interviewing these stakeholders will assist with determining which group were able to manage their symptoms better than the other.Research QuestionResearch question: Do Latino Children who get diagnosed for ASD early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months?Null Hypothesis: Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early do not manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.Hypothesis: Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.The underlying theme is that symptoms management is determined based on when the child was diagnosed. Additional research is needed to determine if early diagnoses leads to better management of these symptoms. The research question will be answered by a carefully designed study. The study will include surveys, review of medical records, and reviews of previous research and case studies. The data will be transferred to information by pulling out the relevant information related to the research study. Each section of the research question will be analyzed, thoroughly investigated and compared with best practice methods.Definition of TermsAutism Spectrum Disorder – Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018).Early Diagnoses- Diagnoses within 18 to 24 months.Late Diagnoses- ASD diagnoses after 24 months. Latino –A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race (Aragones, Hayes, Chen, González, & Gany, 2014). Research DesignThis research design is quantitative. The research will be a descriptive research method. The study will use comparative data to determine which group manages symptoms the best. The design constructs will include case studies, medical record reviews, interviews and questionnaires. The research will be guided by approved psychology practices to ensure the validity of the study. The American Psychological Association’s Code of Ethics will be the outline for the research design and will be the guiding principles for assuring ethical research practices. The codes that apply to this study will include Section 8 Research and Publication, and Section 9 Bases for Assessments (American Psychological Association, 2010). These sections cover multiple ethic codes for researchers and how to properly conduct research and administer informed consents.SummaryIt is important to know if the timing of diagnoses make a difference in the management of symptoms. In addition, it is essential to investigate whether being diagnosed early leads to better symptoms management. Knowing that a child is diagnosed late with ASD does not give the researcher any new information. What this means regarding symptoms are the facts that needs to be addressed. Research may determine if symptoms can be managed if they are diagnosed early, or the severity of the symptoms if the child is diagnosed late. It is also important to conduct solid research and design a research study that will be inclusive of the problem at hand. The study must include previous research, quantitative surveys, feedback from parents, and review of health records.CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEWResearch has shown that Latino children are diagnosed late with autism spectrum disorder (Amaral, 2017). This may also lead to difficulty in these children managing their ASD symptoms. Reasons for ethnic variations are poorly understood. Research has been conducted to identify the number of children who are diagnosed early and late, and the age at which they are diagnosed. The research does not show implicitly show the comparison of these groups and which ones manage symptoms the best, but there are various studies to show benefits of managing symptoms. This dilemma leaves a further gap for research. Further research is needed to specially address the reasons for late diagnoses. (Zuckerman, Sinche, Mejia, Cobian, Becker & Nicolaidis, 2014).Autism affects children differently, so it is important for them to be diagnosed in a timely manner. It is also important for them to manage their symptoms effectively. Delayed diagnoses could have a serious effect on children (CDC, 2020). The CDC (2020) suggests that children should be diagnosed for ASD between 18 and 24 months. A carefully designed study is needed to compare the management of symptoms for early and late diagnoses. It is also important to study this area because Latino children are not getting the resources and support that is needed in order to manage their symptoms (Moody, et al., 2019).Theoretical Orientation for the StudyAutism Spectrum Disorder is guided by cognitive and social psychological theories. These frameworks are empirically supported behavioral orientations. They are supported by the need to research origins of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Penner, et. al, 2013). An empirically supported autism theory is the Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI; Schreibman et al., 2015). In the NDBI, children are supported in their natural settings, which may include educational or home environments. The NDBI teach the children developmental skills and strive to improve relationships between the child and the therapist (Schreibman et al., 2015). In addition, the social psychological framework uses societal factors to determine why there are racial disparities (Penner, et. al, 2013). Albert Bandura developed a theory called the Social Learning Theory. He wanted to show how children learn behavior from their parents (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019), and how that behavior could change based on the mental state of the child. These frameworks have also been connected to health disparities in certain populations. Social psychologists look at relevant concerns and how they contribute to autism spectrum disorder (Bandawe, 2010).Review of the LiteratureIn the early 1960s, scientists and physicians believed that children with ASD were unlikely to respond to treatment (Schreibman et al., 2015). This led to further research by Charles Ferster and Merian DeMyer on autism and its effects on children (Schreibman et al., 2015). Autism has since become one of the fastest growing cognitive disorders in the United States, and affects about one in 59 children (Moody, et al. 2019). Autism was first classified as a disorder by Kanner and Asperger, who described these symptoms as atypical behaviors (Ousley & Cermak, 2014). Research shows that early diagnosis is associated with improved long-term developmental and family outcomes (Zuckerman et al., 2014). There needs to be a mechanism to compare the outcomes of early diagnoses and late diagnoses. This comparison would focus on how the parents responded to their child’s symptoms and if they were able to manage them effectively. One dominant theme in autism research is heterogeneity (Rudacille, 2010). Heterogeneity refers to the etiology and diversity of the disorder (Georgiades, Szatmari & Boyle, 2013). Some of these symptoms include cognitive, emotional, and social functioning that are manifested differently across subgroups of children (Georgiades, Szatmari & Boyle, 2013).Harris et al., (2019) collected data electronically through data capture tools. Participants were given multiple choice surveys and quantitative assessments. They were asked to rank their answers using a measurable scale of one to five. Data was also collected from pediatric hospital clinics and from parents of children with autism. Cases were identified through prescreening processes and parental consultations (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Data was collected by survey technicians who discarded useless surveys, checked for errors and coded the data into groups.Other methods used in literature reviews were purposive sampling. Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez (2017) prescreened participants using clinical data and chart reviews. The researchers conducted a study of Latino children and their parents. They set up an assessment for parents, who then completed a questionnaire based on feelings surroundings autism. The parents were also asked the age of their child at diagnoses and step they took to manage their children’s symptoms. The assessment was then coded and formulated into usable quantitative data. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish (Zuckerman et al., 2013). The groups reviewed late diagnoses and standards for ASD.Children were recruited based on their ethnicity and their ASD diagnoses. In research it is important to maintain diversity and ethical procedures to ensure the authenticity of the study. Excluding diversity in research could impede the ability to generalize study results (UCSF, 2020), and may prevent certain populations from receiving much needed research. Although all of participants were Latino, there were difference Hispanic populations within the groups. The groups included individuals of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Venezuelan and Guatemalan races. Research assistants reviewed data from ASD clinics and studies (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). The strength of these methods was that there was a lot of data that showed benefits of early diagnoses and late diagnoses. Some children were diagnosed during school age and physicians were able to give a more accurate diagnoses, as opposed to early diagnoses where the parents relayed symptoms to the physician (Koegel et al, 2013). However, a major weakness is that factors for late diagnoses varied. The research included several Latino populations and took into consideration, cultural and economic differences. The limitations of these methods were that the research did not explicitly compare early versus late diagnoses in percentages. Another limitation is that the researchers (Harris, et al., 2019; Moody et al., 2019) stated that many Latino children were not identified by ethnicity, which could hinder the data. For example, in Venezuela, the children are all classified as Latino, and they are not separated into subgroups (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). A more intensive study would be needed if a study based on race is requested by the scientific community.When conducting autism research and reviewing the way symptoms are managed, it is important to have reliable resources. This information can add significant knowledge to the base of psychology. These articles help identify what is known and understood about ASD and what is yet to be known in this area. The current knowledge includes ASD numbers among Latino children but does not give the reasons for the late diagnoses.The research into reviewing and comparing ASD symptoms management shows that there benefits to being diagnosed early (Zuckerman, 2014). Children who are diagnosed early between 18 and 24 months can avoid long-term ASD symptoms (Zuckerman, 2014). Identifying the way symptoms are managed could be a great educational resource in the Latino community. This could also persuade Latino parents to seek assistance for behavioral or other concerns in their children. There is a gap in research, as to the reasons for the late diagnoses. Harris et al., (2019) shows that possible factors may include lack of access to healthcare services, autism related stigmas and a lack of bilingual clinicians.The research question has been answered because Latino children who are diagnosed early are able to manage their symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late. Although there is limited research on this population (Amaral, 2017), rigorous approaches have been taken to improve on the evidence from the literature. The study will make a meaningful contribution to current literature as it will review early and late diagnoses. The study will decide is early diagnoses leads to better symptoms management. This correlates directly to the hypothesis, that Latino children who are diagnosed early manage ASD symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.There are concerns that late diagnoses are not as prevalent as reported (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez, 2017). Opponents feel that although Latino children are diagnosed later than non-Latino children, the numbers vary too widely for comparison. Some studies report diagnoses at 24 months, while other studies show that Latino children are diagnosed after 53 months. Despite the discrepancies, the fact remains that effective management of symptoms are not often presented. If researchers can compare symptoms management of early versus late diagnoses, there is a possibility that late diagnoses may be curtailed (Moody et al., 2019).Synthesis of the Research FindingsAfter reviewing the research, there is a need for a detailed plan to address the gaps in research. A common theme of autism spectrum disorder focuses on late diagnoses in Latino children; however, a comparison between how the symptoms are managed needs to be identified. Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila (2017) focuses on the age of diagnoses among Latino children in Venezuela and America. The researchers show that children experience severe symptoms when they are diagnosed late. Parents stated that it was difficult to manage symptoms because they were unsure of what to do (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Furthermore, parents tried to manage behavioral concerns but did not have adequate support or skills to do so. These symptoms may include severe behavior and academic problems. This number was especially high for Latino children (Moody, et al., 2019). Children who were diagnosed early were able to receive academic and behavioral supports. Furthermore, research has shown that intensive early intervention can make a big difference in the outcomes for people with ASD (Diagnosing and Managing ASD, 2020). When the child was diagnosed early, the parents were able to request supports. Some of these supports include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy for their child (Amaral, 2017). Having an ASD diagnosis early on, gave parents the ability to request treatment and behavioral therapists for their child. Therefore, they were able to manage symptoms with the support of therapists and treatment plans.Research showed that when children are diagnosed earlier, they can manage symptoms better (Zuckerman, 2014). This is because parents can get the assistance that they need to help with behavioral and academic concerns. This does not mean that children who are diagnosed late are unable to manage their symptoms. All symptoms can be managed with appropriate therapy, treatment plans and medications as needed (Diagnosing and Managing ASD, 2020). However, this study focused on which group early versus late, manages their symptoms the best.Harris et al., (2019) reviewed the child when the parent was first concerned about their child’s symptoms, and the age when the child was diagnosed. Parents in both countries tried to manage their children’s symptoms even without an ASD diagnoses. The children in America and in Venezuela experienced similar diagnosing delays. Investigators wanted to find the common factors between these ASD diagnosing delays, as the children were in different countries. They decided to look at the Latino groups and study the populations individually. Harris et al., (2019) discovered that Latino populations may have many subgroups within their population. According to Campinha-Bacote (2003), other forms of cultural diversity includes religious affiliation, language, physical size, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability and more. In order to ensure individual variation and maintain diversity. The study must note characters and traits that are specific to that group and find ways to incorporate the findings into the research study.
There were different Latino groups represented within the studies, and the researchers took care to ensure they were following ethical practices. It is important to review several sources before relying solely on one research study. They can use the information from this study, in conjunction with their own research to see how parents, therapists and other stakeholders manage ASD symptoms. Parents may be hesitant to report behavior symptoms and management. Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, (2017), showed that in some Latino populations, behavior problems were associated with poor parenting skills. This fact made parents hesitant to seek help (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Harris et al., (2019) reviewed the early and late ASD diagnoses in detail and compiled data. They reviewed school-based assessments and the diagnoses by school psychologists (Harris, et al., 2019). This is important to stakeholders who base their research on the study data. Another consideration in this study is that the school psychologists self-reported many of the results for this study. The study showed that school psychologists discussed that symptoms are managed better if they are caught earlier (Harris et al., 2019). School psychologists can recommend treatment plans for school aged children which assists with managing symptoms. The study results were coded into usable data. Moody et al, (2019) reviewed ASD in Latino communities and the age when the child was diagnosed. The primary goal of the article was to present evidence-based practices and empirical data to support the research. The researchers implemented a bootcamp to address health disparities among Latino children and how to prevent late diagnoses of ASD. The authors researched a program called The Appreciative Inquiry/Bootcamp Translation (AI/BCT), which is a method of community engagement and participation (Moody et al., 2019). They encouraged children and parents with ASD to attend and complete surveys related to ASD age of diagnosis.This program used methods to create outreach and awareness within the Latino communities. This program can be beneficial to investigators, because these are non-traditional methods. Investigators and stakeholders can use this data develop new evidence-based practices. The researchers stated that AI/BCT may reduce the late diagnoses in ASD (Moody, et al., 2019); however, it will also assist investigators with determining the causes of late diagnosis.Critique of Previous Research MethodsPrevious ASD research methods have traditionally focused on white children (Amaral, 2017). The research was in-depth analysis and often started while the child was 18 months. The research on Latino children was not quite as in-depth and often lacked in complexity and detail (Penner et. al, 2013). While reviewing previous research methods there was a clear pattern that developed. The research methods for Latino children included parental assessments, surveys, reviewing clinical charts and some observational methods. SummaryIt is important to conduct an extensive literature review when trying to obtain knowledge about a broad subject. In regards to Autism Spectrum Disorder, early and late diagnoses, literature reviews show that there are still knowledge gaps. There are also areas of research that needs to be performed in order to effectively compare the way symptoms are managed. The literature was able to provide a detailed synopis of how symtoms are managed in early ASD diagnoses and late ASD diagnoses. CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGYPurpose of the StudyThe purpose of this quantitative research study is to review and compare early and late diagnoses in Latino children. The result is to determine which group of children were able to manage their symptoms the best. The purpose is an attempt to understand if early diagnoses leads to better management of ASD symptoms in this population. The methodology used are surveys, record reviews and purposive sampling. The significance of the study is that it may establish a relationship or discover the reasons for the late diagnoses. The study will use reliable and validated data that is free of bias. Research Question and HypothesesHypothesis testing is an important activity of empirical research (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhav, Bhawalkar, & Chaudhury, 2009). There is a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. The research question and hypothesis are as follow: Research question: Do Latino Children who get diagnosed for ASD early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months?Null Hypothesis: Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early do not manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.Hypothesis: Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.The independent variable is the Latino children. The dependent variable will be the timing of the ASD diagnosis. The null hypothesis states that there is no association between the predictor and outcome variables in the population (Banerjee et al., 2009). The alternative hypothesis specifies the direction of the association between the predictor and outcome variables (Banerjee et al., 2009). The research shows that there is correlation between early diagnoses and better outcomes for management of symptoms.Research Design This quantitative study will use a descriptive research method design. The independent variable will be the autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. The constructs will include Latino children who were diagnosed with ASD between 18 and 24 months and Latino children who were diagnosed with ASD after 24 months. The dependent variable will be age of the child at their initial diagnosis. The research will review quantitative data to find a possible cause for the late diagnoses. Prospective participants will be identified by implementing community events and targeted specific populations. All participants will be required to sign a consent form which allows for the review of protected health information; additional sampling procedures are outlined below.Target Population and SampleThe target population is Latino children between the ages of two and seven years of age. The study is targeting these children who have an active ASD diagnoses. The children’s’ cases will be reviewed to identify how their ASD symptoms were managed. The design approach will be a descriptive research method. The type of design will be a survey method research. In this type of research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.For the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly (Hale, 2018). Additional details and procedures in obtaining the steps for obtaining the target population are identified in the subsequent paragraphs.The target population is Latino children who have an ASD diagnosis. Community outreach events will be held and targeted to parents of children with ASD. Flyers will be posted throughout the community, schools, clinics and autism treatment centers. Participants who respond will be screened and required to sign a consent. The consent will ask for permission in obtaining the medical records and health information of the child. After obtaining consents, an investigative review will be conducted among local hospital, autism centers and clinics in predominately Latino communities. This will include a meeting with hospital officials and therapists in order to identify prospective participants. Participants would be included in the study if they have been diagnosed with ASD. They will be divided into two groups. The groups would be ASD diagnoses between 18 and 24 months, and ASD diagnoses after 24 months. Children would not be included solely based on ethnicity; they must meet the qualifications in order to be considered. The children would be qualified based on prescreening data obtained from community outreach programs. After a signed consent is signed by the parent, the child’s health records would be reviewed to see if they qualify for the research study. Participants would be excluded if they have other cognitive disorders such as Asperger’s or ADHD. The study is looking at a single factor, and do not want to address multiple factors. Participants will be recruited from clinics and organizations specializing in autism therapy. Researchers will receive the clinical records and work with behavioral therapists, pediatricians and parents to determine possible candidates. These medical records will be reviewed later to identify any documented symptoms and how they were managed.Purposive sampling will be used to ensure the target population is obtained. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the study (Crossman, 2020). This sampling is preferred as researchers can tailor the study to a specific population. Flyers can be made in English and Spanish to attract Latino participants. In addition, heavy populated Latino clinics and schools to obtain prospective participants.ProceduresProspective participants will be identified through medical record review and through autism network partners. At each community outreach session, demographic information will be collected from prospective participants. Parents will be asked for their name, address and telephone number. They will also be asked for their child’s age at diagnosis and asked if they would return for a follow-up meeting. The follow up meeting will be a time for parents to ask questions, hear more about the study and sign health information consent forms. Protected health information (PHI) includes all individually identifiable health information, including demographic data, medical histories and test results (HIPAA Journal, 2018). The participants will be informed of the usage of this data and given the opportunity to decline signing the consent. If a participate declines to sign the consent, they will no longer be eligible to participate in the study.Participants will be sent letters to participate in Spanish and in English. Participants will also be contacted via telephone. Spanish language translators will be available to assist parents with communication concerns. The researchers will take extra care to ensure native Spanish speakers are available. This is important because a study by Konkel (2015) found that participants are more likely to participate in a study when the researcher is someone who looks like them or can communicate with them intheir ownlanguage.There will be case studies, medical records reviews, with signed consents and questionnaires to design the study. The questionnaires will be related to the age of initial ASD diagnoses for the children. During the interviews, parents will also be asked if they were able to manage their children’s ASD symptoms. They might include factors as to why they were unable to manage them, but the study is primarily focusing on if the symptoms were managed.give their reasons as to why they feel that their child was diagnosed late. The data from these research studies will be collected by technicians. They will review the questionnaires and code the information accordingly. The participants’ parents will be able to drop off their paper surveys at designated drop off locations, such as their children’s doctor office or an identify community center or autism treatment center. The researchers will also provide electronic surveys for participants. The data will be reviewed for completeness before coding. The technicians will work in collaboration with the researchers to ensure all paper surveys are completed, medical record consent forms are signed, and that all information is present. The data collection process will be collected for a two-month period. This timeframe will give the researchers time to ensure all information is reviewed and entered the study database. Technicians will be able to contact participants for further information, or to complete missing items. When analyzing data, the data must be reliable and valid. Reliability in research means how consistently or dependably does a measurement scale measure what it is supposed to be measuring (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). The study has to be free of errors to the best of the researchers’ ability. For example, in this study researchers must be sure to include only the data that is reported on the questionnaire. Researchers cannot assume by speaking with the parents that they meant to check a certain response on the questionaire. They have to make sure the data is reliable and can be substantiated when reviewed by other researchers.Validity is concerned with the mean and interpretation of a scale (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). This is important in an autism related study, because there is no medical test or gold standard for detecting autism (Amaral, 2017). The construct validity would be used in this study. It helps when there is no way of directly testing the relationship between the measurement scale and the underlying concept (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). The construct validity can validate a test if the researcher can show a strong relationship between the variables. Ethical ConsiderationsIt is important to have a solid recruitment strategy in place that is free from bias and unethical procedures. Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp and Younggren (2011) states that being knowledgeable of rules and regulations can prevent ethical errors. Some experts believe that fear of exploitation, based on unethical practices, may make minority communities distrustful to participate in research studies (Konkel, 2015). Researchers must take steps to ensure they are following ethical procedures. This includes providing excessive incentives, using deceptive measures and obtaining the appropriate consents for participants. The American Psychological Association provides recommendations and ethics codes for researchers. The relevant sections for this study are sections 8 and 9. These sections are Research and Publication, and Bases for Assessments (American Psychological Association, 2010). These sections govern the ethical considerations for researchers and how to obtain consents. Section 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation, states that reasonable efforts must be made to avoid offering excessive or inappropriate financial or other inducements for research participation (APA, 2010). This does not mean that researchers cannot offer incentives, but they must be careful that the incentives are not being used to coerce someone to participate. Researchers must be sure to use transparent recruitment methods. Section 8.07 Deception in Research is the guiding ethical code for transparency. Deception should not be included in research, unless the study is investigating deception. Section 8.07 states that studies involving deception should not be conducted unless it has been determined that the use of deceptive techniques is justified by the study’s significant criteria (CDC, 2019). Deceptive methods could void the authenticity of a research study and in the scientific community.When working with human participants it is essential to have consents in place. Researchers must have consents from participants or their legal representatives in order to participate in the study. Sections 9.0 – 9.03 covers ethic codes Assessments, Bases for Assessments, Use of Assessments and Informed Consents in Assessments. These sections are vital to the survey because participants must be aware of how their data will be used; they also must consent to the research study. Researchers must make sure that each participant has signed a written consent or have indicated their agreeance if they are unable to write. This will keep the ethical components of the research.CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTSThis chapter presents findings from primary research and literature review. The findings are divided into two sections which are: what is already known and what the research expects to find. The purpose of this study was to find out if Latino children who receive an early ASD diagnosis manage their symptoms better than Latino children who receive a late ASD diagnosis. Some of the findings were expected, while some were not expected. The expected results are that conclusive information will be presented to show that either early diagnosis helps children manage symptoms better, or that the diagnosing time does not matter. What is known is that Latino children are diagnosed with ASD on average at 53 months of age (Amaral, 2017), which is past the CDC recommended timeframe of 18 to 24 months (CDC, 2009). What is often unknown are the symptoms management of children who are diagnosed within the recommended timeframes. In addition, it is important to review the symptoms of ASD and determine if early diagnoses help children to manage their symptoms, as opposed to receiving a late diagnosis. The population studied were Latino children in America and Venezuela. The children were between two and seven years of age. The children lived in rural and urban populations and came from single family and two-parent homes. Parents who participated in the interviews were 93% female, with an average age of 40 years. All parents self-identified as Latinx; 86% were fluent in Spanish and 66% reported that Spanish was their preferred language (Chlebowski et al., 2018).When reviewing early diagnoses, it is important to see how symptoms are managed. Adams et al., (2019) states that the earlier children receive treatment, the better their prognosis. Latino parents who received an ASD diagnoses between 18 and 24 months reported that they were able to manage their child’s symptoms (Lopez, Magana, Morales & Iland, 2019). They were also able to manage the symptoms as the child got older. They contributed this ability to the supports they received from community programs and initiatives. Additionally, research conducted by Lopez, et al., (2019), showed that an organization called Parents Taking Action (PTA) assisted parents to obtain early diagnoses. The program was described as a culturally tailored psychoeducation program designed to address disparities for Latinx children with ASD and their families. Parents received ABA therapy, which included a behavioral plan written by a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), a behavior technician that visited the child’s home regularly and implemented the behavior plans. These parents reported that their child’s symptoms improved and were manageable with the skills that learned from the ABA program. If autism is left untreated for long periods of time it could make symptoms worse (Harris et al., 2019). Parents who had children diagnosed after 24 months, and closer to 53 months state that they had difficulty managing their children’s symptoms (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012). The main reason was due to their children’s autism being more severe (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012). Many parents cited lack of knowledge as a reason they were unable to manage their children’s symptoms, as they simply did not know what to do (Blanche-Imperatore, Diaz, Barretoo, & Cermak, 2015). When they finally received an ASD diagnoses, they were often confused and hesitant to accept the diagnoses (Blanche-Imperatore et al., 2015). Although the research sample is small, it confirms that hypothesis that Latino children who are diagnosed early manage their symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late. Although the reasons are many it is important to look at what is known, what has been discovered and how future research can be effective. The information from the research can be used to design programs and implement evidence-based practices to assist Latino parents with managing their child’s symptoms.CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSIONImplicationsThe main objective of the current study is to discover what if children who are diagnosed with ASD early manage their symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. The study’s target population is Latino children, ages three to seven years of age and their parents. Research shows that many Latino children are diagnosed after 24 months with ASD (Amaral, 2017), this is considered a late diagnosed. Prior knowledge is that ASD diagnoses should be take place when the child is between 18 to 24 months of age. There are Latino children who are diagnosed early as well. It is interesting to see how each group manage their symptoms and if one group manages better than the other.There are several implications of the study. Although not explicitly stated, there are many reasons why Latino children’s symptoms are managed differently. Symptoms may be managed differently based on the parents’ knowledge of ASD or the resources that are available to them. Research shows that it is common for behavior problems to be associated with poor parenting skills (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017), which could lead to parents becoming overwhelmed with their child’s behavior. This can potentially discourage parents from seeking assistance with their child.The literature review showed that major themes in autism spectrum disorder are governed by social psychology theories. The Social Learning Theory developed by Bandura showed how children learned behavior from their parents (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019). This is important because some of the older children did not want to get tested for autism (Moody et al., 2019). They might have felt that having an ASD diagnoses attached to them could hinder their social status or cause embarrassment (Zuckerman et al., 2014).The implications for all parties involved in the study are high. The scientific community along with other stakeholders such as school officials and medical professionals will benefit from this study. Future researchers will be able to use the study results to design appropriate educational programs and interventions for Latino children. School officials can work with medical professionals to ensure children are diagnosed in a timely manner, and that the children receive appropriate support for their ASD diagnoses. Autism screening can be offered at the child’s school, which can assist with accessibility issues.All parties will ensure that the highest ethical standards are followed. Everyone will take specific measures to ensure that interventions, evidence-based practices and support plans are created and followed in ethical manners. Because if ethic codes are not followed, they could have a serious effect on the study and follow-up procedures. Unethical practices can impact a person’s mental and physical health, including their levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and blood pressure (Tsahuridu, 2016).Methodological Strengths and WeaknessesThe design approach is quantitative. There are no direct observations of children and their environments. The data involves questionnaires, medical record reviews and interviews. The target population are Latino parents of ASD children who have been diagnosed after 24 months. This methodology is best for this study because the purpose is to gather information to answer the research problem. The parents’ feelings and experiences are important in this study, as the information will be converted to quantifiable data. The information from parents can also be analyzed and reviewed to discover the many ways that ASD symptoms are managed.The strength of using a quantitative design approach is that findings can be generalized. This means that if the study is designed well, then the sample will be representative of the population (University of Southern Denmark, n.d.). Other strengths of this methodology are that descriptive research methods can be easy to analyze, consistent and reliable. A weakness of this approach is that when using quantitative methods, the data may not be as robust. Although interviews are performed, it may be difficult to capture the participants’ feelings or answer the “why” questions, if the study is not properly designed.Suggestions for Future ResearchIn order to advance the knowledge base more research is needed to identify additional ways in how ASD symptoms are managed, in early and late diagnoses. Researcher want to know if economic or social levels affect the way ASD symptoms are managed (Adams, et al., 2019). More data is needed from Latino parents in order to have larger sample sizes. Small sample sizes may not be representative of views of Latinx parents from other geographic locations (Harris et al., 2019). Additional information that is vital is if the parents are receiving assistance from the federal government. This is important because it could change the way the parent responds to the survey. According to Harris et al, (2019) parents receiving services through publicly funded mental health programs may be influenced by the context on which the treatment was received. Identifying this information in the screening process would be helpful, as research questions could be designed to capture these individual and their feelings towards their current health program. Results from the current study can be reviewed and used as a learning tool for future research. Bishop-Fitzpatrick and Kind (2017) stated that this research can lead to development of interventions and prevention efforts that maximize health and increase quality of life. Issues such as health literacy programs can assist parents in managing their child’s symptoms.The aspects that can be improved includes research of the geographic areas of the population that was studied. The present study included primarily low-income Latino families. Although the study was in the United States and Venezuela, the participant population was similar. It would be interesting to conduct research among Latino families in wealthy populations with middle to high incomes. The studies included primarily Latino mothers in who were younger, less educated (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012), this could also lead to disparities in symptoms management. This would be good comparative research to see if the early diagnoses and symptoms management still is best in this population.ReferencesAdams, J.B., Edelson, M.E., Grandin, T., Rimland, B., & Johnson, J. (2019). Advice for parents: Evidence-based treatment during early intervention. Autism Research Institute. https://www.autism.org/advice-for-parents/Amaral D. G. (2017). Examining the Causes of Autism. Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science, 2017, cer-01-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501015/Aragones, A., Hayes, S. L., Chen, M. H., González, J., & Gany, F. M. (2014). Characterization of the Hispanic or Latino population in health research: a systematic review.Journal of immigrant and minority health,16(3), 429–439. doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9773-0 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518558/Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2018). National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtmlBandawe C. (2010). A brief history of social psychology and its contribution to health in Malawi.Malawi medical journal: the journal of Medical Association of Malawi,22(2), 34–37. doi:10.4314/mmj.v22i2.58788Banerjee, A., Chitnis, U. B., Jadhav, S. L., Bhawalkar, J. S., & Chaudhury, S. (2009). Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors.Industrial psychiatry journal,18(2), 127–131. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.62274Bannigan, K., Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18(23), 3237-3243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02939.xhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02939.xBecerra, T.A., Von-Ehrestein, O.S., Heck, J.E., Olsen, J., Arah, O.A., Jeste, S.S., Rodrigues, M., Ritz, B. (2014). Pediatrics. 134(1). doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3928. https://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4067639/#!po=59.3333Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L., & Kind, A. (2017). A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disorders,47(11), 3380–3391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3251-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693721/Blanche, E. I., Diaz, J., Barretto, T., & Cermak, S. A. (2015). Caregiving experiences of Latino families with children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69, 6905185010. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ ajot.2015.017848Burnside, K., Wright, K., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2017). Social motivation and implicit theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder.Autism research: official journal of the International Society for Autism Research,10(11), 1834–1844. doi:10.1002/aur.1836. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772680/Campinha-Bacote, J., (2003). Many faces: Addressing diversity in health care. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 8(1), 1-11. http://nursingworld.org/ojin/topic20/tpc20_2.htmChaidez, V., Hansen, R. L., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders in Hispanics and non-Hispanics.Autism: the international journal of research and practice,16(4), 381–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361311434787Chlebowski, C., Magaña, S., Wright, B., & Brookman-Frazee, L. (2018). Implementing an intervention to address challenging behaviors for autism spectrum disorder in publicly funded mental health services: Therapist and parent perceptions of delivery with Latinx families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(4), 552–563. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/cdp0000215Crossman, A. (2020). Understanding purposive sampling: An overview of the method and its applications. Thoughtco. https://www.thoughtco.com/purposive-sampling-3026727Diagnosing and Managing Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2020). American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/autismDiversity in research participation: Why it’s important. University of California, San Francisco. https://recruit.ucsf.edu/diversity-research-participation-why-its-importantEthical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. (2010). American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/Fisher, C. B. (2017). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://courseroomc.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PSY-FP/PSY-FP7543/180700/Course_Files/cf_Fisher’s_ethical_decision-making_model.html Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., & Boyle, M. (2013). Importance of studying heterogeneity in autism. Neuropsychiatry. 3(2), 123–125. http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/importance-of-studying-heterogeneity-in-autism-neuropsychiatry.pdfHale, J. (2018). 3 Basic types of descriptive research methods. https://psychcentral.com/blog/the-3-basic-types-of-descriptive-research-methods/Harris, B., McClain, M. B., Haverkamp, C. R., Cruz, R. A., Benallie, K. J., & Benney, C. M. (2019). School-based assessment of autism spectrum disorder among culturally and linguistically diverse children.Professional Psychology: Research and Practice,50(5), 323–332. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/pro0000256Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Ashbaugh, K., & Bradshaw, J. (2013). The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511?scroll=top&needAccess=trueKonkel L. (2015). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Research Studies: The Challenge of Creating More Diverse Cohorts.Environmental health perspectives,123(12), A297–A302. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A297. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670264/Lopez, K., Magaña, S., Morales, M., & Iland, E. (2019): Parents taking action: Reducing disparities through a culturally informed intervention for Latinx parents of children with autism, Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, DOI: 10.1080/15313204.2019.1570890 https://www.autismspeaks.org/sites/default/files/2019%20PTA%20Journal%20of%20ethic%20and%20cultural%20diversity%20in%20SW.pdfMagana, S., Lopez, S., Aguinaga, A., Morton, H. (2013).
Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 51(3), 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-51.3.141 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247770261_Access_to_Diagnosis_and_Treatment_Services_Among_Latino_Children_With_Autism_Spectrum_DisordersMartin, M. J., Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., & Gutierrez, G. (2019). Attachment behavior and hostility as explanatory factors linking parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(5), 586–596. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/fam0000529Mental Health Services Provider Information. (n.d.). Baylor College of Medicine. https://www.bcm.edu/pdf/e_mentalhealth_release9.12.05.pdfMontiel-Nava, C., Chacin, J. A., & Gonzalez-Avila, Z. (2017). Age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in Latino children: The case of Venezuelan children.Autism,21(5), 573–580. https://journals-sagepub-com.library.capella.edu/doi/10.1177/1362361317701267Moody, E. J., Harris, B., Zittleman, L., Nease, D. E., Jr., & Westfall, J. M. (2019). It’s time for a change! The appreciative inquiry/bootcamp translation to address disparities in the Latino community with autism spectrum disorders. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25(1), 113–122. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/cdp0000242Ousley, O., & Cermak, T. (2014). Autism Spectrum Disorder: Defining Dimensions and Subgroups.Current developmental disorders reports,1(1), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-013-0003-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111262/Penner, L. A., Hagiwara, N., Eggly, S., Gaertner, S. L., Albrecht, T. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2013). Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.European review of social psychology,24(1), 70–122. doi:10.1080/10463283.2013.840973. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151477/Piven, J., Elison, J. T., & Zylka, M. J. (2017). Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism.Molecular psychiatry,22(10), 1385–1394. doi:10.1038/mp.2017.131Rogerson, M. D., Gottlieb, M. C., Handelsman, M. M., Knapp, S., & Younggren, J. (2011). Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.American Psychologist,66(7), 614–623. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/a0025215Rudacille, D. (2010). Common themes link etiology, treatment in autism. Spectrum News. https://www.spectrumnews.org/news/common-themes-link-etiology-treatment-in-autism/Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., … Halladay, A. (2015). Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disorders,45(8), 2411–2428. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2407-8Screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. (2019). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.htmlStigma, Discrimination and Mental Illness. (2009). http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Population/Health_Problems/Mental_Illness/Mentalhealth_stigma_fact.pdfStrengths and Limitations. (n.d.). University of Southern Denmark. http://betterthesis.dk/research-methods/lesson-1different-approaches-to-research/strengths-and-limitationsTsahuridu, E. (2016). How unethical behaviour can harm our health. In the Black. https://www.intheblack.com/articles/2016/09/01/how-unethical-behaviour-can-harm-our-healthUnderrepresented minority. (n.d.). Penn State. https://agsci.psu.edu/diversity/awareness/definitionsWhat is an intervention. (n.d.). https://health.mo.gov/data/interventionmica/index_4.htmlWhat is protective health information? (2018). HIPAA Journal. https://www.hipaajournal.com/what-is-protected-health-information/Zuckerman, K. E., Sinche, B., Cobian, M., Cervantes, M., Mejia, A., Becker, T., & Nicolaidis, C. (2014). Conceptualization of autism in the Latino community and its relationship with early diagnosis.Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP,35(8), 522–532. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000091 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180801/Zuckerman, K. E., Sinche, B., Mejia, A., Cobian, M., Becker, T., & Nicolaidis, C. (2014). Latino parents’ perspectives on barriers to autism diagnosis.Academic pediatrics,14(3), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.12.004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006363/
Formal SummaryThe ability to effectively summarize information into a more concise and readable form is a highly valued skill. Good summaries are valuable because they keep busy readers informed without demanding more time than necessary to get the information they need.How to write a summary: Skim the text to get a general idea. Carefully read the original text. Highlight important information or make notes in the margins (annotate) for every paragraph. If there are repeated words/phrases, underline them. They usually carry important information. Make sure you understand the passage and the author’s purpose. If there is an explicit thesis statement, underline it. If the passage does not have an explicit thesis, write the main idea of the passage in your own words. Write down the main idea of each paragraph in a single sentence using your own words. Write down the key supporting points for the main ideas only if necessary. Imagine someone who has not read the original text. Will s/he be able to understand your summary? Go through the process again, making necessary changes. Start putting the sentences together.Important points to remember:Include the author’s name and title of the work in the first sentence of your summary.• The first sentence: Author + title of article + purpose + main idea (the AUTHOR’S idea, not yours)E.g. In “The Reason College Costs More than You Think”, Jon Marcus reports that a major reason why college educations are so expensive is the amount of time students stay in college.• Include the author’s credentials, if you have that information when you first mention the author’s name:E.g. In “Always Living in Spanish,” Spanish professor Marjorie Agostin describes her need to connect to her childhood by writing in Spanish.Next, include only the most important supporting ideas. Summaries are only about 25% of the original!• Do NOT include specific details.E.g. for the article “The reason College Costs More than You Think” mentioned above, a good example of the summary would be the following:In “The Reason College Costs More than You Think”, Jon Marcus reports that a major reason why college educations are so expensive is the amount of time students stay in college. Although almost all first-year students and their families assume that earning a bachelor’s degree will take four years, the reality is that more than half of all students take longer, with many taking six or more. This delay happens for many reasons, including students changing majors, having to take developmental courses, taking fewer courses per term than they could have, and being unable to register for required courses. As a result, their expenses are much greater – financial aid seldom covers a fifth or sixth year, so students must borrow money to finish – and the additional time they spend in college is time they aren’t working, leading to significant losses in wages. Don’t distort the author’s ideas. Don’t include your own opinions or feelings. Use logic and transitions to connect the ideas of the summary to make the paragraph cohesive.Use your own words. Use quotations only when absolutely necessary. If you use quotations, cite.Cite the summary under Works Cited.Use Reporting Verbs: (Choose the reporting verb that makes sense for your reading passage)agree complain emphasize note seeanalyzeconcede explain observeshowargue conclude find offer speculateask consider focus point out stateassert contend grant proposesuggestassume declare give refute support believe demonstrate
illustrate report supposeclaim deny imply reveal thinkcomment describe insist say theorizeconfirmdiscuss maintain writeFor the length of your reading passages, your summary will usually be one paragraph. For longer summaries, periodically remind the reader that you are, in fact, summarizing another author. To do this, use a summary reminder phrase like the ones listed below: The author goes on to say that … Bradley also states/maintains/argues that … The article further states that … Leki concludes that … The author further argues that …
Visit the ONET Online portal to select the Human Resources Manager position description and review all the information offered. Develop a detailed outline with the most relevant aspects that you consider the position. 250 words minimum. Use Languages Spanish.https://www.onetonline.org/18/05/202010humanresource-management
Discussion Question1) Post a discussion question of your own, and tell the class why you want to talk about it.Rules for discussion1) Post an original comment responding to the discussion question, utilizing the readings in your response. There must be at least two citations from the readings to receive credit for discussion.This post must be at least 200 words.Lecture 14Alright, now we get down to it. So far, in leading up to this discussion about Independence throughout much of Latin America, we have been talking about all the ways in which the path to independence was complicated. First there were tensions betweencriollosand the Spanish Crown, the Bourbon Reforms, the Caroline Reforms, and then the larger context of the Enlightenment and all of the social change that was happening all over the world (notably France and Haiti) in the 1790s and into the early 1800s. We also read about the ways in which people in Spain resisted the installment of a French leader and created not only their own leadership group (the central junta), but their own constitution as well! So while Napoleon took on the Spanish Crown, the people in Spain were clearly saying,(so I’m a big Kevin Hart fan…anyway, back to work!)When talking about the central junta and the constitution that they wrote, it is important to keep in mind that initially, it was designed as a form of self-government to keep things going while they waited for Ferdinand to come back and did their best to ignore French rule. But along the way, some people started to take seriously the idea of self-government. Others wanted the old monarchy back (Ferdinand), and still others were looking towards a combination of the two (a constitutional monarchy). Ferdinand answered this when he returned:Of course, this is 1814, and by then, at least a fledgling independence movement had started in Mexico, though without the support of the American elite (wealthycriollos,at least to start), and would eventually be led by Jose Morelos, until he was executed. But you will notice that if you look at the timeline at the beginning of your chapter for this week, 1818 was the earliest successful declaration of independence (Chile, after defeating the royalists that same year).But initially, as your text points out, the fighting that occurred in Spanish America was not necessarily between loyalists and insurrectionists. Instead, the fighting was most often over “regional control, or for loot” (p. 360). Moreover, even when the fighting eventually turned into a pitched battle between insurgents and loyalists (the royal army), the people who were fighting were not necessarily “homegrown,” that is to say that the place in which they fought was not always where they were from. Irish and English adventurers, for example, fought for Bolivar between 1816 and 1825, and colonialists would fight in regions pretty far afield from where their homes were (p. 360-361). Sure, this lowered desertion rates, but it also meant that a lot more people died of disease, due to the change in climate and temporary living conditions that were often unsanitary (p.361).The fighting continued all throughout South America and Mexico (Brazil escaped the overt fighting; their battles were much more political), but the military battles were only a part of the dramatic changes that were happening: there were also political battles being fought, on very different fronts. Despite the shifts in control in South America between royalists and insurgents (rebels has taken the viceregal capital, and large areas of both New Granada and Venezuela had come under their control), the balance of power for a long time was still with the royalists. Sure, for five years after the restoration of Ferdinand (1814-1819) the insurgents made some strategic gains here and there, but they had yet to confront the full force of the imperial state. But something happened on January 1, 1820, which would change everything: Ferdinand VII accepted the Constitution of Cadiz.How did this happen? well, on January 1, 1820, an army of some 14,000 men, which had been assembled at Cadiz for the express purpose of reconquering insurgent territories of the River Plate (Río de la Plata) suddenly mutinied. Most garrisons (forts)in Spain joined thepronunciamiento, or revolt, and Ferdinand VII, his army having turned against him, was forced to renounce absolutism and accept the Cadiz constitution of 1812.Why did the army revolt? The immediate cause had less to do with the liberal convictions (support for the Cadiz constitution) than with discontent over pay, and plans to reduce the size of the armed forces. The consequences of this were huge, though, because the existence of the Constitution of Cadiz provided an alternative source of political legitimacy– something that people could lean on; even if they weren’t “liberal,” they could still be against the absolute monarchy and have a framework for a legitimate government.The truth is that after Napoleon’s intervention in Spain it was going to be impossible for the Spanish Crown to reconstruct its monopoly of legitimacy and power. And with this loss of total legitimacy on the Peninsula, their legitimacy in America would soon follow.People from all different walks of life fought in the wars for Independence, and they fought on various sides. Some might have been hardcore royalists, others might have been “enlightened” folks seeking independence from Spain, and still others might have fought for their localcaudillo, or strongman (a strong, local/regional political figure). Some people fought for loot and land, while other people fought for political ideals. The path to victory, or independence, however, was not a result of the strong will of Americans to be free; many things had to fall into place (or out of place!) for independence to finally come to fruition.But with independence, now they had to govern, and this would prove a difficult task, one that would discourage and depress even Simon Bolívar. On December 17, 1830,Bolívar died of tuberculosis on his way to self-imposed exile in Europe. He had become a disillusioned man; shortly before he died he made his most famous observation on the colonies he had helped to emancipate: “America is ungovernable. Those who have served the revolution have plowed the sea.”*So what happens next? Do the new countries of Latin America survive? What turbulence is coming their way in the wake of independence?*Letter to General Juan Jose Flores, 9 November 1830, inSimón Bolívar: Obras Completas,ed. Vincent Lecuna, 2nd ed. (Havana: Editorial Lex, 1950), vol. 3, p. 501.17/05/20205history
Contesta en tus propias palabras las siguientes pregunta.1- Que idiomas influencias los cognados en español?2- Que estrategias seguirá para evitar el empleo de los falsos cognados?16/05/202010foreignlanguages-spanish
How did the indigenous people of Latin America react to Iberians? How did they adapt to Iberian culture (that is, how did indigenous cultures and societies change during the colonial period)? How did they resist Spanish and Portuguese rule? How did the responses and experiences of sedentary, semi-sedentary, and non-sedentary indigenous people differ during the colonial period, and how were they the same (if at all)? Did indigenous people and their cultures die out during the colonial period, as popular belief suggests? Please address the colonial period as a whole from the eve of the conquest to the end of the colonial period. Please also do not just focus on sedentary Inca and Aztec societies; take into account the various different other Native peoples of colonial Latin America.You must cite at least one primary source (historical document),likethe excerpts fromVictors and Vanquished or thetext book Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History(by Mills, Taylor, and Graham). You must cite two other sources as well. The paper should be 5 – 7 pp., have an intro and conclusion,and citations, witha workscited or references page.14/05/202030history
Utilice la Biblioteca Virtual, el Internet y otros recursos académicos para investigar sobre:1. La importancia de mejorar la pronunciación y enriquecer el vocabulario2. El refinamiento de las destrezas de investigación3. La importancia del bilingüismo en la vida profesional. Un parrafo para cada punto14/05/20208foreignlanguages-spanish
Write a three-page essay on leadership, different types, and their importance to a health manager.Be sure to write according to APA, include citations and references. Avoid plagiarism. Use the Spanish Language.15/05/202015humanresource-management
s Homage to Catalonia”How does Orwell – as an outsider – navigate the ideas and realities of war in Spain? Does his perspective provide any unique insights into the character of the Spanish Civil War? And finally why, according to Orwell, does fascism triumph?pdf file of the book and prompt is attached30/01/202025history