In order to address this issue, this paper will first identify what the level of personal debt is for the nation and then make predictions as to what direction the level of personal debt will be going in the near and long term future in the UK. This will be followed by a discussion as to what consequences of having personal debt are for the people in the UK. This section will conclude with a discussion as to what is the impact of personal debt on the housing market.According to Creditaction.org.uk (2009), the level of personal debt in the UK stood at approximately £1,458bn (October statistics). Building on this point, in an article by Pym (2009) it is the case that personal borrowing actually declined over £600 million over previous months and as of present personal debt in the UK now rests at approximately £1.457 trillionAccording to the CIA World Factbook (2009), the UK falls 50th on a list of 126 on a ranked scale of nations representing what percentage of total GDP is a public debt which is debt owed by the government to holders of government debt instruments, estimated in 2007 to be approximately 43.60%.Keeping in mind that it is the fact that in recent months people have been paying off a significant portion of their personal debt one must also question why it is that this action is transpiring. One logical conclusion is that with falling interest rates the price of loan repayments such as mortgage payments would likely be falling. It could be the case that people would opt to repay their loans faster rather than spending it. According to the Telegraph (2009), UK homeowners have been paying down their mortgages for six straight fiscal quarters which as was argued by the article is largely owing to changing consumer preferences in the wake of falling house prices. It is often the case that when house prices are increasing people are more willing to increase the size of their mortgage and the opposite holds true when the price of a mortgage is falling.
Benefit Of Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning For Teaching PracticePope-Ruark, R. (2012). Back to our roots: An invitation to strengthen disciplinary arguments via the scholarship of teaching and learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 357 –376.Pope-Ruark (2012) asserted the importance of a scholarly research plan in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) because it expands professional communication by differentiating SoTL from other kinds of teacher-scholar practice, specifically, anecdotal publications, action research, conventional educational research, and academic teaching. Pope-Ruark (2012) provided a short history of the Association for Business Communication (ABC) and the Association of Teachers of Technical Writing (ATTW) because they are the proponents of professional writing pedagogy. In SoTL, the researcher is an instructor of any discipline who seeks to enhance personal, disciplinary, and/or higher education training in general or for specific students, certain teaching methods, and teaching or learning problems and opportunities (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). The primary methods of SoTL are wide-ranging literature reviews in disciplinary pedagogical journals and SoTL scholarship. qualitative or quantitative scientific methods, and other empirical approaches (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). Furthermore, the implications and distribution of SoTL includes the development of a research agenda to understand teaching and learning practices and outcomes and to share learning through peer-reviewed journals or conferences in related disciplines or the SoTL community (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). Pope-Ruark (2012) concluded that implementing an SoTL research agenda in the field of professional communication will shape teaching and publishing activities, theory-building, and disciplinary identity by improving how SoTL researchers and practitioners see themselves in relation to other fields and how they can contribute to the latter’s communication skills development, thereby boosting (inter)disciplinary communication knowledge and practices. The evaluation of the paper reveals several strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of the article are its differentiation of SoTL from other teacher-scholar practices and provision of a case study of SoTL practice. First, the delineation through comparison and contrast helps readers understand what SoTL is in comparison to others and why it offers something more. The differentiation further captures the relevance of SoTL to those who want an empirical approach to the disciplinarity and teaching and research-agenda support of SoTL to teacher-scholars. Second, the case study shows SoTL in practice. SoTL in everyday practice shows the centrality of an empirical research agenda in understanding and examining teaching and learning practices for purposes of enhancing school outcomes and theory-building. SoTL supports the pedagogy that ABC and ATTW promote. The article has its weaknesses, however, because it does not show statistics or qualitative research on how SoTL has directly improved the disciplinarity of professional communication in any specific way. Readers would also be interested in a further discussion of SoTL’s future research plans that contribute to specific emerging professional communication issues and trends that the paper lacked. Despite these weaknesses, I find the article useful in determining the roots of SoTL in two respected communication organizations. These roots showed the origins and purposes of SoTL in defining the nature and direction of professional writing as a discipline. I learned something new also from the article because it showed how SoTL can help scholars shape their research agenda from existing professional communication issues and how it can support them in finding new theories and teaching practices that fit modern technological advances and communication pattern changes. Finally, the article is important in underscoring the role of peer-reviewed publication in expanding professional communication theories and practices through knowledge-sharing that invites further research and theory-testing. This aspect encourages me to one day publish my own professional communication studies.
The project managed to collect as much as forty million pounds of waste materials in this year. The project only concentrated on moving around the Terre community and collecting waste material that is recyclable and delivering it to the enterprise for recycling.As a recycling facility, Indiana State University started out with a Wastage Management department in 1990. This department, at the time, comprised of two old cubic yard compactor trucks, five employees and a Cushman truck. The knowledge regarding recycling was not as plentiful as it is nowadays. In addition, the department did not have the necessary budget to undertake effective recycling activities. However, this did not deter them from recycling aluminum can which was the recycling trend at the time. Since then, the department has grown by leaps and bounds to its current state. At the moment, ISU recycling activities are recognized by the Indiana community. The program has developed a drop-facility and has started accepting e-Scrap. Its recycling statistics are impressive considering they have recycled more than 2 million pounds to date.The main activity was driving around collecting garbage. We would drive around in trucks and load recyclable materials to the trucks. The materials include plastic bottles except those that carried oil, glass bottles, cardboard, old telephone books and any other recyclable materials and glass containers provided they did not contain Pyrex.While recycling trash and garbage, we learned the procedures of handling solid waste in the county of Indiana. In the state, we learned that the Indiana County Solid Waste Authority was the authority in matters regarding the disposal of solid waste. This authority was formed as part of the county’s compliance with the Pennsylvania Act of 101 of 1988. All members of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has to enforce theappropriate solid waste disposal techniques.
Claim to Cancel the Legitimacy of GamblingMy presentation was on the bad roles of gambling to the American society. The objective was to convince the audience to claim the cancelation the legitimacy of gambling given its consequences such as the loss of health and money. My topic was appropriate for my classmates. My approach started with little connection between the financial crisis and gambling and how people could not pay their obligations to banks. In my presentation, I tried to simplify the topic so that it could be easily understood by my classmates given the complexity of the subject. As such, I managed to accomplish 95-97% of my presentation goals. The organization and development of my presentation was divided into three points. The first category was to clarify some misconceptions about gambling. For instance, people perceive gambling as a hobby. I persuaded them to understand that gambling is a serious business. In addition, I informed the audience that, as individuals we cannot control chance or luck. The second point elaborated on the health risks associated with gambling. Here, I mentioned the serious disease associated with people addicted to gambling. The diseases were such as liver disease, high blood pressure, increased rates of heart diseases and angina. My final point was ideally to support my presentation goal. I was able to convince them to claim to cancel gambling indirectly via clearly showing the existing relationship between gambling and increased rate of crimes and drug business. As a matter of fact, I made an outline to my professor to make sure that my structure was easy to follow. I provided enough testimony when I used the statistic. Throughout my presentation, I used transitions to navigate from one point to another. Unfortunately, my conclusion ended abruptly as my time was already out. Therefore, I was unable to conclude what I had prepared for my audience.My use of verbal communication was fine as everyone could get me clearly. This was evident from the various questions asked by the audience. However, I had some weakness in pronouncing some words but that did not stop me from continuing with my presentation. With nonverbal delivery, I tried my level best to maintain eye contact with my audience. This is because, eye contact helps in establishing a relationship with the subjects in question. In addition, I tried to smile when appropriate to create a friendly environment. I used my platform very well moving from one place to another as I tried to dish out cards and papers that contained significant information on gambling. I also interacted with the audience in order to make them active. The information I provided to the audience was not that satisfactory. Therefore, in future I plan to carry out extensive research before conducting any presentation.By use of questions, my presentation became easier to be understood by the audience. Through the questions, I was able to clarify some misconceptions about gambling. Moreover, I provided real statistics on individuals involving themselves in gambling. Furthermore, I clarified my points to increase the level of understanding of the topic. However, the audience was not enthusiastic about the subject. This was attributed to the insufficient background for gambling as it is not allowed in my country, Saudi Arabia. For the questions, I just had about three questions, which I answered effectively due to the prior preparation I had done before the presentation. However, this was a good experience as in future I want to be a teacher.In conclusion, verbal communication can only be improved when a person is a good listener. Listening enhances an understanding of how other people views a subject under discussion. Before presenting anything to the audience, it is essential to take time and meditate upon the subject so as to offer your best to the audience. Allow discussions so that people can air their views. Gesture should be used effectively to match what you are talking about. It is also useful to understand ones audience facial expressions, intonations and body language to improve on non-verbal communication (Lucas 1).Work CitedLucas, Army. The importance of verbal and non-verbal communication. Web. 1 August. 2012.
About half of the dishes are made up of ethnic dishes, for instance Chinese and Indian, indicating an interest in exotic tastes, but some of the recipes are made up of Continental recipes, such as Italian. Italian ready meals are made up of pasta which has a healthy image and attractive to children and students. The vegetable-based ready meals sector is also growing and attractive to students. This is followed by the fish-based and then the meat-based. Considered health foods are primarily made up of vegetables and fish. The UK has been hailed as the most developed market in Europe when it comes to chilled ready meals. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 14) In 1994, chilled ready meals had a per capita consumption of 1 kg., compared to Germany’s 0.3 kg, France’s 0.2 kg and Spain’s .1 kg. In other words, the potential for chilled ready meals is great in the UK and if this is reflected in Europe, it has great future potential for business venture. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 14) Pizza sales registered a high growth of 10% during the period 1994-97. Manufacturers wanted to stimulate more demands for pizzas by introducing various flavours and in exploiting consumer’s growing love for exotic tastes. … Mixed salads with new varieties of leaves have also been introduced to the craving palates of students. Manufacturers have introduced sandwiches, a favorite feature of student snacks. The British Sandwich Association released statistics stating that sandwiches have been hailed as the most popular fast food in the UK. It has a market of ?3.25 billion and fast growing at a rate of 13% annually. Sandwiches have been reported to represent 41% of the fast food sector, while burgers only represent 18%, and fish and chips only represent 12%. Sandwiches are a favorite snacks meal for the British, with the UK having the world’s highest per capita consumption of sandwiches. And this is true for men, women and children. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 15) This paper is a proposal to outline a research programme to test a range of meals amongst the student population in the UK. The client is focusing on selling low value/medium quality product ranges, and is particularly interested in the market for consumers on limited incomes. Their product consists of a range of nutritious, but reasonably priced ready meals – individual and paired servings – and is targeted on the UK student population. 2.0 Research Objective The purpose of this paper is to determine the growing demand of ready meals from the UK student population and to determine what particular dishes they require for snacks, lunch and dinner. For this company to meet its goals, it is essential that the food shall be tested by the students in a specific university which has been identified by the client. The university is a popular institution of higher learning with a very large population and can represent the student population in London. This research will determine
In the face of this ever increasing problem, several strategies have been developed and enacted worldwide for the effective screening, timely diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of HIV/AIDS and the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) aims to control and counter the spread of this ailment by the year 2015 (Global Health Council, 2010). This paper overviews the scope and magnitude of the burden of HIV/AIDS in the Seattle, Washington population, identifies and discusses the existing issues related to the provision of optimal care for individuals affected by HIV/AIDS and proposes some recommendations to overcome this issue. Epidemiology: Ever since the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in America in the year 1981, the incidence of HIV/ AIDS has been on a continual rise (AVERT, 2010). In the last several decades, an exponential rise in the incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has been witnessed and this can be gauged from the fact that currently, approximately over a million people with HIV and AIDS are residing in the United States (UNAIDS, 2010) and each year almost 50,000 individuals are newly infected by HIV in the United States only, one-fifth of whom are unaware of their disease status (Moore, 2010). Moreover, it has also been observed that even in developed nations such as the U.S, a significant fraction of individuals who are aware of their disease status are not involved in accessing the health care facilities for this disease (Moore, 2010). In order to devise effective screening, diagnostic, treatment and monitoring strategies for HIV/AIDS, a clear understanding of the various risk factors and modes of transmission is required. It has been elucidated that there are several groups of individuals which are particularly at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. These high risk groups include injection drug abusers, men who have sex with men (MSM), i.e. homosexual individuals, and from an infected mother to her infant (Beyrer, 2007). Moreover, it has been found that there are three main modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS, viz. via contact with infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, etc. via sexual contact with infected individuals and vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus during the antenatal period or during birth via passage through the birth canal (Leblebicioglu, 2007). Most preventive strategies for HIV/AIDS are focused on the reduction of transmission of HIV/AIDS via these routes and creating awareness amongst the general population, and in particular amongst those who are at high risk for contracting and transmitting HIV/AIDS regarding this debilitating disease. Scope of the Problem in Seattle, Washington: The magnitude of this problem in the state of Washington is reflected by the statistics reported by the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which reveal that in the year 2007, the Seattle metropolitan statistical area ranked 24th in the number of Aids cases reported annually with a case rate of 10.9 per 100,000 population (Public Health – Seattle King County, 2011). Moreover, a study conducted by the Department of Public Health – Seattle King County elucidated that King County was the top amongst all Washington counties having the highest AIDS rates and
Why divorce in the UAE has increased during the last 2 decades Introduction Divorce is regarded as one of the serious social problems in any given society. According to government statistics, United Arab Emirates (UAE) experienced a divorce rate of 24 percent in the year 2003 (Sherif 2). There are numerous psychological and economic factors that have led to high divorce rates in UAE. Lack of communication in marriage, early marriages, changing marriage expectations, addiction, child-bearing issues, and financial issues, cultural background of the spouses, the differential in education levels, infidelity and arranged marriages are some of the causes of high divorce rates in UAE (Sherif 8). Divorce leads to severe negative consequences to children and involved parents. Some of the negative impacts of divorce include delinquent behaviour of the parents, psychological trauma, aggression, and nightmares (Hasso, 2011). Thesis statement: poor communication in marriages is the leading cause of the high divorce rates in United Arab Emirates. Causes of high divorce rates in UAE Communication problems in marriages are the leading cause of divorce. … Marital financial issues such as disagreements on the best investment opportunities and sexual incompatibility also contribute towards dissatisfaction with the marriage thus forcing the partners to divorce (Hasso, 2011). According to a research study done by Marriage Fund in collaboration with University of Sharjah in 2011, absence of communication within the marriage and lack of proper relations were the leading causes of divorce (Sherif 3). Differences in an opinion between the partners often resulted in constant bickering thus hindering love within the marriage. Accordingly, Islamic traditional marriage practices such as arranged marriages made women discover certain personality traits of their husbands later after marriage thus leading to intolerance and ultimately divorce (Sherif 5). The same study indicated that polygamy, physical abuse of wives, inadequate financial support and unshared responsibilities were secondary causes of divorce in UAE (Sherif 7). According to educationists and family affairs experts, the annual rates of divorce were estimated at 30 percent compared with a rate of 21 percent in Dubai in 2011 (Al Sadafy 3). Statistics fro the Dubai courts pointed out that one divorce occurred for every four marriage court cases with more than Dh 800 million being paid annually as divorce settlements. Accordingly, the Advisor for family affairs noted that 90 percent of the instances of divorce were occasioned by trial reasons with lack of communication among the partners being the leading cause of divorce (Al Sadafy 5). How divorce affects children, parents and society Divorce is associated with negative social and physical effects on children, parents and the society (Hasso, 2011). Divorce denies the children the opportunity
STATISTICS Statistics Questions Word Count: 250 page) Question What is correlation? What is an example of two variables that are likely to be correlated because they are both changing over time? (125 words) Correlation mean how much two elements are most alike. According to Reinard (2006), In simplest terms, a correlation is the extent to which two or more things are related…to one another (pp. 88). An example of two variables that are likely to be correlated because they are both changing over time are air quality and soil quality. If we were to measure over a specific period of time, we would see that these two variables could be measured in the environment and to have sustained about an equal amount of pollution over time, considering that the amount of pollution to each variable would be constant. These variables would then be said to be correlational. In that sense, one sees that these variables are good examples. Question 2: ?If a researcher were studying the effects of a teaching method on patient learning outcomes, how must he or she word the research question (different from the hypothesis) to use a t-test to test for statistical differences? What type of data must he or she collect ( interval, ratio, ordinal, nominal)? Why? *Hint: An example of a research question is: Will drug B do a better job of curing acne then drug A? (250 words) In order to do any kind of experiment, one must have a control subject. In order to keep this particular study viable for the control part of the experiment, a t-test must be conducted. According to Allen (2004), Under a set of assumptions that are usually referred to as the Gauss-Markov conditions, the t test can be used to test the significance of a regression… (pp. 66). The type of data which must be collected has to be ordinal data, which basically implies the preference of one value over another, usually (but not always) on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the strongest indicator and 1 being the weakest. Ordinal data will definitely be used instead of interval, ratio, or nominal data. REFERENCES Allen, M.P. (2004). Understanding regression analysis. US: Springer Science Business. Reinard, J.C. (2006). Communication research statistics. US: Sage Publishing.
Post-American World is a book written in 2008 by Indian American on the rise of other powers in the world.This book primarily deals with how power has shifted from one power center to another over the period of time and how different actors during those eras emerged. This book is about the rise of the rest as the author puts in by arguing that after two power shifts in favor of the West and US, the third power shift is taking place away from these centers as countries such as China and India are emerging on the world scene. In this book, besides providing the history of the non-American world and how it has been able to seriously challenge the economic prosperity of America, Zakaria has further discussed issues such as modernization and the rise of nationalism. By citing over 500 years of non-Western history, Zakaria has been able to show how other countries have actually progressed during this period and its foundations and development differences between the West and the rest of the world. In this book, Zakaria has actually focused on two countries, i.e. China and India, and presented their social, economic and political rise and how they can take advantage of their size and market strength to seriously challenge America in the 21st century. He argues that the largest challenge these countries can pose to the US is economic and not the political one as may have been perceived during the recent past. By presenting statistics and other historical material, he argued that many countries are showing higher economic progress and are also witnessing reduction in poverty. He argues that the wealth accumulation and innovation are rapidly taking place, which are unexpected for US and can, therefore, create a shift in power away from US and in favor of other countries. In Chapter 1 of the book, he suggests that: We are now living through the third great power shift of the modern era. It could be called the rise of the rest. Over the past few decades, countries all over the world have been experiencing rates of economic growth that were once unthinkable (Zakaria 2). The above argument, therefore, indicates that the economic power of the rest of the world is on the rise as most countries have been showing economic growth rates of over 4% during the recent decades. Though he argues that Asia has been leading in economic progress, this economic growth is not confined to Asia as other countries are making progress too. He argues that t
In pursuit of investigating the empirical validity of the PPP theory, this study uses the monthly Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate and the seasonally adjusted Japanese and US monthly Consumer Price Index series as the representative of the price levels as available from OECD main economic indicators 2010. Our data set covers a sample period ranging from 1st January1960 to 1st June 2010. The indexing of CPI for both the Japanese and US series is in accordance with assuming the price level of 2005=100.5.EstimationThis section presents the results of the estimations specified in section 2. We start of by presenting the statistical preliminaries and time series plots of the variables to engender a preconception of what can be expected from the estimated equations. a.Statistical preliminariesTable 1 presents the summary statistics for the variables of interest. Note that these are expressed in terms of natural logarithms of the levels.Figure 1 below depicts the inter-temporal dynamics of the natural logarithm of the series of Japanese Yen to US Dollar Exchange rates. Observe that the series provides a clear visual evidence of a downward trend implying that over the period of 1970 to 2011, there has been a gradual decline in the exchange rate. Additionally, the series also appears to be non-stationary. Of course stationarity properties can only be conclusively verified after formal conduction of unit root tests. Figure 3 presents the time plots of Japanese and US consumer price indices in logs…. tion: where is the natural log of the Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate at time t, is the natural log of the price level index of Japan and is the natural log of the price level index of USA and is an additive iid noise term. 3. Testable Hypothesis The hypotheses that we can test using this specification are as follows: i) Strong or absolute PPP: ii) Relatively weaker form of PPP: ? iii) Weakest form of PPP: ? Note that for ii) and iii) to be valid specifications, the additive error term will have to be stationary. Otherwise estimates will be spurious. 4. Data In pursuit of investigating the empirical validity of the PPP theory, this study uses the monthly Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate and the seasonally adjusted Japanese and US monthly Consumer Price Index series as the representative of the price levels as available from OECD main economic indicators 2010. Our data set covers a sample period ranging from 1st January1960 to 1st June 2010. The indexing of CPI for both the Japanese and US series is in accordance with assuming the price level of 2005=100. 5. Estimation This section presents the results of the estimations specified in section 2. We start of by presenting the statistical preliminaries and time series plots of the variables to engender a preconception of what can be expected from the estimated equations. a. Statistical preliminaries Table 1 presents the summary statistics for the variables of interest. Note that these are expressed in terms of natural logarithms of the levels. Table 1: Summary Statistics of the variables of interest Figure 1 below depicts the inter-temporal dynamics of the natural logarithm of the series of Japanese Yen to US Dollar Exchange rates. Observe that the series provides a clear visual evidence of a downward trend