To be able to present and discuss the venous leg ulcer, primary evidence gathered by prior empirical research processes had been included as references. The data and concepts presented are then analyzed and compared.The study is focused on the cases of venous leg ulcerations specifically in the management of such cases. Venous leg ulceration is one of the types of leg ulcerations that can affect a significant percentage of the population. Based on statistical evidence, the venous type of leg ulceration can affect a larger number specifically 76% of the people with leg ulcerations. Management of the cases of leg ulceration is the most important aspect in the treatment process due to the negative aspects of the disease such as pain and the procedure for healing itself. Another issue that is needed to be considered is the proper diagnosis of cause due to the possible dangers in case the real cause of ulceration is arterial because the main intervention can worsen the case (Closs, Nelson and Briggs, 2008, p.638).The cases of venous leg ulcers are commonly treated and managed through compression bandaging. In the research undertaken, the analyses of other forms of treatment and management as well as the different techniques that can be used are taken into account.There are three types of research included in the study undertaken. All of these were involved in the analysis of the procedures and techniques that are related to the management and treatment of venous leg ulcers.One of the studies that are included in the research undertaken is focused on the use of one of the most important treatment intervention in the management of venous leg ulcer. This is based on the fact that although the use of compression bandaging had been accepted and proven to cure the venous leg ulcers, there are cases wherein the said procedure is not applied by the district nurses and other medical professionals.
The view of the public regarding victims, criminals, deviants, and law enforcement officials is hugely decided by their representation in the mass media. Furthermore, studies suggest that a huge part of public knowledge about crime and justice is derived from the media (Graber 1980). The media has a powerful impact on the general depiction of crime in society. The pictures that spread through public consciousness of crime are hugely generated by, and mirrored in the electronic and print media. In this way, the media have a strong influence with regard to how crime is commonly defined in society.Violent events obtain a wide area of coverage and the public is surrounded 24/7 by news accounts of specific details. It is nearly similar to the media communicating that the more violent, the better. Today, it is not sufficient anymore to report on a missing child. Media now report on what state they are in when they are found and what was done to them.In fact, research studies find that mass media was credited with supplying ninety-five percent of the information the public obtains regarding crime (Gunter 1987). A couple of questions emerge when the public thinks about these issues. What is the general influence of the media upon reality? Does the mass media imitate reality?These questions come up often when the discussion turns to descriptions of crime and violence in the media. For instance, is media violence only an illustration of the actual violence that exists in our society or does it help to legalize and promote more violence? The media, specifically the news media, defends itself from the charge of encouraging violence by emphasizing that they are merely depicting what is actually happening (Surette 1998). Real people are murdered every day. On the other hand, establishments that produce fictionalized views of violence (such as movies or novels and comics) lean on the argument that what they are producing should not be taken literally.Nevertheless, we cannot discount the fact that media establishments are inclined to overemphasize violence when they find it because they believe violence sells.
The capitalist system increases the wealth of the rich and makes them stronger. This is why class differences have become so widespread in our societies. The market economy system is usually confused with the ruthlessness of the capitalist society. The two however are very different. The phenomenons of supply and demand are the same in both capitalist and socialist economies. Many different researchers have conducted research on the social problems being caused the world over by the capitalist economic system. According to many studies, the current international banking system is the reason that many third world countries are not able to even sustain themselves (Diwany, 2002).The basic problem in current banking principles when it comes to the social aspect is the close and emphasized relationship between risk and return. The relationship is negatively correlated. Thus as the risk with an investment increases so does the return. Therefore it can be said that this phenomenon sometimes totally ignores the social aspect as people with high risk are charged a higher return. The risk which affects the risk to such an extent is called the Default Risk Premium (DRP). DRP or risk of being defaulted is usually very high with nations in economic trouble which are usually the third world countries. Therefore although their financial troubles are already very high the rate charged to their loans is increased many times over. Moreover, as the rates are increased they have no chance or very little chance to pay back those loans. The phenomenon of compounding means that an interest rate is charged on accumulates interest rate income. This compounding increases the original loans many folds, therefore, trapping them in a continuous cycle of servicing debt. There are many different examples of these types of arrangements where nations are taking loans at high rates only to service debt.
Basic services include infrastructure such as water supply, sanitation, health facilities and hospitals, education facilities such as schools and colleges, and adequate transportation services. According to Munier (2005: 10), for sustainable development in the built environment, the proper methodology should be followed. “Sustainability should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability is a vision of the future which provides us with a road map, and helps focus on a set of values, ethical and moral principles by which to guide our actions”.The successful management of a community water supply means operating and maintaining a system on an every-day basis, so that members of the community can avail of the facility as planned. Management of water supply includes an increase in the hygienic handling and prevention of pollution of water, to improve community health (Davis et al, 1993: 141).The purpose of this paper is to determine how the participation of community members to provide essential infrastructure can ensure the delivery of basic services such as water supply. Several community water management case studies are reviewed and discussed.Improved water and sanitation are fundamentally essential for “eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring universal primary education, gender equality and women’s empowerment, strengthening environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development” which are the Millennium Development Goals, 2005 to 2015 being the Decade for Action: Water for Life, state WHO/ UNICEF (2005: 2).A water supply system can range in size from one handpump in a village to a complex gravity system serving several thousand households in urban areas (Davis et al, 1993: 141). The main reasons fordeveloping community water supply are: to improve social and economic conditions and to improve the health of the community.
The Methodology used in this study is that of historical case studies, involving the comparison of three different conflicts where Russia was militarily involved – the separatist wars between Moldova and Transnistria, Georgia and Abkhazia and the civil war in Tajikistan (Jackson:3). The background material collected before carrying out the detailed case study analysis is an identification of the broad ideas about foreign policy that formed the foundation for the formulation of the views of the Russian political elite and based upon this, the narrow policy implications for foreign policy relations with the states that were once part of the erstwhile Soviet Union. The major stages in the evolution of this debate are also examined, divided into three distinct historical periods, each with different results in terms of foreign policy.In applying the case study approach, the methodology of this study does not restrict itself to only one theoretical approach or model. It incorporates insights offered by various sources and approaches in order to determine the ideas of significance in Russian foreign policy (Jackson, 23). Did these ideas develop during periods of crisis when the evolution of new beliefs is favored in order to solve problems? Did foreign policy evolve and change because of the lessons learned and experience gained by the Russian political elite? The author has taken different ideas, views, and perspectives on foreign policy into consideration, to explore whether they led to the development of a consensus or a policy framework that limited the introduction of Western ideas and was premised to a much greater extent upon the development of nationalist ideas and interests.This assessment also takes into account the constraints existing in the environment at the time of the conflict, so that an assessment could be made about how much uncertainty existed in terms of providing room for debate about foreign policy choices.
As reported by the American Heart Association (2006), almost 70% of the total population of the United States has cardiovascular disease. As shown in the charts in the paper (Health Care Online, 2011), males are more prone to develop CVD than women at the age below 60. Men die 10 years younger than women from heart attacks (Kannel et al., 1976). However, this biological advantage of women over men shrinks as they age. The primary biological advantage of women over men in terms of CVD risk is the female sex hormone, estrogen. Estrogen protects women from cardiovascular disease. Most of the protective functions of estrogen originate from its role in controlling cholesterol levels. This hormone works in the liver to eliminate unnecessary cholesterol in the body (Saleh Connell, 2007). More particularly, estrogen boosts the level of good cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and minimizes the buildup of bad cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Bad cholesterol buildup blocks blood vessels which then can disrupt blood flow to the heart. In contrast, good cholesterol reduces these blockages by minimizing the level of bad cholesterol (Vitale, Miceli, Rosano, 2007). Estrogen strengthens the prostacyclin receptor. The prostacyclin receptor, which soothes the production of vascular smooth muscle cells and minimizes pulmonary vascular disorders, is a primary goal for estrogen being controlled by the estrogen receptor proteins— ERa and ERb (Saleh Connell, 2007). Prostacyclin receptor can hinder the tightening of vessel walls, blood clotting, and clustering of platelets (Sugden, 2001). Thus the protein can help protect the body from heart disease. Estrogen also prevents the development of dangerous blockages by working on white blood cells. These white blood cells can cause blockages by accumulating in the interiors of blood vessels (Sugden, 2001). Women in their childbearing years have a higher amount of protein annexin-A1 in their white blood cells compared to men. Annexin-A1 stops white blood cells from aggregating in the blood vessel wall which can cause vascular disorder (Sugden, 2001). Therefore, Pre-menopausal women are less prone to CVD than post-menopausal ones. Epidemiological studies reported lower CVD risk factors among estrogen-enriched women. These findings resulted in the assumption that estrogen-enhancing therapy, such as the use of birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), for a specified period of time before the onset of the menopause is feasible. It is assumed that estrogens assume a major physiological function when the heart exhibits reperfusion disorder, which is an injury to the renal blood vessels (Saleh Connell, 2007). Normally, estrogen activity is interceded by particular estrogen receptors (ERs). ERs are part of the primary group of steroid hormone receptor, which can function as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which serves a vital function in sustaining vascular homeostasis by combining and discharging a number of soothing elements, like prostacyclin (Saleh Connell, 2007), with possible repercussions for coronary heart function. Nevertheless, the use of birth control pills has been linked to the raised amount of C-reactive protein related to CVD. This C-reactive protein (CRP) is generated in the body as a reaction to inflammation (Mendelsohn, 2002).
Geographical profiling also studies the behaviors of individuals in the neighborhood of the serial crime to identify the exact area and individual suspected to commit the crime.Geographical profiling is special in that it helps in investigation procedures by reducing the volume of possible factors that tend to identify the region and the offender of a particular crime. Geographical profiling is also very efficient as it assists in minimizing wastage of time and resources used in the investigation process (Spencer Thompson 2008, 53). Effectiveness of the geographical profiling relies on the scrutiny of a minimum of five serial crime cases reported occurring in the same geographic location. Analysis of the data obtained is done through environmental understanding and psychological know-how of the geographical profilers.Before geographical profiling can start, a geographic profiler needs to organize a number of possible guidelines that will help in the process. The first guideline involves the preparation of a geographic profile. This kind of profile assists the investigator in identifying the geographic epicenter of investigation. The geographic epicenter identifies the possible home and works location of the offender. In addition, geographical profiling helps in the identification of the common path often used by the offender. The second guideline calls for identification of catchment area of the within the possible crime site. The catchment area defines distribution of institutions, shops, and schools within the geographical profile. The catchment area further provides a detailed perimeter for investigation. The last guideline is the construction of maps related to the site of the crime. Maps also help in the strengthening of cases upon presentation in the courtroom. The map also provides evidence links between the previous reports of serial cases with the current under investigation (Youngs Canter 2008, p 26).
In days gone by, Autism used to be thought of as a fate that had to be accepted whether one liked it or not. But modern times have proved that Autism can be treated with a wide variety of options and the child could enjoy a very normal and happy life. Autistic cases that are much lesser in severity could be diagnosed as being a ‘Pervasive Developmental Disorder’ (PDD) or as having ‘Aspergers Syndrome.’ The children having these diseases have typically normal speech, but exhibit many "autistic" social and behavioral problems.In the past, autism was a rare – occurring disease which affected just five children per 10,000 live births. However, from the early 1990s onwards, the rate of this disease has increased exponentially around the globe with figures being as high as 60 per 10,000. The ratio of boys to girls is four to one. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control presented a shocking report that 1 in 150 children were diagnosed as being autistic. Therefore Autism poses a major problem in our society today and calls for immediate action not only on the part of the Government but also the medical fraternity, to curb, if not control this escalating disease that affects millions of children around the world.The study proposes to conduct relevant research on a group of autistic children from different institutions. To understand autism better and render effective treatment, we need to find the genes that are involved. In two NAAR – funded studies, they had found that “candidate” genes were responsible for autism. Autism is considered to have the highest “heritability” (most genetic) and is known to be one of the most “genetically complex” diseases. The two important genes found by the NAAR studies were the Reelin Gene and the Hoxa 1 Gene.Therefore, the method we would be using in our study to find out about these genes in autistic children is called the genome screen or "linkage studies".
It is a rare phenomenon when any modernization in one field could bring revolution in almost every aspect. A highly motivated and enthusiastic person can bring significant rewards for the organization like a good and efficient captain can navigate the ship to its destination. Dejected and demotivated employees on the other hand make the working atmosphere ominous and gloomy.Employer or owner of any organization always aims at getting maximum profit. They work for stability and sustainability in the market. In order to capture and get a hold on the market, they put efforts to maximize their production to the highest echelon. It is evident that in this competitive era, Charles Darwin’s theory of survival of fittest is applicable in every facet of life. It becomes imperative for the employer to maintain a congenial and co-operative working atmosphere in the organization and avoiding any kind of conflict between the employees. A friendly and affable environment is always progressive. Freedom to express and acceptance of innovative thoughts and implementation of novel work brings rewards in terms of enhanced productivity.Keeping this in focus and to foster maximum hold on market and gain maximum profit, research in all traits is going on. One such study, served as a pioneer in this attribute was conducted. it laid the paradigm for the motivation of employees, to enhance production.The study encompasses a progression of experiments, performed on the workers at “Western Electric Hawthorne Works” in Chicago between 1927 and 1932 to enhance productivity ("The Hawthorne Works" from Assembly Magazine).The main aim of these experiments was to get a methodology to enhance productivity. In relay assembly experiments a group of 6 women workers was selected and provided a separate room to assemble telephone relays. Out was calculated mechanically by counting the finished relays, went down to the shaft. This continued for five years. The room was set well with a supervisor to provide guidance, suggestions, and open discussions.
The main focus of evidence-based practice is to identify more clearly those healthcare interventions that can be proved to be effective on scientific grounds, from the results of research studies and surveys that are undertaken for the purpose. Evidence-based practice has become a cornerstone for the United Kingdom’s health policy and is currently being examined and implemented throughout the British National Health Service (NHS). According to Elkan et al (2000), the main goal is to use research evidence for rationing scarce health care resources and finding feasible solutions to physiotherapy treatment challenges. Only those interventions that could be shown to be effective on the basis of scientific research and evidence would be priority candidates for NHS funding.This paper proposes to examine the principles of evidence-based practice in physiotherapy and to critically discuss whether evidence is the foundation on which the professional should justify his or her practice. Further, the part played by clinical experience, patient preferences, political agenda/ targets, and guidelines of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and National Service Framework (NSF) for health will be included in the discussion.The requirement for evidence-based practice applies to the entire physiotherapy profession and includes “managers, researchers, educators, and students as well as clinicians” (Morris 2003:231). Evidence-based practice requires sound professional judgment as well as sound clinical reasoning. The reasoning is needed to evaluate the quality of evidence, to apply that evidence, “and to manage those patients whose unique clinical presentations fall outside the population characteristics where evidence does exist, known as the grey zones of practice” (Jones et al 2006: 2). It is essential that physiotherapists should demonstrate the efficacy of their interventions. The most recognized method is to use critically appraised tools (CATs) which are procedures that are confirmed to be effective from research evidence, to guide the practice of physiotherapists and other healthcare professionals.