Only a few decades ago, the people at the top of companies were called Managing Directors, now they have morphed into C.E.Os, and are expected to perform on a global stage. There is relentless scrutiny on what they do from shareholders, media and government (Tarpin 2006, p56). The change in the environment in which CEOs have to perform has necessitated a re-think of the whole experience of management and all the tenets that go into the successful running of a corporation. Among these are the decision-making process, managing information technology and picking up good examples from others and integrating them within the organization. In an age with so many pressures, is it realistic to have one person to be the face of a company or the one making all the decisions? There is no clear answer to this question. Different approaches have to be applied. In recent times, organizations have become ‘too big to fail’ it is unrealistic that all the important decisions must be made by a single individual. It should be the case that an organization has several other people in its middle and upper ranks who are as knowledgeable as the leader of the organization so as to spread the burden of decision making. One of the renowned investors of worldwide, Warren Buffett once said that ‘every quarter a CEO is expected to land a 747 on a runway and have it come naturally to a stop six inches from a dime’. That is enough to demonstrate the high expectations CEOs are expected to fulfill. On the other hand, the case for iconic organizations being led by iconic individuals cannot be disputed. Steve Jobs is a good example. He alone is credited with making Apple the largest consumer electronic goods manufacturer. Ken Hopper in his book The Puritan Gift states that decisions are best made collectively. He refers to the collectivization of decision making as forming a kind of ‘fellowship’. The leader makes the ultimate call, but they have to come down and seek the opinion of members of the ‘fellowship’ before arriving at the final solution. (Hopper 2005, p64) As a result, organizations need no more be pyramidic structures but more of networks. The leader at the top of an organization does not have to be accountable for all the good and all the bad of the organization. Leaders should use the collective wisdom of the company, and even be ready to admit they do not know what a situation demands. They should collectively think and collectively approach an issue (Schermerhorn 2004, p40). This is a concept that traditional management could run a mile from, but as recent failure has shown us, new and radical approaches to management need to be explored. The decision-making process is not the only aspect of management that a leader of an organization engages. In today’s computer age, there is a torrent of information, all of which is demanding the organization’s leader attention. Vast organizations are being built on information to the extent that a few individuals view it as a currency or as a building block for a new economy. So, is too much information a promise or a threat? Well, that is part of what the leader of the organization has to determine. The catchphrase ‘information technology’ has really caught on, but it’s a fairly recent phenomenon.
The technologies help to optimize the extraction of resources by drilling fewer oil wells, which result in a small number of cuttings, drilling fluids and mud, and generated waters. The slim hole, multilateral, and directional drilling minimize the traces of drilling rigs and reduce surface impacts. Technological advancement has led to cutbacks in energy consumption, reduced noise of operations, minimal greenhouse gases, and hazardous air pollutant emission, increased obscurity of facilities, improved protection of water resources, and staff safety (Gedeon n.d). The increase in efficiency of drilling has helped to reduce the amount of drilling mud and cuttings in each barrel in new oil reserves. Currently, one well can achieve the level of production as compared to two oil wells in 1985. The downhole technology of separation can reduce the amount of water generated during production, which constitutes the biggest flow of waste related to the production of oil and gas.The drilling wastes include solid wastes that comprise drill cuttings and fluid mud for drilling. The shale gas and rigid oil extraction are land-intensive because of drilling pads, equipment, movement space for trucks, gas processing, access roads, and transportation premises (Lechtenbohmer, Altmann, Capito 2011). The main air pollutants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matters as antecedents for regional smog, surface-level ozone whose precursor is nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/organic HAPs (US Environmental Protection Agency 2008). There is also the production of greenhouse gases, with fugitive methane comprising a considerable threat to global warming-weighted emissions. CO2 is emitted from process heaters and internal combustion engines, including compressors (Tullow Ghana Limited n.d). Natural gas extraction causes the generation of huge amounts of oilfield wastewater.
The company has grown so fast. This can be attributed to many reasons but majorly to the much time, we invest in listening to our customer needs through the day to day contact and periodic evaluations that form part of our policies. The quality of our products and services is also very high and geared toward the needs of our customers. Also available to us is a wide network of stakeholders whose ideas we value so much and as they meet in their pre-planned forums, they give us their reports which are reviewed and after accreditation, these are incorporated into our management and production (Cooper, 2004). The company deals directly with manufacturing companies which produce computer systems. When clients order specific computer systems, we forward the same requests to the manufacturing partners so that they produce systems which will satisfy the clients’ need. The company gives us quotations which we forward to the customers with the added value of tax and delivery, installation and one year services and maintenance. When customers are comfortable with the total cost, they clear us to proceed with the transaction. These companies are very reliable as they are able to process our requests within the time requested by our customers. We have never had any complaints from our companies. Despite the hard economictimes that businesses have experienced, our services and products have always been on demand since the prices are friendly for people of varied economic capabilities. It does not matter where the clients are located (Oliver, 2011). The company has distributors to our products all over the city. We identify business firms located in our area of interest. Then, whenever customers make requests, we identify their location and instruct our distributors to deliver these items to specific locations as the customer specifies. These distributors do not have to be dealing with information technology business in order to be accepted in the company’s list of distributors. The most important factor is that they accept to abide by our terms of service which include confidentiality and safety of commodities delivered to them. They are also allowed to give these items to people whose details are provided to them by the company in consultation with the company at all times in order to avoid putting our customers’ items into wrong hands (Cooper, 2004). In addition to these local distributors, we have also trained technicians who help customers whenever there is a need for installations and services or troubleshooting. Our technicians are highly qualified professionals whom we engage on a part-time basis due to the unpredicted nature of demand in the particular towns where they reside. All our technicians are accredited and certified by national and global IT expert bodies and their services are always of high quality. We have always had requests to provide services for systems we never installed because of the high performance of systems which have been serviced by our technicians.
Food Safety. Pests and Vectors. Air Quality Food safety and quality are built in the process and not out of it. This ‘process approach’ which is prevalent in food sector globally now a days, was first recognized by NASA (National Aero Space Agency).How to ensure safety of food for astronauts was a big question mark for NASA, because the finished product, if tested for the purpose would loose sterility with consequent loss of safety, while left intact, would be suspect from safety point of view. A private company suggested, a system known as HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Points), which required identification and control of all critical points where any occurrence of, physical, chemical or microbiological hazard could jeopardize food safety. “The Pillsbury –manufactured food that went aboard Apollo Spacecraft was produced under HACCP. ("Nasa food technology," 2004). HACCP is a household term today in food sector. It is in this perspective that answering to question ‘1.a’, I am of the succinct opinion that mandatory food safety training for all those who bear upon the quality of food, is in the best interest of the community. It can expect positive and tangible outcome relating to food safety even if half of the resources, required otherwise to strengthen enforcement of law, are invested on training of workers or implementation of Quality Management System. like ISO 22000 .This system requires mandatory training therefore it is a preferred option. Regarding question 1.b, following are the most common malpractices and ‘inappropriate worker behavior’ that compromise food safety: Starting work without proper hand sanitation and causing deliberate or indeliberate cross contamination ‘like storing raw materials along with finished product, handling food in process ,after handling non conforming products without first sanitizing hands, indifference towards pre requisition programmes like flies, insect or rodent control and improper personal hygiene ,smoking, spitting ,sneezing ,wearing Jewelery,etc. Avoidance of the aforesaid with an added effort for cleanliness definitely promotes food safety for, “Prevention depends on ‘clean food handled by clean people in clean premises with clean equipment and protection from flies and vermins. Cleanliness is indeed next to Godliness as John Wesley said in a sermon (Human nutrition and Dietetic P.239)”. Vector. Mosquitoes,” become infected when they feed on infected birds. Infected mosquitoes can then spread west Nile Virus, WNV’ to humans and other animals when they bite. ("Vector borne viral," 2011) Measures like use of repellents, widows and door screens, wearing suitable dress. can help avoid the Mosquito bite. Prevention is better than cure and in this connection my top one recommendation, however would be, “use insect repellent containing anEPA-registered active ingredient (Center for diseases)”. My top one recommendation to the community would be spraying permitted pesticides over stagnant waters. Particulate matters pollute air inside restaurants which then may harbour all sorts of pests. Assignable causes for d smoke emissions are generation from cooking or smoking . Ban on smoking in restaurants reduces particulates that cause the formation of smog ‘smoke plus fog’. To conclude I would say, cleanliness, training and prevention are the keys to open the door of happiness to community through safe food freedom from infectious diseases, like those caused by mosquito bite. References 1. Centres for Disease Control and prevention, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases(2011).West nile virusRetrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/ westnile/index.htm 2. Passmore, R., Eastwood, M.A., , Initials. (1986).Human nutrition and dietetics. Edinburgh:Churcill Livingstone. 3. Nasa food technology fs-2004-08-007-jsc. (2004, August). Retrieved from http://www.sti.nasa.gov/tto/spinoff.html 4. Vector borne viral infections. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases /vector/en/
Strategic management has an element of the multidimensional construct. This element characterizes an extension that provides a basis of business, implementation, and also, utilization of information systems competitively. This particular construct has four dimensions which include: Scanning of IT-related environment (e.g. this means establishing the type of IT which the competitors are using), IT planning, and also control (this means strategic planning of information systems related to the business set goals and objectives). Others are. IT acquisition and also implementation. (this involves choosing an IT which is properly-suited to the strategic orientation of your company), and finally but not the least, is the strategic use of IT (here it involves using the acquired IT to increase the performance of your business i.e. increase in profits) (Hill, Hill, 2011). Now, based on the above arguments, we can conclude that IT’s strategic management is addressing strategic planning in Information Technology. Let us now see some of the hierarchy of the system in strategic IT management (Hill, Hill, 2011).In any organization, management can be used to monitor the overall performance of your business. it also establishes the requirements of a business as well as its strategy. So the information in technology has to entail these needs.Strategic management normally starts with the development of a company’s mission (i.e. to provide it with direction), goals as well as objectives (to give the company both the channels and methods for mission accomplishment), a business portfolio as this allows the business to make use of the facets of the institute as well as plans that are deemed functional to perform day to day operations in the different functional units. The aggregate objective of strategic IT management is two-folded.
Aggressive reasons include opening up new markets, increasing profitability, obtain products for the company’s home market, and suit the desire to expand. Defensive reasons include protecting markets at home, securing foreign markets, guarantee raw materials supply, technology and management expertise acquisition, and political stability. These among other reasons triggered Wal-Mart’s takeover over of Asda to acquire UK market presence. However, the focus of this paper is to evaluate the cost and benefits of Wal-Mart over of Asda. Wal-Mart’s vision was guided by an aggressive vision coupled with courage and commitment.When Wal-Mart took over Asda, Asda had about 229 chains. After the takeover in 1999, Asda-Wal-Mart supercenters were opened adding the number of stores to 259 with 19 stores by 2004 and operating under the US model. In addition, the takeover introduced new marketing approaches to Asda including Asda Price Campaign and smiling face “rollback” campaign. This campaign borrowed heavily from Wal-Mart’s business strategy. As a result, Asda gained recognition as one of the UK’s most affordable supermarkets. In terms of grocery, Asda benefited heavily as evidenced it increased market share from 13 to 16%. This increase was tremendous given that Asda did not engage in any acquisition and translated Asda’s position as the second-largest UK supermarket chain. Further, the takeover introduced the strategy of increasing sales space as practiced by Wal-Mart stores. The strategy successfully saw the company reducing its backroom areas while committing such space to areas of sales for now-foods2. One of the non-foods heavily invested in was George’s line of clothing. With time, the non-food sales grew by 25% mostly due to joint sourcing with Wal-Mart and non-matched prices within the UK market. Today, Asda’s strategy to invest in non-food areas include ‘Specialty Division’ that focuses more on hotel, holidays, photographic andpharmacy services, and car rentals.
The arguments revolve around the claim of Postman that the variation in public behaviour incited by the television has a detrimental effect on the American society.Postman has analyzed the devastating effects of entertainment age on the public discourse quality. The book shows insight into the way culture and perceptions are shaped by the technology that results in the trivialization of varying aspects of the society. Postman asserts in his book that the medium used to communicate ideas orients the thoughts and expressions and highly impact the determination of ideas that prevail in the society. For illustrating the advancement in technology and its impact on people Postman has given the example of a clock that built a moment-to-moment metaphor that makes people think of time as a series of independent, measurable sequences having no relation to the human events.Postman said that in America and Europe the age of reasoning was the age of exposition. America is established by a typographic nation or in other words it is founded on print media that oriented the social life and political image of the country. He further said that in print dominant society public discourse is composed of rational thoughts and coherent and systemic ideas. Written words allow analytical management of information, increase the ability of people to judge the news and over-generalization and falsehood.He further says that the era of exposition is ended in America, and now the society has been transformed into Age of Show Business. Postman claims that television is not merely a mode of entertainment rather it presents all information as an entertainment. Television governs how to present the world with respect to religion, education, politics, social issues and business.Postman argues that trivialities of television become apparent when it acts as a medium to address ideas that are allegedly significant. When the television becomes a central agent of public discourse, it seriously impacts the logic, seriousness and gravity of that particular discourse whether it is religious, political, economic or social.
Social – Masonic Charitable Services has a mix reaction from the community. Many do not like the organization because of its affiliation to the organization freemasonry while many also laud its philosophical teachings and charitable works. The social environment in the UK is not very conducive to Masonic Charitable Services, perhaps due to its own making, because the organization is viewed with skepticism. This skepticism translates to lack of public support ultimately redounding to lesser donation from the public. Despite of its many criticisms, it cannot be denied however that the group has a social impact especially in its charity works. Technological – the group, while belonging to old organization freemasonry, utilizes modern technology such as the World Wide Web to express what it does to the community. Legal – the group has a legal entity it being duly registered charitable organization under the charity commission (Charity Commission 2012) and is authorized to accept donations and dispense charity works. III. SWOT analysis Strength – Masonic Charitable Services is affiliated with the freemasons who had existed since 1700 and is known to have done a lot of charity works here and abroad. Although many dislike the group, it cannot be denied that it is the largest charitable organization in the world. Its long history and the success of its charitable counterpart abroad, the Shriners, lends credibility to the group which could make convincing of the public to donate easier if it will exert effort to open itself to the public. Weakness – the secrecy of its mother organization which is Freemasonry is being criticized by many as being secretive, with a hidden agenda and even worships the devil. Thus, their charitable works,… The firm that is analyzed in the paper is Masonic Charitable Services. When it comes to charity works, the Shriners will be inevitably cross one’s mind because it is the largest philanthropic organization in the world. But since there is no Shriner Charity organization registered in the UK, the closest organization similar to it is the “Masonic Charitable Services”. It performs the same charitable work just like the Shriners in the USA only that it comes with another name which is “Masonic Charitable Services. Masonic Charitable Services has a headquarters at 60 Great Queen Street, London. The best way to describe an organisation’s macro and micro environment is through the framework of PESTEL. PESTEL stands for political, economic, environment, social, technological and legal which best assess an institution’s macro and micro environments. Despite of the public’s skepticism of Masonic Charitable Services, it cannot be denied that it has done major charitable works here and abroad and has helped a lot of people. It has also done charitable works since time immemorial and perhaps the oldest charitable in addition to the largest charitable organization in the world. Throughout history, and despite of the public’s skepticism of its real intention, it has never been accused of dishonesty in dispensing its fund for charity works. Such, Masonic Charitable Services, being affiliated with the Masons, enjoys a veritable credibility as a charitable organization which not many charitable organizations enjoy.
Zara’s competitors in the fashion and industry were amazed at how the company was rapidly expanding both locally and internationally. It is important to note that all these stores were opened under the company’s brand but when the ventured into the Asian market, the company’s managers had different views of the market in that they decided to exercise the concept of Franchising. For instance, in Malaysia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, the company operates as a B2B Company. Zara did virtually no advertising unlike its international clothing competitors such as Gap, Benetton, and HM. Instead, the company places only two ads to promote its yearly sales and announce the opening of the new store. This decision has led Zara to realize 0.3% average revenue instead of 4%. Zara store managers have no discretion about the look and the feeling of their stores (Wikipedia, n.d). Zara does not aim to produce classic clothes that are always in style instead of the company intended to have its clothes to have fairly short life spans both in stores and customers wardrobe. In the year 2003, Inditex operated 1,558 stores in more than 40 countries of which 550 were part of Zara chain stores. The company has 90,000 employees of which 80% are female while the rest are male. Currently, Inditex is the biggest and fastest growing retailer while Zara is the biggest leading retail innovator in the world and that has established its place in the fashion industry by offering not only apparel and accessories for women fashion but also for children and men. More so, Zara Company had provided and established a unique environment for shopping by altering the manner others companies such as Gap and HM store appear. The company changes its layouts often to incorporate artwork. Zara has realized how to expand and make a profit due to its capability to face the apparel challenges in the market. This paper aims to discuss the businesses model and key elements of disruptive business, identify distinctive competencies of disruptive companies and discuss the competitive advantages of disruptive companies. Disruptive business model Disruptive innovation is a creation that aids establish a new market and value network, and it usually goes on to disrupt the existing market and value network by replacing or displacing an earlier technology. Disruptive model is used by a company to improve a product in a manner that the market does not expect by designing for a different segment of consumers in the new market and afterward by lowering the prices in the current or existing market. Businesses that adapt and applies disruptive model usually have a competitive advantage over its competitors in the market (Wikipedia, n.d). For instance, companies such as Dell and Zara have this model in order to remain in front of their competitors. Dell has survived the bust and now looks better for it since, in one of the worst PC industry history, Dell has gained enough share to become the leading PC seller in the world.
Environment 1042 Characteristics of the green roof and how it reduces energy cost Green roof applies natural vegetation instead of the traditionally and most commonly used artificial materials such as iron sheets. It adopts vegetation that represents a true garden in the normal environmental set up. One of the major characteristics of the green roof is therefore its observed nature that distinguishes it from the artificial roof. While the artificial roof is ‘non-generic’ and inorganic, the green roof is majorly made of living substances in the form of plants. A substrate layer that sustains the plants also characterizes the green roof. This layer of materials accommodates water and contains nutrients for the green roof plants. Another characteristic feature of the green roof is its potential to emulate a real garden. This feature allows the roofing system to be uses as an economic and social resource. It makes economic contribution from its potential as a garden and social impacts from its capacity to be used for recreation purposes. In its application, the green roof shelters dwellers of a building in the same way as the traditional roofing works but doubles as natural vegetation (Voelz and Loux, p. 2).Based on its features, the green roof plays significant economic roles. The agricultural aspect for instance generates food resources among other materials. The system particularly plays a significant economic role in regulating expenditure in energy costs. Since it is a poor heat conductor, the green roof is able to maintain a favorable room temperature irrespective of the environment. It subsequently saves the amount of money that could be used in warming houses during cold seasons and cooling houses during hot seasons. The technology is however not yet popular among people and has therefore not been appreciated (Voelz and Loux, p. 4, 5).Efficiency processes facilitated by EPA buildingsEPA regulations, for EPA buildings, are associated with a number of efficiencies to the environment. Examples of the efficiencies include “water efficiency, waste reduction, toxic reduction, and indoor air quality” (Epa, p. 1). Departments in the Environmental Protection Agency with the aim of ensuring safety and improving environmental conditions run these efficiency programs. The water efficiency program facilitates manufacture and distribution of water facilities and water services to the public. As a result, water efficiency provides for quality in water supply and services to promote healthy living standards among the public. Waste reduction efficiency on the other hand protects the environment from pollution. It ensure proper waste disposal resulting in a healthy and safe environment. Like the waste reduction efficiency, toxic reduction ensures an environment that if safe and free from pollution. The efficiency however focuses on chemical emissions into the environment by industries. In collaboration with other partners, the efficiency program controls industries to ensure a safe environment that is free from emission of harmful chemicals. It therefore protects the public from diseases and infections caused by exposure to chemicals. Lastly, indoor air quality program ensures that EPA buildings are constructed in regard to health and safety standards. The efficiency therefore ensures safety and comfort of residents in a bid to protect life and promote healthy living conditions (Epa, p. 1).Works citedEpa. “Components of green building”. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/pubs/components.htm#energy. [Accessed on 4 April 2012].Voelz, Jan, and Loux, Jeff. “The characteristics benefits of green roofs in urban environments”. Available from: http://extension.ucdavis.edu/unit/green_building_and_sustainability/pdf/resources/green_roof_02.pdf. [Accessed on 4 April 2012]