Australian Cultural Code in Jasper Jones

The author, Craig Silvey, mingles the story with situations arising from the ongoing war in Vietnam without ignoring the Aboriginal agitation for equality. His effort to bring out the struggles the community faces in terms of discrimination and inability to conform is manifested across the Jasper Jones story. While the text is not a comprehensive summary of the Australian struggles with discrimination in the era, it sheds sufficient light on the matter. It has been touted as a good read by numerous academicians who study the issue.Jasper Jones ideas heavily draw from popular opinions from Australians in the 1960s. Silvey talks of multiple racism encounters in the text. A good example is the story of Jasper Jones and Jeffrey Lu. Jeffrey is an Australian Vietnamese. Despite his intellect, he has to endure constant jests at school. He endures bullies, taunting, and other forms of mistreatment from schoolmates no matter what he does to fit in. The fact that he is just a victim of his race is shown when he receives cheers and approval when he is in ‘disguise.’ For instance, when in full cricket regalia, no one can notice Jeffrey and the crowd’s cheer or admire his skill in the field. Removing his helmet reveals his Vietnam roots leading to threats, insults, and even physical confrontation. Jasper Jones sympathizes with his friend Jeffrey since he is also a victim of the same oppression. He is the town’s Aboriginal scapegoat. The residents have labeled him a thief, thug, and truant, who is never up to any good. This reputation always earns him mistreatment in his hometown even though it has no basis. Jasper is disregarded to the extent that he is the example children are threatened with if they start slacking off. Silvey uses these two characters to show us how discrimination in Australia was as long as you were a minority. Charlie, on the other hand, is Lu’s only friend. Even though he is a ‘typical’ Australian, he is still alienated because of his intellect. Instead of playing like his fellow students, he spends time reading books and gathering knowledge. This makes him different, making people at war with him despite his origins, unlike Jeffrey.Silvey uses real-time events to make us feel like the fictional Corrigan town is real. This is a great way to help us tie all the racism events happening in the novel to real life. For instance, Silvey ensures that the main events in the story happen on dates that can be matched with the well-known Vietnamese war. As the war is at its peak, three men from the town join the army. This superimposed on the Aboriginal rights agitation that occurred in 1965 helps us place the story better. Also, his choice to make characters like Jeffrey Lu, a victim at the time when the majority of Australia was against Vietnam, is a good way to tie the story to real life. Some Australians even think he is a spy. Silvey further taps into the White Australian policy that remained active until 1965 to paint the rift. This works well since the treaty does not technically cover Jasper and Jeffrey. By weaving a tell that spans reality and fiction, Silvey ensures that we pay attention and still remember that the story is about real-life issues affecting a realistic society even without mentioning prominent characters in the society.Silvery ensures that the novel uses dialog to show us more about the Aboriginal plight. Other than using Jasper and his friend to highlight the Vietnam war, Silvey also uses Jasper dialog to show us Aboriginals don’t have access to mainstream education. For instance, Jasper uses an Aboriginal English slang in his communication. Contrasting Jasper against Charlie is a good way for Silvey to show us the rift. Jones knows that Charlie is a clever boy. His acknowledgment, to some extent, shows that he understands his shortcomings. Jones, however, does not believe that they should be a basis for all the bullying he receives. For instance, Warwick Trent still picks on Charlie whenever he uses complex words in class. This is the same bully who is at war with Jasper Jones when he uses his abridgments when speaking. This imagery leads us to believe that the racism and discrimination going on was against a minority that the majority felt did not belong. It did not matter what makes you different. The people were scared of your uniqueness and were will to do anything they can to get rid of it.Silvey manages to develop a range of supporting characters who work in tandem with Jasper to tell the story of stereotyping. Language, diction, symbolism, and imagery plays a vital role in making the novel enjoyable while superimposing events with real-life occurrences jolts us back to reality. The author spins a fun tale while still reminding us that Australia is still struggling with racism and xenophobia. The fact that Silvey chooses Jones to be the center of the story gives the tools the novel needs to develop the theme in a relatable way. We end up learning more about the discrimination in the society in a fun way and end up thinking deeply about our role and any of the things we might be doing to propagate it in our lifetime.

The Development Strategies of India and China

In the six decades since the end of the Second World War, the United States had dominated global politics and had also attained the status of an economic and military superpower. But with the onset of globalization, countries with an abundance of cheap labor such as India and China are primed to assume the leadership position in another 10-15 years. India has a huge pool of skilled workers who have the added advantage of proficiency in the English language. The re-election of Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister is also a positive development from an economic perspective, for it was he who initiated India as a participant in globalization in 1991 (Winters Yusuf, 2007). China, on the other hand, started participating in the process of globalization much before India did. As a result, their economy is more than twice that of India and is catching up fast with that of the United States and Japan. Some of the South American countries such as Venezuela and Russia (rich in oil resources) and Brazil (rich in natural resources) also pose a threat to American domination of the global economy. In fact, American media believes that the threat will come from BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). The southeast Asian region also poses a collective threat. The rest of this essay will focus on the development strategies adopted by China and India and how successful they have been in reducing poverty.Ever since the communist revolution of the late 1940s, and the subsequent formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1949, many positive developments have taken place both within the party as well as for Chinese citizens. The CCP and its cadres “are changing in ways that make creative solutions to political governance problems feasible than a repeated violent reaction to social change, as in 1989” (Smith, 2003). While progress and reform are on the partyagenda, its leadership still retains useful traditions and customs.

English Language Learning

We have selected Pakistan as our target market as Urdu is their mother tongue and most of the people like to go abroad to work or get higher education. Therefore, they usually face problems if they are not familiar with this language and hence join different institutes in order to learn English ( Shahid, 2008). The demand for the English language is not only for people who go abroad, but people who are eager to work in multinational companies located in Pakistan also need to know English to communicate with their colleagues. Moreover, the government language of Pakistan is English. hence all the legal documentations are made in English. Because of the low standard of education in Pakistan, people usually prefer to join some professional English language learning institute to learn English (Place of English language in Pakistan. 2004). Hence, this market has great potential for your English language institute to get successful.In the following report, we have identified and explained various aspects of the market of Pakistan based on our research in the region with respect to the potential of the English language learning institute in Pakistan.Pakistan is a country with a population of 17 million people belonging to a range of cultures and speaking different languages, other than Urdu, which is the national language of the country ( Rehman, Tariq. 2008). A large percentage of educated and uneducated people from Pakistan go abroad to either work or get higher education from foreign universities as the employment rate of Pakistan is low and the standard of education is not high enough to meet international standards except for a few good universities. People who plan to go abroad usually have to give and English language test, IELTS and they prefer to become proficient in speaking and writing English so that they can easily communicate with people abroad.

Critical Comparison between native and nonnative English teachers

A teacher who comes from a native land does not know the accent of the students and thus cannot get attuned with the children who are from the different social backgrounds. Besides, it becomes difficult for the teacher to understand the requirements of the children. And therefore the students lose their interest in that particular teaching method of that teacher. It is very important for a teacher to know the nerves of the students. A teacher can become their support if he/she can win their hearts. A good teacher is not someone who has profound knowledge of a subject but a good teacher is someone who knows how to understand the need of the students and knows how to facilitate them. While proceeding towards the comparison in details it is necessary to first shed some light on the definition of culture as defined by Geert Hofstede. According to the cultural dimensions premises acknowledged by Geert Hofstede, the westernized nations like the United States, Australia, United Kingdom, etc. creates the individualist bunch and is placed at one severe end of the band whilst the Asian nations such as Pakistan, Hong Kong, India, Thailand, etc. form the collectivist bunch and is placed at the other intense end of the range. The western countries do not have strong cultural values while the Asian nations are strongly bound to their culture. Here culture represents things like family bonding, respect for elders, sticking to morals and ethics, etc. Hofstede stated that the general populace of a region experiences a countrywide culture that is known as National Culture. The phrase “National Culture” implies the single culture representing the whole country that helps in the cultural discrimination of the citizens of one country from the citizens of another country. Now as it becomes clear in which ways National culture can affect an individual, it is essentialfor us to know the significance of an ESL class.

Correcting the Spelling Errors

The main reason for this change was to improve his English language skills. Since the move, the student has improved his English in terms of speaking and comprehension.I met with and spoke to the student regarding his spelling problem. He found writing in English so difficult because English words are not spelled as they are spoken. This might cause a lot of confusion.In my interaction with the student, he remarked that he thought his spelling problems were a result of a problem with his memory. The student appeared frustrated at his lack of retention ability. (short term, long term). The skill of memory seemed to directly affect learning. This was the main difficulty. (what he told you about memory, what you observed about his memory problems – how this affected his learning)In my initial contact meeting with the class teacher, I was alerted to the fact that the student suffered from dyslexia, which would have a negative impact on his literacy skills (Nicolson Fawcett, 2008). Being quiet in the classroom could be a result of attention deficiency (Snell Brown, 2008). Dyslexia causes serious intelligence disabilities for students in, especially, the area of reading. The fact is that if a student cannot read well or comprehensively, it is difficult for such a student to advance in his or her studies. The student under consideration may have been affected by many factors that are linked with dyslexia: these include but not restricted to the inability of the student to produce a cognitive link with what he reads in the classroom (Nicolson Fawcett, 2008). There are different theories about how dyslexia could affect the learning ability in students—it could make students showacute disinterestedness in reading.

Grammar Lesson Plan for ESL and EFL Students

The students for whom English is a second language have a tough time understanding and speaking it correctly. Therefore, teachers must help them to improving their reading, writing and understanding the language better by rendering the learning process interesting for the students. For beginner level it is very important to understand and learn whatever is taught in a correct manner and recall it whenever required. The play way method of teaching is more effective in making students understand the topic easily. Teaching by way of interesting activities, involving all the students, is a much better way to make students learn and understand. Learning by way of activities can be more effective and successful than the learning through oral teaching.The teacher will paste a chart paper on the board with few words written on it and will prepare few chits with the opposite of the words written. The class will be divided into 2 or 5 students each in one group, each student will be given a balloon to blow and the balloons will be placed on the last bench with the slips. One student each will get up and select a chit after that read aloud the word written on the slip. Then the student has to match the opposite of the word written on slip with the right word from the chart.If an answer is wrong, the opposite team will burst a balloon of that team. The activity will go on till the last student in the class. The team with more number of balloons left at the end will win. By this type of play method students will become more interested in learning, winning and actively participating in the class.The teacher will assess the understanding of every student with their answers given. The teacher will then ask students to correct the incorrect answers. If still the answer is incorrect, the answers will be corrected by the teacher.

On the Rhetorical Devices of an American Farmer

This success contributed to several factors. On the one hand, sweat was certainly felt in Europe. There was difficulty in obtaining reliable information about events in America, especially at that time when the War of Independence was drawing to a close. On the other hand, lyric descriptions of the expressions filling the pages of the Letters were so expressive that they received recognition not only among ordinary readers, but also among such well-known romantic writers as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Hazlitt, and P.B.Shelley. Reprints from Letters began to appear in newspapers and magazines. "The Letters from an American Farmer" is one of the first works of American literature, which depicts in detail the life of the North American colonies. Offered analysis of stylistic devices such as comparisons, epithets, hyperbolas, repetitions, etc., helping the authorworks achieve particular expressiveness and so far define the attitude to the events described in the text. But in America, the "Letters" were not so popular. However, all that happens to the characters of the "Letters" placed in completely different, not like European ones, conditions. Crevecoeur creates a work in which offers real observers the author’s opinion on life in the colonies during the period preceding the Revolutionary War of 1775-1783. They concern a variety of aspects of the life of an American farmer, and you may be filled very scrupulously. For example, telling the English correspondent about his farm, the plowman James, the main character of the story, gives exact explication about the provisions that are procured onhis farm for the winter: "Every year I kill from 1500 to 2000 weight of pork, 1200 of beef, half a dozen of good weathers in harvest. of fowls my wife always has a great stock …" He is less punctual in the eighth letter, which describes the peculiar inhabitants of Nantucket (Letter Eight). Peculiar customs at Nantucket are narrating about new unusual hard work of the local population, James writes that idleness in this land is considered the worst sin, and proves this with his many observations. Such attention to detail is the characteristic feature of the analyzed composition. Although the author declares authenticity of the events depicted by him ("…believe me, what I write is all true and real"), we note, however, that the sketch of the writers is not an empty and passionate image of that life that flowed in the New World. Many scientists note that Crevecoeur clearly embellishes what is happening in America at the end of the eighteenth century. The author reflects the real circumstances but in highly idealized form". A researcher points to the "conscious orientation to the idyll." Pictures of a natural idyllic soul fill the pages of the Letters, be it a description of the residence of the chief hero or a story about an unusual village of Quaker communities of the Nantucket Islands and Martas Vinyard. So, for example, in (Letter One. Introduction), the author illustrates talks about how Americans expand daily settlements, huge forests turn into flowering fields, and the provinces themselves are filling with a lot of happy people having a free life and welfare. The priest believes what Europeans should think about, why is it happens. Similar "presetting" the tone of the narration felt throughout the composition, and this is certainly not accidental. Like in the works of famous American Benjamin Franklin, there is a persistent desire the author shows a new society with the most attractive side to convince Europeans to move to the lands of New England. "Letters from an American Farmer" is a "work on the border of genre and style. It is no longer just "notes," but also not quite a novel, but anti-territorial poetry coexists here with elements of rhetoric. sprouts of new romantic attitudes are adjacent with "commonplaces" of educational literacy." Unlike typical times no works belonging to the genre of "Letters from an American Farmer" are well-designed literary texts promoted various lexical and stylistic means,widely used by the author in his knowledge base. Revealing the essence of the American nation, for touching upon questions on which the basis cultural dialogue can be built between America and England trying to figure out what it means to be a writer in this new so attractive to Europeans generally. Indeed, Crevecoeur stands in the position of a man who received a brilliant education, for whose Enlightenment ideas have a particular value. The author answers the set of questions using a whole block of different techniques that contribute to the creation of not only a positive image of the "Earth of the Promise," but also help the writer create a bright and memorable image of their heroes. Moreover, he constantly appeals to the kind of rhetorical devices, which is certainly no coincidence. European Enlightenment advocates for the land of the kingdom of Reason, in which there will be the principles of "freedom, equality, and brotherhood." At the heart of their concept is also on walked the cult of Nature, which was the basis of their ideas about the "natural man." Crevecoeur has an American culture, and in his works, the image of life in the colonies is clearly seen as close to natural origin. So, in the first letter, he says that Nature opens its arms when the North Americans are arriving at the new continent to people that give them food: "Here nature opens her broad lap to receive the perpetual accession of newcomers and to supply them with food." The personification of Nature is reflected in the use of personal pronouns for names to show how deeply the writer felt Nature. The similar attitude to Nature is observable throughout the text of the "Letters" of Crevecoeur. Moreover, his Nature is not only visible in the luxurious plants, it’s not just the American wild cancan cherries in all their splendor, as their bushy branches, but more deep – in the constructive beginnings. So, approving James’s decision to correspond with a possible English correspondent, his neighbor, a priest. In this case, James is compared as a future writer with one of the plants, rampant on the lands of the North American Continent. Comparisons with Nature are very characteristic for the whole piece and are favorite for Crevecoeur. The author skillfully weaves them into the text of his storytelling. So, in the third letter, "Who is such an American?" (Letter Three. What is an American?)by the mouth of the farmer James, the author compares between people and plants. All lyric descriptions of Nature are filled with a sense of admiration for it. In his time, Crevecoeur’s personal forms find manifestation in the divine design. This attitude to Nature not only appears in the analysis of fragments of the composition described above. The author emphasizes this thesis practically in all twelve chapters of the Letters. In his narration, the writer also resorts to the help of hyperbole. The author notes not only the beauty and purity of Nature. He concludes that people need to follow logic laws. In his reasoning, Crevecoeur is very convincing. Bright and emotional epithets that are universally interwoven a writer in the outline of the story give "Letters" exquisite expressiveness. Many of them are very unusual, but this copyright uses of the case the writer’s sketches are extremely accurate and help the reader to "see" in detail the episodes described. On the pages of the entire work, there are oppositions of the civilized world and the natural world. Crevecoeur often gives the emotional coloring of the text, introducing semantic collocations into opposing each other. The favorite stylistic device of the author is also taking an antithesis. So, for example, contrasting American colonists to the inhabitants of England, Crevecoeur secretly emphasizes the merits of the first. The reasoning of the author, concerning the British, contains the well-known criticism: "These Englishmen are strange people because they can live upon what they call banknotes, without working, they think that all the world can do the same" On the pages of the entire work, there are oppositions of the civilized world and the natural world. Crevecoeur often gives the emotional coloring of the text, introducing into opposing each other in semantic regarding collocations. In a diverse range of stylistic and lexical techniques that can be noted in the thread in "Letters," Crevecoeur also actively includes repeats and parallel constructions. Due to its multifunctionality and variety of species, repetitions are attached to the text in the special expressiveness and brightness, helping the author to express his attitude to the inventory -events recorded in the text and emotionally affect the reader. The stylistic repeat pattern is found in many various descriptions of Crevecoeur. They also help to emotionally influence the reader and contribute to the rhythmic organization of one or other statements. Offering the reader the information on the happy settlement, about which James is going to tell in detail, the author uses the specified technique in the description: "This happy settlement was not founded on an intrusion…Neither political nor religious broils, neither disputes with the natives nor any othercontentions have in the least agitated or disturbed its detached society" and return sticks to him literally on the next page: "… here you meet with neither ancient monuments, spacious halls, solemn temples, nor elegant dwellings. not a citadel nor any kind of fortification, not even a battery to rend the air with its loud peals on any occasion". To summarize the analysis done, on the rhetorical devices of an American Farmer, we conclude that "Letters from an American Farmer" represent the true chronicle of what is happening in the American colonies of events in the pre-revolutionary era and in that sense, they are a continuation and development of traditions of American literature of the colonial period. Each rhetorical device is unique in its stylistic presentation and the way it is highlighted in the canvas of the text. And on the other hand, investigated work written by Crevecoeur, revealing a change of genre orientation, is a highly artistic text that is rich in the used stylistic devices and rhetorical strategies. Commonly used a variety of lexico-stylistic means of writing allowed the writer to create the work, with lyric descriptions of the romantic period in the American literature that presents a huge research interest for numerous literary critics and attracts the audience from the worldwide. The "Letters" is the work of interest that helps to justify the individual style of the author and modern trends that were typical for the literature of the colonial period. Many literature devices are settled to organize the canvas of the text to shape the individual identity of the audience.

An Analysis of Power in Macbeth by William Shakespeare

In the play "Macbeth," Shakespeare poses a topical socio-political and moral-ethical problem: how "virtue can compete with the monarch’s will" and whether the king must defend personal interests or serve the state and his compatriots. The power of Renaissance titanium in "Macbeth" during the spiritual crisis degenerated not just into extreme individualism and individualistic religion, but into the idea of ​​a strong, powerful personality capable of creating a single powerful empire. Macbeth is the type of king of the Protestant-bourgeois era who described Machiavelli in his treatise "The Sovereign," Montaigne depicted in his "Experiments." Machiavelli’s goal is to show the changes in the public consciousness of a king, politics, and the system of public administration that took place as a result of the events of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. Machiavelli, recognizing freedom of will as "the will to power" (Nietzsche), thinks already as a democrat, an ideologue of a new, bourgeois type, represented in the image of Macbeth. In this play, the path to power lies through violence, the force of arms, and conquest, because, in Machiavelli’s view, "the passion for conquest is a natural and ordinary thing," and if a king can use force, he is "rarely threatened with failure." Macbeth is a vivid example of how power can change a man. As for an analysis of power in Macbeth by William Shakespeare, in the image of Macbeth, Shakespeare connects the power of the tyranny with the established freedom of the Protestant-humanist person, which seeks to subjugate the whole world to its will: "I dare all that man dares, and only the beast is more capable." Montaigne set other goals, applying his moral philosophy to the image of man similar to king in his various socio-domestic and moral manifestations, "exposing the everyday life and devoid of any luster," and "life more meaningful and eventful," attaching the great importance of a person of a king to socio-political problems of modern society. Observing in France the extreme form of perversion of state power, Montaigne exposes the power of tyranny and cruelty of the rulers, believing that "the good qualities of earthly lords are dead." This is proved by the image of king Macbeth. Like Montaigne, in the play "Macbeth," Shakespeare saw the tyrannical nature and power of English absolutism, he also questioned the authority of violence-based power, believing that the most worthy activity of power was to serve society and the interests of the nation, agreeing with Montaigne that "worthy reign" is the most difficult and complex thing in the world." In the spirit of modern Catholic-Protestant anthropology, which preserved Manichean dualism in the view of man, in the play "Macbeth," Shakespeare shows the struggle of good and evil in the soul of king Macbeth as equal principles, reflecting the ideological movements of the era in their real historical contradictions. At the same time, Shakespeare in the representation of the king Macbeth considers the problem of good and evil from a humanistic point of view in the spirit of the Christian humanism of Erasmus of Rotterdam, who argued in his controversy with Luther that "by free will we mean the power of human desire to approach eternal salvation, or turn away from it." Hence, man is free to choose between good and evil independently, but given that freedom in choosing evil leads to his enslavement to sin (e.g., Macbeth). Slavery in sin is associated by the playwright with a deviation from the truth, with the deceptive delusion of sorcery, which resorts Macbeth, believing that he is led to power by fate itself, and witches are only its performers. This is persuaded by Macbeth and his wife, the person of Lady Macbeth, in which, as in the "prophetic sisters," there is a strong demonic feature, in the beginning, ascending to the customs of Celtic-British folk-pagan people and ancient mythological demonology. Still, she also has a belief in Protestant doom, and it acts together with the witches in "Macbeth." The Pagan-Protestant doom deprives Macbeth of any responsibility for what he has done, relying on the predictions of witches, the king becomes helpless, unable to resist evil, which allows us to speak of Shakespeare’s doubts about the truth of Protestant ethics. The Reformation’s abolition powers of ecclesiastical mechanisms that restrain man from sin (prayer, confession, fasting, vows) attracted the power of freedom of action, which led to the emergence of secular religion, guiding a person to achieve earthly, economic or political goals and contributes to a new type of "businessman" or "woman" of the Renaissance (e.g., lady Macbeth). Freed from the influence of the church, which embodied spiritual authority and unifying society, a person found himself subject to the harsher, tyrannical power of authority of the Old Testament God (Yahweh), which requires complete submission of a lady or a Macbeth and his destruction as a person, as this was the main condition for the power of salvation. Luther’s dogma states: "A God-fearing person has no free will: he is a prisoner, a slave and a servant of the will of the Lord or the will of Satan." Combining the pagan people’s belief of the powers of destiny with Protestant doom for Macbeth means merging with the divine will, and this allows the king to accept the pagan people’s prophecies of witches as divine predictions that allow Macbeth to seek power in any way, even without his participation. In the play "Macbeth," the power of self-disclosure of a titanic personality mired in evil occurs when Macbeth attains the supreme power when he feels contempt and hatred of his subjects, which makes the king lonely, rejected by all and leads to frustration in life, which in his view is only a "shadow, comedian." The play "Macbeth" includes many words and passions of the powers, and it just doesn’t make sense." Shakespeare connects king Macbeths loss of meaning in life with the disintegration of his spiritual essence and the distortion of the "image of God," the unquenchable thirst for power, the involvement in the sin of murder, as the author says long before the tragic finale of the play "Macbeth," pointing to a tragic end. As it is shown by the example of lady Macbeth and the king, and the witches, the powers over the Renaissance personality are reflected in the following statement: "Forgetting wisdom, honor, and shame, king Macbeth despises fear, fate and death, and death awaits him, like all those who believe too much in their success, neglecting interests of the other people." Throughout the whole plot of the play "Macbeth," Shakespeare comes to a certain maturity in his creative, socio-political and moral-ethical views on the state and the person of the king, leaning towards the popular-patriotic idea, incompatible with the bloody violence of power, which is expressed in the victory of popular morality of both the king and lady Macbeth. "Macbeth" is the tragic play of valor poisoned by ambition, depicts the path of a king and his lady created for exploits and generosity, but changed that by vocation. Overwhelmed by an immense thirst for power, blinded by his own and selfish passions, to snatch him from the circle of human society, Macbeth’s powers arise as the king and his lady forget about their native country and people, the world of its huts, sacrificing the peace and prosperity of Scotland to Macbeth’s individualistic ambition. Macbeth is a wonderful historical portrait of the "heroes" of the era of primitive accumulation, for whom overcoming the old morality turned into amoralism, and the urge for creative action – in a predatory will to power and reign as a king over people. In "Macbeth," Shakespeare reflected not only the fiery passions, powers, and violent political upheavals of the time, in which heroism often went hand in hand with crime but also the Macbeths reappraisal of all values, the crisis of moral consciousness characteristic of the era of primitive accumulation, as this is explicitly shown in the examples of lady Macbeth and witches. This feeling is conveyed to the exclamation of the "prophetic sisters" of the initial scene of the tragedy "Macbeth," which serves not only as a prelude but, in this case, the key to it. In the tragedy "Macbeth" (1606) by W. Shakespeare, the power of the events is reflected in the political coup of the XI century, when the power of the king and his first lady was associated with the usurpation of the throne by the Scottish ruler such as Macbeth. The example of Macbeth shows the collapse and moral decline of the titanic personality. Shakespeare shows how heroism goes hand in hand with a crime, and there are a crisis and reappraisal of human values, following Macbeths example. Infernal images of witches have a special place in the plot development of the tragedy "Macbeth." Three witches depicted in "Macbeth," on the one hand, as imagined by the people of Shakespeare’s era, that is, as women who entered into an alliance with an evil force for the acquisition of supernatural abilities and the superficial power. On the other hand, in the text of Shakespeare’s tragedy, they are mentioned several times, to intensify their power. The appearance of three witches in power takes place in the first scene of "Macbeth." Dressed in gray rags, with long flowing hair, with beards (according to popular belief), they, lost in a close circle, in separate phrases try to tell about their adventures and power of wisdom. Shakespeare Macbeths adheres to all known ideas about witches in power, relating not only to their appearance but also behavior. Yes, they pronounce the words trochee – a special rhythm of magical beings of the power. Witches mention "cat," "frog," meaning by them the evil spirits that live under the guise of these animals gaining power. The scene ends with a phrase he uttered in three choruses, following Macbeth’s perception of reality. The next appearance of the three witches in "Macbeth" takes place in the third scene. First, they tell each other about their antics in the power of the human world. Then at the sound of a drum, they are warning Macbeth, the exit of the commanders, witches run down the hill, begin to lead a round dance, and sing in choruses. Macbeth and Banco appear on the opposite side of the stage and, having climbed to the top of the hill, stop. Macbeth’s first words echo the witch’s sentence from the first scene. After the bloody battle in which Macbeth won, he speaks. The culmination of the infernal, or "Gothic" motif in "Macbeth," is the scene of the first act of IV. In this scene, there are not only supernatural images of the power, but also the notion that Macbeth reproduces a certain "Gothic" entourage. Thus, the composition of the infernal potion, which is brewed in a cauldron placed in the "pit of Acheron," is described in the power of detail. It includes a frog that for thirty-one days and as many nights poured poison, bat hair, frog paw, dog tongue, baby finger, born a prostitute in a ditch and strangled at birth, dragon scales, wolf tooth, and many other items, unpleasant or dangerous to humans and Macbeths. These details, of course, increased the fear and disgust of the audience, who retained faith in the power of existence of the afterlife. Therefore, the tragedy "Macbeth" is focused on the analytical perception of the power of good and evil. Macbeths are aware that they stay in power and the reign until Macbeth joins "the dance of death" reflected in the illusions of reality. Macbeth feels the power of reality and realizes how important the life of earthly pleasures is for his ambitions. The power of wisdom is the most essential for Macbeths.

Why is football the most popular sport in UK

Today many individuals are thoroughly involved in this game and the football fever has become so strong and viral that it has taken the height o0f obsession in many individuals. Football has many different forms which are actually seen in the past. Initially this sport started as a game for farmers who made use of a ball made out of animal skin for their entertainment purpose. This was the point where the game started and gained popularity among the local masses. The old school form of football can be traced back to the time when it started to be played in English schools around the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The game became so influential and famous that now it was not just confined to the British Empire but it started to spread abroad too. This game was altered and then was stitched according to the needs of the people who dwelled in the region. In the nineteenth century the first ‘Football League’ was established in England, which started to initiate football competitions on a professional level. This sport gradually became very popular and around the twentieth century it became one of the most popular sports played with a team throughout the world. Thus the game football which is renowned globally took its emergence from the contemporary football games of the British. Football is undoubtedly the most high profile and popular game in the United Kingdom and there is no second thought about that. This is not just the case now. football has had the same importance since generations. Today the case has just exaggerated a bit. The domination of football primarily in 1990’s has emerged as a major threat to various other sports. In the United Kingdom many organs govern the football. ‘The Football Association’ primarily belonging to England and other bodies it has like Scottish, Irish, Welsh etc. these organizations are established so that they can run and look after their own national teams, work on football as a recreational sport and also to organize competitions for the cup. Although these association are not anymore quite significant as professional leagues have overshadowed their popularity. The home regions/nations are responsible to host their own club football tournaments within their district. There are four components in English football that contain a vast amount of football clubs which are merely based on a League system. The high class ‘FA Premier League’comprises of20 teams and is the richest and successful football league present in the world. The remaining three completely professional components are then run by ‘The Football League’ which constitutes of the other seventy two clubs. Yearly growth,promotion and relegations work on the basis of these four components and apart from they also operate amongst the lowest of them and land the lower organs or the football not played within leagues. Apart from the professional clubs there are many small scale football clubs too that are outside the four main components,as well as many more clubs which are partially professional. In short England comprises of more than hundred clubs which are playing professionally altogether, hence England has the honor to house the most clubs than any region in Europe. The most famous and the main football cup competitions that are held in England is firstly the ‘FA Cup’ which is an open to all competition where all men can participate and battle on the field to win, despite only the major professional clubs are seen to reach the finale. The other famous cup competition that is held is known as the ‘League Cup’ which is now commonly referred to as the’Carling Cup’, this cup competition is precisely for the ‘ninety-two

Introduction to

The English at first showed little interest in the religion and culture of India. It was during the days of Warren Hastings that the British began to take real interests in Indian culture and thought. Hastings believed that the quickest route to the heart of the people was through the language of the country. Later in 1792 Charles Grant the director of the East India Company Advocated for making English “a vehicle for importing western ideas’. Raja Ram Mohan Roy believed that English education would lead Indians to advance towards equality with westerners. Knowledge of the English language broke down an age –long barrier between the culture of India and Europe. This in turn helped the educated Indian to imbibe the strong currents of world culture and reinforce his knowledge so as to develop a world outlook and perspective. The creative writing in English by Indian known as Indo Anglian Literature is alter development. This has come to be known as Indo –Anglian writing and has been quite an active school of didactic and creative art for at least a century”. The Indo Anglian writers encountered many handicaps in expressing themselves in a foreign language, nurtures in an alien background. First there has been the difficulty of the medium of expression. The Indian writer in English must be able to use his chosen medium with the fare degree of accuracy both of grammar and Idiom. According to Raja Rao (Preface to Kanthapur a), English is not a foreign tongue in India, but it is only the language for our mental makeup, not of our emotional makeup”. He rightly suggests that the Indian write in English must express “Indian Sensibility” ie to convey the feel of the cultural and emotional life of the people to the readers. But There are a number of eminet writers who have overcome these posed by the medium of expression and achieved international fame and recognition. Tagore, Jawaharlal Nehru, R K Narayan and Mulk raj Anand are only some of them. Another problem which has always inundated Indial English is the prejudice against English. It has always been said that English ia foreign tongue , and such an expression of the deep layers of emotions which is essential for creative writing ,is not possible for Indian writing in English . Such prejudices have diverted the attention of many talented writers. The conscious or unconscious imitation of English writers to the English literary tradition, has also been a serious barrier in the way of the full o growth and maturity of Indo -Anglian literature. It is a fact that they experienced a difficult to easily express without closely following the English literary traditions.. Some other difficulties Indian writers faced was from the publishers of that time. There has been the indifference, even unwillingness of the publishers to publish their works. The Indian publisher was traditionally conservative and unadventurous, and Indo-Anglian works were accepted with great caution . There was the paucity of literary criticism. Literary criticism serves to maintain standards, as well as to recommend the works of literature to the reading public. Indo Anglian literature has suffered both. The Common readers were not truly guided which work to be selected and which to be rejected. Lacking suitable guidance ,it has avoided Indo-Anglian literature and turned to English literature. An impression had been created that the woks of