The Difference of Political System Between Canada and China

The political culture of Canada is described as layered, although the various levels cannot be clearly distinguished. Canadians believe in the democratic form of Government and that the rule of the majority will prevail when a compromise solution cannot be found. The system of Parliamentary democracy also supports political equality, as in one person, one vote. Regular elections are held and citizens are committed voters, but they do not participate actively in the political process and this spectator-participant aspect is characteristic of Canadian political culture ( Canadians also prefer to reply upon Government initiatives to solve economic problems rather than relying upon the private sector. Another layer of political culture in Canada contains their ambivalent attitude towards the United States which is their largest trading partner, yet there is a subtle resistance to the imposition of American interests, especially in English Canada and foreign investments are being restricted. Political culture in Canada is also characterized by regionalism, wherein the political cultures of French-speaking and English speaking Canada are different, because of the different educational systems, religion, and language, with French-speaking Canadians seeking resolutions for their problems from Quebec while English speaking Canadians look for their solutions from Ottawa. Moreover, in the French-speaking areas, primarily Quebec, there is a sense of alienation from the federal government.In the case of China, there has been a long-standing culture based on Confucianism that has been prevalent in the country. But this indigenous political culture has been overlaid to a great extent by the import into the country of Communist models of political culture. (Levenson, 1958-65). However, the Chinese have a unique conception of Government and this has evolved inChina over several years, since the Han dynasty and Tang dynasties.

English Vowels

Both the fields of phonetics and phonology are interested in the way in which humans produce speech. However, the interest of these two fields, within the context of the way in which humans produce speech, is approached from two different perspectives.Phonetics is concerned with the production of sounds called phonemes from a physiological or anatomical perspective (Clark, Yallop Fletcher, 2007, p. 1), or more simply, it is “the study of human speech sounds” (SIL International, 2004). This perspective may look at anatomical considerations such as the placement of tongue as well as the use of the larynx to produce the sounds found within the speech. The study of phonetics is divided into three branches: Articulatory phonetics (which deals the production of sound by vocal apparatus). Acoustic phonetics (which deals with the production of sound waves by the vocal apparatus during speech). and, Auditory phonetics (which deals with how the sound is accepted by the ears and other auditory apparatus).In contrast, phonology examines the way in which the sounds of speech are organized and, therefore, a phonological perspective frequently looks at the way in which patterns of sounds occur within the context of a particular language (Clark, Yallop Fletcher, 2007, p. 2). More simply, phonology is “the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages” (SIL International, 2004).Glide is a phonetic concept that refers to the transition between two sounds (Crystal, 2003, p. 324). It involves the sounds produced with almost no obstruction from the airstream followed by a vowel. For example, ‘w’ in ‘we’, ‘y’ in ‘you’, ‘h’ in hook, and ‘r’ in ‘rod’ simply glide into the preceding vowel.Off-glide refers to the transition made by the vocal organs as they exit one sound and move toward a second sound (Crystal, 2003, p. 324), and maybe represented.

Current Situation Cultural Factors in Brazil for Investing

Brazil is expected to invest the US $18.4bn for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in 12 Brazilian host cities funding 50 projects (Portal Brasil, 2010). By the end of the 1990s, Brazil was ranked tenth in global automotive producers as the nation was willing to experiment with a wide range of supply and production arrangements (Strategic Direction, 2005). Brazil is undoubtedly poised for growth ever since its foreign exchange policy is liberalized. It is moving towards becoming the fifth largest economy (Williams, 2011). However, all these pose a very glamorous image of the nation but businesses desirous of investing in Brazil need to get a complete picture of the benefits and pitfalls. Any disappointments could damage the credibility of the country that it is trying to build up. Economic situation There were more than 10 significant oil discoveries last year which has pushed the nation up in oil producer rankings (The Telegraph, 2011). Brazil is expecting a Tsunami of riches as Petrobras gets full production from the oilfields deep under the Brazilian Seas (O’Shaughnessy, 2009). This would help the nation overcome the repression and torture which impacted the living conditions. Flushed with excessive cash has its pitfalls. Its currency is the most overvalued and real-estate bubble is expected in Brazil as banks have extended risky loans (Lyons, 2011). Cost of doing business in Brazil has risen very fast. Brazil has an abundance of natural resources and could be the world power but poor management and leadership have led to large debts (Balsom, n.d.). Economic growth in Brazil has been built on a very fragile structure as 10% of its population is completely illiterate and 68% functionally illiterate (The Brazil Business, 2011). Millions of students emerge from secondary schools without being able to write in English. What is astonishing is that it is socially accepted and expected that they would not learn anything in school. Unemployment in Brazil was 9.9% as of 2009 (McGladrey, 2010). However, through targeted social programs, through subsidizing house loans and raising the minimum wage the government has been able to pull more than 20 million people out of poverty (The New York Times, 2011). President Lula paved the growth that solidified the country and made it a significant player in the world. However, the next President again has not been able to win the confidence of the people. Thus, on the one hand, while it has an abundance of natural resources, a large industrial base, a huge population base, making the market attractive to investors, economic uncertainties make it difficult to improve its competitiveness or build a modern infrastructure (Austrade, 2001). Labor The nation has a large labor force but the workers are either unskilled or semi-skilled. There is a shortage of technical personnel. Labor unions can be militant especially in the metallurgical, automobile, banking and transport sectors (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). They make a significant force in the country. Fringe benefits and social security for the laborers are not very strong. However, foreign investors do not experience problems with labor because they follow local standards and practices. and the country has been the top producer/exporter of soybeans, cattle and beef products, and poultry.

Voltaires Candide Satirical Analysis of Hypocrisy

This hypocrisy, in Voltaire’s view, needed to be stamped out so as to transform life in Europe. The church, as depicted in Voltaire’s work, is one of the most hypocritical places. Although the priests and other religious leaders preach the idea of a perfect world, created by a perfect God, they fail to practice this perfection. For example, as Candide and Cunegonde are talking to an old woman, the latter reveals that she is the daughter of Pope Urban X and of the Princess of Palestrina (Voltaire 24). The satire in this is that Catholic priests are meant to be celibate, therefore, raising questions as to how a pope would sire a daughter. Nonetheless, the pope is not the only Catholic priest known to have had sexual relations with a woman. According to Voltaire (18), when the grand catholic inquisitor saw Cunegonde at mass, he admired her so much that he instructed the court banker to take Cunegonde in, and the two men would be sharing her. In this scenario, it is not only odd that an inquisitor keeps a mistress, but the fact that he shares her with another man is far worse. Religious leaders are not the only ones whose hypocrisy is satirized by Voltaire. The very authorities that are supposed to ensure the safety and wellbeing of the citizens are to blame for enslavement, oppression, and killings. For instance, according to Voltaire, the English government kills its own admiral for having not killed enough men during a battle with the French (64). This only shows how hypocrisy is rife in the power ranks of many European countries if one is to take into consideration the idea that the admiral may have been killed for other political reasons. Enslavement is also a common practice in Europe, a practice that Voltaire thinks is out-dated. For instance, Voltaire writes of how Cunegonde has been enslaved by the family of an ancient sovereign (77). In her role as a dishwasher for the prince, Cunegonde has become very ugly and lost all her beauty. The satirical part is, the prince does not have that many dishes to be washed, yet the few that Cunegonde washes are enough to make her lose her beauty, thus symbolizing the evil of slavery. Ironically, even the Baron had once been a slave for a crime he did not even know existed. As Voltaire puts it, the Baron, a chaplain, was found bathing in the company of a young Mussulman and was enslaved in the gullies (80). The Baron’s situation epitomizes the religious and political hypocrisy of the time, considering that the baron suffered a hundred blows to his feet as an additional punishment for the crime of bathing with a non-Christian (ibid). The European men during the enlightenment period were of the idea that a chaste woman was the only woman deserving of marriage. However, hypocritically, these are the same men who went around abusing, raping and asking for sexual favors from the very women they expected to remain chaste. For example, while talking about her misfortunes to the old woman, Cunegonde tells of how she had two Bulgarians ravish her. According to Voltaire Cunegonde and her family were ambushed by Bulgarians, who killed her parents, and one of them raped her amidst all her cries and struggles (17).

Americas Executive Document 9066

In a few months, over 110,000 (over 65 percent) were relocated to the internment camps, which were constructed and dispersed in Arizona, California and other states in the western side. There was a special provision for those who were half cast. the American women married to Japanese men had an option to go to the internment camps with their husbands (Harrison). Question 3 The executive order 9066 was unconstitutional and violated several rights due to American citizens. Their right to religion was adversely violated. The practice of Buddhism was prohibited in the internment camps, and there was no placement of Buddhist clergies in the separate camps. The Shinto religion was restricted and Christianity proclaimed and encouraged in the internment camps. Their freedom of speech and press was also contravened with the banning of Japanese speaking in public and the prohibition of reading newspapers in the c The formal language they were expected to speak was English only in public meetings. Breaching their right to assemble, they abolished to do groupings or congregations. Their freedom to petition was not guaranteed, they were, therefore, unable to seek redress. They faced unreasonable seizures and searches. Their right to the indictment was also contravened. Many other rights and freedoms were abridged. Question 2 A multiplicity of issues led to the federal government’s intervention into civil rights. … The exact time span for this movement is debatable but it is common knowledge that key events occurred between the 1950s and 1960s. In 1954, there was a ruling in the Supreme Court against racial segregation amongst students in publicly owned schools. Question 3 The year 1957 saw Arkansas’ governor in a bid to stop nine African American students from joining a high school. The sitting president that time ordered federal officials to enforce the court order. The black’s right to vote was protected by the civil rights act of 1957. The year 1960 saw President J. F. Kennedy intervening to ensure the safety of a group of citizens. These citizens were casualties of the segregation in interstate train and bus stations. Question 4 About ten percent of Mexican nationals live and work in the United States. Immigration policy has been an issue in Congress for a long time. One of the policies was to strengthen migration and border security control. This policy was aimed at deterring and preventing the levels of illegal migrations into the United States. Devised in 1995 and published in 2005, its implementation has been strategic and stepwise. It has included fencing, surveillance and strategically positioned personnel. Another policy was on changing the LPR and non-immigrant visa systems. There was also a policy to legalize certain unauthorized aliens. Many of these options would establish new mechanisms or pathways, with Mexicans being among the largest group of beneficiaries of most such proposals.

The Sale of Goods Act

Satisfactory Quality as envisaged by the Sale of Goods Act, 1979 is a relative term, as the quotient is the satisfactory needs being met of a “reasonable person”, and more often than not is governed by variables like price and description, wherein aspects of durability, safety, appearance and freedom from minor defects are to be considered as an integral part of the evaluation. 1Further thereto, where goods are sold by a trader, the same ought to be reasonably fit for the buyer’s particular purpose, provided the buyer had made his purpose known and relied on the expertise of the seller.2 The dealer was sound only by implied condition as envisaged under Section 14(2) of the Sale of Goods Act, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as the 1979 Act for brevity), where “merchantable quality”3 was given emphasis minor defects would not necessarily mean a downgrade of the marketable quality, it was only a yardstick that the standard to be achieved depending on the market it was aimed at. For example, if a buyer, on the one hand, specified his requirements and relied on his skill and/or judgment, he would be bound by implied conditions in Section 14(3) of the 1979 Act.If on the other hand, a buyer on specifying his requirements, decided on the representation, skill and judgment of the seller, the seller was duty-bound to give the buyer what he wanted, and failing which the buyer was provided in that event of failure, with a remedy in damages. 4This view was further endorsed by the Law commission’s Report of 1987 (Law Com. No. 160) that implied that the goods should be of marketable quality,5 meaning “acceptable quality”.6 In the event the buyers exercised his option of acceptances, he necessarily would bar rejection, which is both a precursor to the buyer’s right to treat the contract as repudiated and the basis for any right to request repair or replacement under English Law.

Cultural Pollution by Immigrants in Anne Tylers Digging to America

The fears of immigrants culturally polluting the United States were expressed as way back as two hundred years ago by Benjamin Franklin. He feared, as early as in 1751 that his home state of Pennsylvania will get overrun by German immigrants. “Why should Palatine Boors be suffered to swarm into our settlements, and by herding together establish their language and manners to the exclusion of ours.” (“Observations concerning the increase of mankind”, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 4 as quoted in Immigrant Voices, page 4) He lamented that few of the children of the Germans would learn English.They would never adopt the language or customs. And finally, he feared that Pennsylvania would get Germanized.The nativists of 1850s feared that the stability of the American culture would get threatened by the immigrants. “Like the founding fathers, American nativists believed republics were fragile creations, endangered by diversity….. They sensibly observed that emigrants could claim American citizenship, long before they had learned the language or customs of the USA.” (Immigration and American Diversity, Donna R. Gabbacia, PP 95,) Because of this fear they demanded that Immigrants should be made to wait for 21 years for getting the citizenship as the American babies had to.Thus in all historical contexts, the cultural issues of Immigration were looked at from an American perspective only. Here is a novelist who is trying to look at the issue from the immigrant’s point of view. During the narration perspectives shift among characters. but Maryam Yazdan, the grant mother from the Iranian American family and her perspectives form the narrative and emotional centre of the novel. Maryam Yazdan came to the United States as a young bride from Iran. She had her childhood in Tehran and came to America as the bride of an Iranian American doctor already established in Baltimore. She became a widow in her forties and had spent thirty-five years in the United States when we meet her in the novel.


I thought it was an easy language to learn because I only used limited, and same, vocabulary all the time. Unfortunately, I was very much mistaken to assume that it would be easy for me to do my postgraduate studies in English. I had expected to "master" the English language in a short space of time because I regard myself as a good student, and the results of my previous tertiary studies confirmed this belief. Few weeks, following my arrival in Australia, I realized how wrong I was. As a prerequisite to study for my Master’s degree, I had to successfully complete an English language course. This was to be done over a period of a few short weeks. As the course started, I became aware of the great difficulties that I will face, not only with language but with my actual Master course. I felt very helpless, isolated, and depressed. After a short period into my English course, I felt like returning home and giving up my pursuit. This was due to a near-complete ignorance of what I was being taught. I had great difficulty understanding what was being said in class, which led to a lack of participation, something that I, the clever student, had never experienced before. Furthermore, I was too embarrassed to ask for clarification. I didn’t want to be the "laughing stock" of the class. On the other hand, my confidence started to weaken, and I started losing confidence in my ability. There were other issues that I suffered from as a result, feeling of despair, failure, embarrassment, and even depression. I couldn’t imagine myself as an "unsuccessful student", as I had never had that experience throughout my academic career.I shared my feelings with some other students from the non-English speaking background, and to my surprise, I wasn’t alone in my "suffering". I soon realized that what I was going through was so common among the majority of my fellow students. Realizing this, I became more вetermined and motivated to achieve my goals.

Australian Cultural Code in Jasper Jones

The author, Craig Silvey, mingles the story with situations arising from the ongoing war in Vietnam without ignoring the Aboriginal agitation for equality. His effort to bring out the struggles the community faces in terms of discrimination and inability to conform is manifested across the Jasper Jones story. While the text is not a comprehensive summary of the Australian struggles with discrimination in the era, it sheds sufficient light on the matter. It has been touted as a good read by numerous academicians who study the issue.Jasper Jones ideas heavily draw from popular opinions from Australians in the 1960s. Silvey talks of multiple racism encounters in the text. A good example is the story of Jasper Jones and Jeffrey Lu. Jeffrey is an Australian Vietnamese. Despite his intellect, he has to endure constant jests at school. He endures bullies, taunting, and other forms of mistreatment from schoolmates no matter what he does to fit in. The fact that he is just a victim of his race is shown when he receives cheers and approval when he is in ‘disguise.’ For instance, when in full cricket regalia, no one can notice Jeffrey and the crowd’s cheer or admire his skill in the field. Removing his helmet reveals his Vietnam roots leading to threats, insults, and even physical confrontation. Jasper Jones sympathizes with his friend Jeffrey since he is also a victim of the same oppression. He is the town’s Aboriginal scapegoat. The residents have labeled him a thief, thug, and truant, who is never up to any good. This reputation always earns him mistreatment in his hometown even though it has no basis. Jasper is disregarded to the extent that he is the example children are threatened with if they start slacking off. Silvey uses these two characters to show us how discrimination in Australia was as long as you were a minority. Charlie, on the other hand, is Lu’s only friend. Even though he is a ‘typical’ Australian, he is still alienated because of his intellect. Instead of playing like his fellow students, he spends time reading books and gathering knowledge. This makes him different, making people at war with him despite his origins, unlike Jeffrey.Silvey uses real-time events to make us feel like the fictional Corrigan town is real. This is a great way to help us tie all the racism events happening in the novel to real life. For instance, Silvey ensures that the main events in the story happen on dates that can be matched with the well-known Vietnamese war. As the war is at its peak, three men from the town join the army. This superimposed on the Aboriginal rights agitation that occurred in 1965 helps us place the story better. Also, his choice to make characters like Jeffrey Lu, a victim at the time when the majority of Australia was against Vietnam, is a good way to tie the story to real life. Some Australians even think he is a spy. Silvey further taps into the White Australian policy that remained active until 1965 to paint the rift. This works well since the treaty does not technically cover Jasper and Jeffrey. By weaving a tell that spans reality and fiction, Silvey ensures that we pay attention and still remember that the story is about real-life issues affecting a realistic society even without mentioning prominent characters in the society.Silvery ensures that the novel uses dialog to show us more about the Aboriginal plight. Other than using Jasper and his friend to highlight the Vietnam war, Silvey also uses Jasper dialog to show us Aboriginals don’t have access to mainstream education. For instance, Jasper uses an Aboriginal English slang in his communication. Contrasting Jasper against Charlie is a good way for Silvey to show us the rift. Jones knows that Charlie is a clever boy. His acknowledgment, to some extent, shows that he understands his shortcomings. Jones, however, does not believe that they should be a basis for all the bullying he receives. For instance, Warwick Trent still picks on Charlie whenever he uses complex words in class. This is the same bully who is at war with Jasper Jones when he uses his abridgments when speaking. This imagery leads us to believe that the racism and discrimination going on was against a minority that the majority felt did not belong. It did not matter what makes you different. The people were scared of your uniqueness and were will to do anything they can to get rid of it.Silvey manages to develop a range of supporting characters who work in tandem with Jasper to tell the story of stereotyping. Language, diction, symbolism, and imagery plays a vital role in making the novel enjoyable while superimposing events with real-life occurrences jolts us back to reality. The author spins a fun tale while still reminding us that Australia is still struggling with racism and xenophobia. The fact that Silvey chooses Jones to be the center of the story gives the tools the novel needs to develop the theme in a relatable way. We end up learning more about the discrimination in the society in a fun way and end up thinking deeply about our role and any of the things we might be doing to propagate it in our lifetime.

The Development Strategies of India and China

In the six decades since the end of the Second World War, the United States had dominated global politics and had also attained the status of an economic and military superpower. But with the onset of globalization, countries with an abundance of cheap labor such as India and China are primed to assume the leadership position in another 10-15 years. India has a huge pool of skilled workers who have the added advantage of proficiency in the English language. The re-election of Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister is also a positive development from an economic perspective, for it was he who initiated India as a participant in globalization in 1991 (Winters Yusuf, 2007). China, on the other hand, started participating in the process of globalization much before India did. As a result, their economy is more than twice that of India and is catching up fast with that of the United States and Japan. Some of the South American countries such as Venezuela and Russia (rich in oil resources) and Brazil (rich in natural resources) also pose a threat to American domination of the global economy. In fact, American media believes that the threat will come from BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). The southeast Asian region also poses a collective threat. The rest of this essay will focus on the development strategies adopted by China and India and how successful they have been in reducing poverty.Ever since the communist revolution of the late 1940s, and the subsequent formation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1949, many positive developments have taken place both within the party as well as for Chinese citizens. The CCP and its cadres “are changing in ways that make creative solutions to political governance problems feasible than a repeated violent reaction to social change, as in 1989” (Smith, 2003). While progress and reform are on the partyagenda, its leadership still retains useful traditions and customs.