The political culture of Canada is described as layered, although the various levels cannot be clearly distinguished. Canadians believe in the democratic form of Government and that the rule of the majority will prevail when a compromise solution cannot be found. The system of Parliamentary democracy also supports political equality, as in one person, one vote. Regular elections are held and citizens are committed voters, but they do not participate actively in the political process and this spectator-participant aspect is characteristic of Canadian political culture (www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com). Canadians also prefer to reply upon Government initiatives to solve economic problems rather than relying upon the private sector. Another layer of political culture in Canada contains their ambivalent attitude towards the United States which is their largest trading partner, yet there is a subtle resistance to the imposition of American interests, especially in English Canada and foreign investments are being restricted. Political culture in Canada is also characterized by regionalism, wherein the political cultures of French-speaking and English speaking Canada are different, because of the different educational systems, religion, and language, with French-speaking Canadians seeking resolutions for their problems from Quebec while English speaking Canadians look for their solutions from Ottawa. Moreover, in the French-speaking areas, primarily Quebec, there is a sense of alienation from the federal government.In the case of China, there has been a long-standing culture based on Confucianism that has been prevalent in the country. But this indigenous political culture has been overlaid to a great extent by the import into the country of Communist models of political culture. (Levenson, 1958-65). However, the Chinese have a unique conception of Government and this has evolved inChina over several years, since the Han dynasty and Tang dynasties.
Both the fields of phonetics and phonology are interested in the way in which humans produce speech. However, the interest of these two fields, within the context of the way in which humans produce speech, is approached from two different perspectives.Phonetics is concerned with the production of sounds called phonemes from a physiological or anatomical perspective (Clark, Yallop Fletcher, 2007, p. 1), or more simply, it is “the study of human speech sounds” (SIL International, 2004). This perspective may look at anatomical considerations such as the placement of tongue as well as the use of the larynx to produce the sounds found within the speech. The study of phonetics is divided into three branches: Articulatory phonetics (which deals the production of sound by vocal apparatus). Acoustic phonetics (which deals with the production of sound waves by the vocal apparatus during speech). and, Auditory phonetics (which deals with how the sound is accepted by the ears and other auditory apparatus).In contrast, phonology examines the way in which the sounds of speech are organized and, therefore, a phonological perspective frequently looks at the way in which patterns of sounds occur within the context of a particular language (Clark, Yallop Fletcher, 2007, p. 2). More simply, phonology is “the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural languages” (SIL International, 2004).Glide is a phonetic concept that refers to the transition between two sounds (Crystal, 2003, p. 324). It involves the sounds produced with almost no obstruction from the airstream followed by a vowel. For example, ‘w’ in ‘we’, ‘y’ in ‘you’, ‘h’ in hook, and ‘r’ in ‘rod’ simply glide into the preceding vowel.Off-glide refers to the transition made by the vocal organs as they exit one sound and move toward a second sound (Crystal, 2003, p. 324), and maybe represented.
Brazil is expected to invest the US $18.4bn for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in 12 Brazilian host cities funding 50 projects (Portal Brasil, 2010). By the end of the 1990s, Brazil was ranked tenth in global automotive producers as the nation was willing to experiment with a wide range of supply and production arrangements (Strategic Direction, 2005). Brazil is undoubtedly poised for growth ever since its foreign exchange policy is liberalized. It is moving towards becoming the fifth largest economy (Williams, 2011). However, all these pose a very glamorous image of the nation but businesses desirous of investing in Brazil need to get a complete picture of the benefits and pitfalls. Any disappointments could damage the credibility of the country that it is trying to build up. Economic situation There were more than 10 significant oil discoveries last year which has pushed the nation up in oil producer rankings (The Telegraph, 2011). Brazil is expecting a Tsunami of riches as Petrobras gets full production from the oilfields deep under the Brazilian Seas (O’Shaughnessy, 2009). This would help the nation overcome the repression and torture which impacted the living conditions. Flushed with excessive cash has its pitfalls. Its currency is the most overvalued and real-estate bubble is expected in Brazil as banks have extended risky loans (Lyons, 2011). Cost of doing business in Brazil has risen very fast. Brazil has an abundance of natural resources and could be the world power but poor management and leadership have led to large debts (Balsom, n.d.). Economic growth in Brazil has been built on a very fragile structure as 10% of its population is completely illiterate and 68% functionally illiterate (The Brazil Business, 2011). Millions of students emerge from secondary schools without being able to write in English. What is astonishing is that it is socially accepted and expected that they would not learn anything in school. Unemployment in Brazil was 9.9% as of 2009 (McGladrey, 2010). However, through targeted social programs, through subsidizing house loans and raising the minimum wage the government has been able to pull more than 20 million people out of poverty (The New York Times, 2011). President Lula paved the growth that solidified the country and made it a significant player in the world. However, the next President again has not been able to win the confidence of the people. Thus, on the one hand, while it has an abundance of natural resources, a large industrial base, a huge population base, making the market attractive to investors, economic uncertainties make it difficult to improve its competitiveness or build a modern infrastructure (Austrade, 2001). Labor The nation has a large labor force but the workers are either unskilled or semi-skilled. There is a shortage of technical personnel. Labor unions can be militant especially in the metallurgical, automobile, banking and transport sectors (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). They make a significant force in the country. Fringe benefits and social security for the laborers are not very strong. However, foreign investors do not experience problems with labor because they follow local standards and practices. and the country has been the top producer/exporter of soybeans, cattle and beef products, and poultry.
This hypocrisy, in Voltaire’s view, needed to be stamped out so as to transform life in Europe. The church, as depicted in Voltaire’s work, is one of the most hypocritical places. Although the priests and other religious leaders preach the idea of a perfect world, created by a perfect God, they fail to practice this perfection. For example, as Candide and Cunegonde are talking to an old woman, the latter reveals that she is the daughter of Pope Urban X and of the Princess of Palestrina (Voltaire 24). The satire in this is that Catholic priests are meant to be celibate, therefore, raising questions as to how a pope would sire a daughter. Nonetheless, the pope is not the only Catholic priest known to have had sexual relations with a woman. According to Voltaire (18), when the grand catholic inquisitor saw Cunegonde at mass, he admired her so much that he instructed the court banker to take Cunegonde in, and the two men would be sharing her. In this scenario, it is not only odd that an inquisitor keeps a mistress, but the fact that he shares her with another man is far worse. Religious leaders are not the only ones whose hypocrisy is satirized by Voltaire. The very authorities that are supposed to ensure the safety and wellbeing of the citizens are to blame for enslavement, oppression, and killings. For instance, according to Voltaire, the English government kills its own admiral for having not killed enough men during a battle with the French (64). This only shows how hypocrisy is rife in the power ranks of many European countries if one is to take into consideration the idea that the admiral may have been killed for other political reasons. Enslavement is also a common practice in Europe, a practice that Voltaire thinks is out-dated. For instance, Voltaire writes of how Cunegonde has been enslaved by the family of an ancient sovereign (77). In her role as a dishwasher for the prince, Cunegonde has become very ugly and lost all her beauty. The satirical part is, the prince does not have that many dishes to be washed, yet the few that Cunegonde washes are enough to make her lose her beauty, thus symbolizing the evil of slavery. Ironically, even the Baron had once been a slave for a crime he did not even know existed. As Voltaire puts it, the Baron, a chaplain, was found bathing in the company of a young Mussulman and was enslaved in the gullies (80). The Baron’s situation epitomizes the religious and political hypocrisy of the time, considering that the baron suffered a hundred blows to his feet as an additional punishment for the crime of bathing with a non-Christian (ibid). The European men during the enlightenment period were of the idea that a chaste woman was the only woman deserving of marriage. However, hypocritically, these are the same men who went around abusing, raping and asking for sexual favors from the very women they expected to remain chaste. For example, while talking about her misfortunes to the old woman, Cunegonde tells of how she had two Bulgarians ravish her. According to Voltaire Cunegonde and her family were ambushed by Bulgarians, who killed her parents, and one of them raped her amidst all her cries and struggles (17).
In a few months, over 110,000 (over 65 percent) were relocated to the internment camps, which were constructed and dispersed in Arizona, California and other states in the western side. There was a special provision for those who were half cast. the American women married to Japanese men had an option to go to the internment camps with their husbands (Harrison). Question 3 The executive order 9066 was unconstitutional and violated several rights due to American citizens. Their right to religion was adversely violated. The practice of Buddhism was prohibited in the internment camps, and there was no placement of Buddhist clergies in the separate camps. The Shinto religion was restricted and Christianity proclaimed and encouraged in the internment camps. Their freedom of speech and press was also contravened with the banning of Japanese speaking in public and the prohibition of reading newspapers in the c The formal language they were expected to speak was English only in public meetings. Breaching their right to assemble, they abolished to do groupings or congregations. Their freedom to petition was not guaranteed, they were, therefore, unable to seek redress. They faced unreasonable seizures and searches. Their right to the indictment was also contravened. Many other rights and freedoms were abridged. Question 2 A multiplicity of issues led to the federal government’s intervention into civil rights. … The exact time span for this movement is debatable but it is common knowledge that key events occurred between the 1950s and 1960s. In 1954, there was a ruling in the Supreme Court against racial segregation amongst students in publicly owned schools. Question 3 The year 1957 saw Arkansas’ governor in a bid to stop nine African American students from joining a high school. The sitting president that time ordered federal officials to enforce the court order. The black’s right to vote was protected by the civil rights act of 1957. The year 1960 saw President J. F. Kennedy intervening to ensure the safety of a group of citizens. These citizens were casualties of the segregation in interstate train and bus stations. Question 4 About ten percent of Mexican nationals live and work in the United States. Immigration policy has been an issue in Congress for a long time. One of the policies was to strengthen migration and border security control. This policy was aimed at deterring and preventing the levels of illegal migrations into the United States. Devised in 1995 and published in 2005, its implementation has been strategic and stepwise. It has included fencing, surveillance and strategically positioned personnel. Another policy was on changing the LPR and non-immigrant visa systems. There was also a policy to legalize certain unauthorized aliens. Many of these options would establish new mechanisms or pathways, with Mexicans being among the largest group of beneficiaries of most such proposals.
Satisfactory Quality as envisaged by the Sale of Goods Act, 1979 is a relative term, as the quotient is the satisfactory needs being met of a “reasonable person”, and more often than not is governed by variables like price and description, wherein aspects of durability, safety, appearance and freedom from minor defects are to be considered as an integral part of the evaluation. 1Further thereto, where goods are sold by a trader, the same ought to be reasonably fit for the buyer’s particular purpose, provided the buyer had made his purpose known and relied on the expertise of the seller.2 The dealer was sound only by implied condition as envisaged under Section 14(2) of the Sale of Goods Act, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as the 1979 Act for brevity), where “merchantable quality”3 was given emphasis minor defects would not necessarily mean a downgrade of the marketable quality, it was only a yardstick that the standard to be achieved depending on the market it was aimed at. For example, if a buyer, on the one hand, specified his requirements and relied on his skill and/or judgment, he would be bound by implied conditions in Section 14(3) of the 1979 Act.If on the other hand, a buyer on specifying his requirements, decided on the representation, skill and judgment of the seller, the seller was duty-bound to give the buyer what he wanted, and failing which the buyer was provided in that event of failure, with a remedy in damages. 4This view was further endorsed by the Law commission’s Report of 1987 (Law Com. No. 160) that implied that the goods should be of marketable quality,5 meaning “acceptable quality”.6 In the event the buyers exercised his option of acceptances, he necessarily would bar rejection, which is both a precursor to the buyer’s right to treat the contract as repudiated and the basis for any right to request repair or replacement under English Law.
The fears of immigrants culturally polluting the United States were expressed as way back as two hundred years ago by Benjamin Franklin. He feared, as early as in 1751 that his home state of Pennsylvania will get overrun by German immigrants. “Why should Palatine Boors be suffered to swarm into our settlements, and by herding together establish their language and manners to the exclusion of ours.” (“Observations concerning the increase of mankind”, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 4 as quoted in Immigrant Voices, page 4) He lamented that few of the children of the Germans would learn English.They would never adopt the language or customs. And finally, he feared that Pennsylvania would get Germanized.The nativists of 1850s feared that the stability of the American culture would get threatened by the immigrants. “Like the founding fathers, American nativists believed republics were fragile creations, endangered by diversity….. They sensibly observed that emigrants could claim American citizenship, long before they had learned the language or customs of the USA.” (Immigration and American Diversity, Donna R. Gabbacia, PP 95,) Because of this fear they demanded that Immigrants should be made to wait for 21 years for getting the citizenship as the American babies had to.Thus in all historical contexts, the cultural issues of Immigration were looked at from an American perspective only. Here is a novelist who is trying to look at the issue from the immigrant’s point of view. During the narration perspectives shift among characters. but Maryam Yazdan, the grant mother from the Iranian American family and her perspectives form the narrative and emotional centre of the novel. Maryam Yazdan came to the United States as a young bride from Iran. She had her childhood in Tehran and came to America as the bride of an Iranian American doctor already established in Baltimore. She became a widow in her forties and had spent thirty-five years in the United States when we meet her in the novel.
I thought it was an easy language to learn because I only used limited, and same, vocabulary all the time. Unfortunately, I was very much mistaken to assume that it would be easy for me to do my postgraduate studies in English. I had expected to "master" the English language in a short space of time because I regard myself as a good student, and the results of my previous tertiary studies confirmed this belief. Few weeks, following my arrival in Australia, I realized how wrong I was. As a prerequisite to study for my Master’s degree, I had to successfully complete an English language course. This was to be done over a period of a few short weeks. As the course started, I became aware of the great difficulties that I will face, not only with language but with my actual Master course. I felt very helpless, isolated, and depressed. After a short period into my English course, I felt like returning home and giving up my pursuit. This was due to a near-complete ignorance of what I was being taught. I had great difficulty understanding what was being said in class, which led to a lack of participation, something that I, the clever student, had never experienced before. Furthermore, I was too embarrassed to ask for clarification. I didn’t want to be the "laughing stock" of the class. On the other hand, my confidence started to weaken, and I started losing confidence in my ability. There were other issues that I suffered from as a result, feeling of despair, failure, embarrassment, and even depression. I couldn’t imagine myself as an "unsuccessful student", as I had never had that experience throughout my academic career.I shared my feelings with some other students from the non-English speaking background, and to my surprise, I wasn’t alone in my "suffering". I soon realized that what I was going through was so common among the majority of my fellow students. Realizing this, I became more вetermined and motivated to achieve my goals.
This paper illustrates that during construction one must be able to understand elements such as space, centers, boundaries, paths and alignments during construction. According to David Summers conceptualization, the center was used to define a place where heavens could be traced.According to this author, the center was not articulated initially but stones were placed as signs of signifying the rising of the sun and moon1. The author also argues that paths are important since they acknowledge places and centers hence providing a means of approach and departure. He further argues that the paths cannot be in place without the concept of understanding lines. According to the author, most of the lines converge at the center. On the other hand, the purpose of alignment is to put the center in the most direct possible contact with the external thing that may be the moon, mountain or another center. Using David Summer’s conceptualization the building was located in the center. Surrounding the mansion was a brick wall in a rectangular manner. The building was located at the center to allow for approach and departure from both sides. From the gate directly to the main entrance of the building is a path neatly done with stone blocks. The main entry faces the gate. This is aimed at ensuring that visitors do not interfere with private properties. The direct path from the gate is also important in case of emergency and this can help in the evacuation. From the main door inside the building is a path that leads to the sitting room and to the diner. On the left is the visitor’s bedroom. There is a considerable space between the dining room and the sitting room allowing space for easy movement. The main window is located just near the main entrance door which also illuminates light into the house. The path from the main entrance leads directly to an exit which can also be used as an emergency door in case of any danger. The rear end of the building also contains a wider spacing which is open. However, this spacing is private in the sense that only recommended people can access it especially those living and working within the building.
There are positive as well as negative forces ruling the human mind and people usually enhance their intrinsic positive powers through prayers and good deeds to keep the negative influences under control. If these antagonistic forces are allowed to flourish, they can wreak havoc on people’s minds and urge them to behave in a devilish manner. The evil spirit resides within all human beings and if it is not subjugated properly, it compels men to commit acts of crime. These actions can harm other persons directly or can impede the sinner’s relationship with his beloved people. Douglass begins his account by reminiscing about some memories of his childhood. Though he knew that he was born in Tuckahoe, Hillsborough in Talbot County, he never had an idea about his age. His master had never felt the need to inform him and whenever Douglass had gone to him with such a query, it had been turned down. The author confesses that this had created confusion in his young mind. The neighboring fair-skinned children could all tell their respective ages, while Douglass was kept ignorant of the same. The author begins his autobiography on a despondent note which sets the tone for the narration of his miserable life which is to follow. The readers can almost sense that his unhappy childhood would lead the way into depressing adult life. There is something secretive about his pedigree which Douglass’s master refused to let him know. This sense of secrecy raises doubts about the character and intentions of his master. They somehow indicate that Douglas’s owner is not an honest man. Thus, as Douglas’s account portrays the emergence of the negative human traits overshadowing the positive forces, the stage is almost set to exhibit how these negative forces can bring out devilish behavior in humans. Similarly, Hawthorne’s story young Goodman Brown also begins on an ominous note. The author depicts his protagonist Goodman Brown leaving behind his newly-married young wife ‘Faith’ to embark on a serious errand.