There are 2 strains of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2. More often than not, it is HIV-1 that is identified among patients. Some patients may be positive to both types of viruses. HIV-2 infection is most commonly encountered in the Western part of Africa (Abdelmalek, 2011). HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis.Research statement: HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis. The most common route of acquisition is perinatal transmission.A. Description of HIV infectionTransmission Vertical transmission is the most common route of acquisition of childhood HIV infection and without intervention, perinatal acquisition risk is 25- 40 percent (Abdelmalek, 2011). In United States, perinatal acquisition from mother accounts for more than 80 percent cases of childhood HIV infection (CDC, 2009). Perinatal transmission can occur any time, like in utero, in the peripartum period and during breast feeding. The transmissibility of HIV through breast milk is actually very less (WHO, 2007). However, cumulative exposure of the baby to cell-free HIV RNA is the main cause of postnatal transmission of HIV through breast feeding. Other means of transmission like transmission through blood and blood products and injections are very rare in developed countries like United States, but do exist in some developing countries (Abdelmalek, 2011). … II. Research statement: HIV is a pandemic disease that has its implications on all aspects of life and affects every strata of the society. HIV infection in children is rapidly progressive with poor prognosis. The most common route of acquisition is perinatal transmission. III. Evidence to support thesis A. Description of HIV infection 1. Transmission Vertical transmission is the most common route of acquisition of childhood HIV infection and without intervention, perinatal acquisition risk is 25- 40 percent (Abdelmalek, 2011). In United States, perinatal acquisition from mother accounts for more than 80 percent cases of childhood HIV infection (CDC, 2009). Perinatal transmission can occur any time, like in utero, in the peripartum period and during breast feeding. The transmissibility of HIV through breast milk is actually very less (WHO, 2007). However, cumulative exposure of the baby to cell-free HIV RNA is the main cause of postnatal transmission of HIV through breast feeding. Other means of transmission like transmission through blood and blood products and injections are very rare in developed countries like United States, but do exist in some developing countries (Abdelmalek, 2011). B. Pathophysiology HIV is a retrovirus that has several proteins, both structural and non-structural, which determine the interaction between the immune system of the host and the virus. The virus mainly attaches to the cells of the host through association of the surface glycoprotein with the CD4 molecule of the cells. It is because of this reason that HIV mainly infects cells with CD4, namely macrophages and lymphocytes. On entry of the virus core into the cytoplasm of the cell of the host, the reverse transcriptase of the virus copies the RNA of the
She not only accomplishes the goal of her mother on her behalf, but also gets to learn more about her mother as a result of the unique experience of reuniting with her long lost and never seen before half-sisters. Jing-mei and Waverly share the feeling of regret of having lost ties with their indigenous Chinese culture in their attempts to identify themselves with the Americans. Jing-mei and Waverly share the same cultural differences with their respective mothers which also happen to be the cause of misunderstandings between the daughters and the mothers. On one hand, Jing-mei does not find her mother as supportive, understanding, and leveraging as she would like her to be as an American and on the other hand, Waverly is uncomfortable with and afraid of the criticism that her mother offers to Waverly’s fiance Rich. “But I worried for Rich. Because I knew my feelings for him were vulnerable to being felled by my mother’s suspicions, passing remarks, and innuendos” (Tan 175). … Waverly seems to be setting the standards and Jing-mei seems to be knocked out mostly. This can be fundamentally attributed to the fact that rather than realize her own potential and qualities, Jing-mei keeps comparing herself to Waverly all the time. Waverly inherits invisible strength from her mother that she uses to strategize, and when she does that to Jing-mei, Jing-mei feels downplayed. The very strength makes Waverly develop a sense of competitiveness because of which, she becomes Jing-mei’s rival and insults her at the dinner of Suyuan’s New Year in front of others. Jing-mei finds Waverly too difficult and offensive to talk to. She explains this in these words, “I felt like screaming. She could be so sneaky with her insults. Every time I asked her the simplest of tax questions, for example, she could turn the conversation around and make it seem as if I were too cheap to pay for her legal advice” (Tan 204). The Episode of crabs illustrates that Waverly wants only the very best and is intelligent enough to choose it while Jing-mei is not which is why she does not know what are the best qualities to look for in a crab and also she gets belittled by Waverly at the dinner. Jing-mei’s relation toward Waverly changes over time as she reflects upon her own weaknesses. She realizes that in her attempt to keep competing with Waverly, she has been finding herself coming up short. “I turned on the water to wash the dishes. And I no longer felt angry at Waverly. I felt tired and foolish, as if I had been running to escape someone chasing me, only to look behind and discover there was no one there” (Tan 207). In spite of her weaknesses and insecurities, Jing-mei has a lot of room for improvement and she does improve as the novel
The issue of Dyslexia has been recognized to be as significant, like small children who are not able to express their feelings completely go through issues at school and in front of their friends. They may have a varying IQ and hence they may be really good in school are otherwise. However, they require special attention from their teachers and care-takers. they may need help in areas other normal children may not.The Irish community and the government have been kind and proactive enough to understand this situation and include the training of school teachers and representatives regarding dealing with children or people suffering from this issue. However, there needs to be an effort from the child as well. Being denied from a capability would require certain coping skills from the children so that they are able to live with self-esteem in their society. However, struggling with dyslexia and its related issues before being diagnosed can have a sufficient impact on the personality of the children, which may be visible with time to come. This research aims to understand the issues that children may face before being diagnosed and the necessary coping skills that they needed at that time.The research aims to develop an understanding of the issues that children might face when they are suffering from dyslexia. An example of an issue that they might face is that of low self-esteem and confidence in front of their peers. In the case of visual dyslexia, they might not be as good in academics as their peers are and hence create self-esteem issues. At such a young age, certain coping skills that are needed to manage the situation and emerge out as a winner. The research aims to identify such coping skills that may be required in children to successfully manage tough situations before being diagnosed with dyslexia.The general objective of this research is to outline the issues that dyslexic children may face prior to diagnosis and understand the various kinds of coping skills.
The major blood vessels which constitute this circulation are the left main coronary artery and the right main coronary artery, both of which originate at the base of the aorta from openings called the coronary Ostia located behind the aortic valve leaflets (Klabunde, “Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts”). The left main coronary artery is usually larger than the right one and divides into the left anterior descending and circumflex branches (Figure-1). The right coronary artery gives out branches like the marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery. The coronary arteries and their branches lie on the surface of the heart and hence are also known as epicardial coronary vessels. The branches of the main arteries further branch out into arterioles and finally form a microvascular network of capillaries. These capillaries lie adjacent to cardiac myocytes. There will be many capillaries adjacent to each cardiomyocyte so that the capillary-to-cardiomyocyte ratio is high and this enables adequate oxygen supply to the heart cells. The arteries and arterioles have much less vascular resistance than the microvascular bed in healthy persons so that there is a free flow of blood to the capillary bed. The capillary bed enters venules which join together and form cardiac veins. Removal of waste products from the heart cells is done through this circuit. Most of the cardiac veins drain into the coronary sinus located on the posterior side of the heart. The coronary sinus drains into the right atrium. This completes the coronary circulation. The anterior cardiac veins and the thespian veins drain directly into the cardiac chambers (Klabunde, “Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts”). Most of the coronary flow occurs during diastole because, during systole, there is marked extravascular compression which affects coronary flow (Levick, “Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology”).There is good autoregulation between 60 and 200 mmHg perfusion pressure that maintains normal coronary blood flow whenever coronary perfusion pressure changes due to changes in aortic pressure.
Since the banning of Cleland’s novel, censorship has been used to protect people from improper media according to the standards of the government and smaller organizations that focus on censorship, though this has sparked the issue of how much censorship is too much censorship. The act of censorship is now done more for the benefit of children, yet many people believe it should be the responsibility of the parent to monitor what their children read or watch and not the responsibility of the government or a stranger from an organization. After all, Cleland’s novel was proven to be harmless. However, this might be different if the book were in the hands of a child. It has been brought up of whether or not media should be censored since times and opinions have changed, and if media is censored if adults should also face censorship to strengthen the protection towards children.The practice of censorship has evolved to protect children more than anybody else, though adults are also affected by this as it becomes difficult for them to access their own mature media. Books and movies that are considered inappropriate are kept out of reach from younger children. These pieces of media contain subject matter that is too advanced for children, such as excessive violence, sexual activity, drug and alcohol use, or other topics that are thought to be taboo or else unsuitable for young eyes. This is perhaps the main reason, if not the only reason, why books and movies, as well as many video games, are censored from children. Censorship is not done out of a need to deny children of their entertainment, but to ensure that younger children are obtaining entertainment that is right for them. This may also prove to be overly paternalistic to parents since it may mean difficulties in obtaining their own entertainment, but they still need to play their part in making sure that children cannot access their adult material.On the other side of the argument against censoring media is that it causes many people to cross the line between protecting and overprotecting a child.
This paper, therefore, looks at the major reasons why a large number of individuals resort to the black market for cosmetic surgical procedures, including affordable procedures on the black market and more important given to cost than the quality of the procedures. This paper will include a brief discussion of the feminist view of cosmetic surgery.Recently, the demand for cosmetic surgery of all sorts has risen considerably. A larger number of people are demanding cosmetic surgery, and they are pursuing it more openly and to a greater extent. The dramatic growth in cosmetic surgery has brought about a major reaction. Laws were made to make it more difficult to acquire cosmetic surgery, laws which negatively affected those who actually required cosmetic surgery (Holliday Taylor 181). It has also encouraged cosmetic surgery procedures underground, which implies that a huge number of people come to urban areas trying to acquire cosmetic surgery on the black market. The growth in cosmetic surgery in the past decades can be attributed to two reasons (Mohr A17): (1) cosmetic surgical technologies have become more affordable, more secure, more flexible and more easily accessible on the black market. and, (2) cosmetic surgery has given people the chance to experience having another body or a drastically improved appearance.Americans spend huge amounts of money on cosmetic surgery. As reported by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, “Americans spent nearly $10.7 billion on cosmetic procedures in 2010” (Palser 27). This involves cosmetic surgical procedures, like liposuction to get rid of undesirable fat, nose reconstruction, facelifts, and breast augmentation. It also involves nonsurgical cosmetic procedures, like laser hair removal and facial cleansing. The vast majority of all procedures were done on women. Some individuals pay for reconstructive plastic surgery.
Significant changes have already been made in financial policies. Organizations have also changed their strategies in order to cope up with the losses that are made due to this turmoil. This paper helps to have a clear understanding of the recent global financial crisis and its nature. Moreover, it also gives a fair idea about the way in which the financial crisis has influenced the effectiveness of the operations of multinational corporations.In the latter half of 2008, the biggest financial crisis since the Great Depression started off its journey. Over the next few months, billions of investments that were related to mortgage went bad. Mighty investment banks that used to dominate the financial market were either collapsed or were reinvented as commercial banks. The place of origin of this crisis was the US and it is the most affected country by this financial turmoil so far. US government seized the country’s largest insurance company (AIG) and the largest lending company (Washington Mutual). A huge amount of money was pumped into the system by the Federal Reserve. A 700 billion dollars bailout plan was passed by Congress. Such actions prevented a full-scale meltdown. The crisis, however, spread throughout the globe, causing the collapse of banks around Europe and forcing countries from Pakistan to Iceland to seek emergency financial support from the International Monitory Fund. A ferocious circle of reduced demand, rapid job cut and tightening credit was formed and the global economy got into recession (The New York Times, 2010).In 2009 most of the countries took steps for stimulating their economies. In the US a stimulus package of $787 billion was passed. China also undertook a $500 million stimulus plan. Central banks of various countries cut interest rates. Federal Reserve however took an extraordinary step by purchasing mortgage-backed securities worth more than $1 trillion. Automobile giants like Chrysler and GeneralMotors were forced by the government to declare bankruptcy.
The existence of Proctor changed for the worse when Abigail blames Elizabeth, who ends up in jail. The blame game started because of the adultery that he committed. When a tragic play ends, the audience is usually pitiful towards the departed idol. Such a situation is called catharsis.John Proctor – a tragic hero in The Crucible, leaves the audience in distress when the play ends. The character of John fits that of a tragic hero because his character has characteristics that are associated with unfortunate events, including peripeteia and hamartia. Proctor has very decent characteristics, although he was not born in nobility. He had too much pride, which ultimately made him meet his death. Before the play ends, Proctor is asked to append his signatures on a piece of paper that has his name on it. The paper was a confession that he assisted the devil. Proctor, however, refused to sign because his name was on the paper! He valued his name so much. Proctors pride further made him believe that it was okay to die rather than to confess and, in the process, damage his reputation. It was clear that there was a fight between Proctors conscience and his egotism.When proceedings were ongoing, John Proctor did not throw Abigail under the bus, to shield his name from slander. John cared about his reputation and name. He did not want the two to be ruined. There was a point that Proctors society respected and looked up to him, and he did not want to destroy the relationship. Proctor further admitted that we would never change his name to another for as long as he lived since he was an adulterer, and if he changed it, he would ruin his good reputation in the society that respected him. Proctors society was a Puritan one, and any form of lustfulness and adultery was considered awful and unacceptable. Proctor, therefore, has a lot to lose in this society if he confessed to anything. Proctor tried extremely hard to salvage his name by keeping the secret between him and Abigail. If the society got wind of the tragic event that took place between the two, his name would be ruined entirely without a possible chance of him ever salvaging it again. Proctor would also lose the respect of a society that held him high and treated him like an idol. If brought to the attention of society, his actions would not end well. The punishment would be severe and lead to a tragic event like death.
The doctrine of conversion has been abrogated. For allintents and purposes, the beneficiary’s interest in the property subject to trust is now regarded as one which is directly linked to the use of the property.4 As such the courts are required by the TLATA to take the use-value of the property into consideration when approached to make an order for sale. This paper examines the impact of the TLATA on the courts when required to consider making an order for the sale of property held subject to a trust.The doctrine of conversion arose out of a concept that once a man delegated his realty to trustees his intention was to benefit from its conversion to some sort of liquid value.5 However, the courts began to take a position which increasingly recognized that the beneficiary under a trust of realty went beyond the monetary value of the property.6 This was particularly so in cases where a beneficiary actually occupied the property in question or had a right or intention to occupy the land. For instance in Williams Glyns Bank v Boland  AC 487 the Court of Appeal determined that although only the husband’s name appeared on the title deeds to the matrimonial home, the wife who had provided part of the initial deposit for the purchase price acquired an interest that went beyond the proceeds of the sale. 7 The wife was found to have a right to occupy the premises.8“Where land is held by trustees subject to a trust for sale, the land is not to be regarded as personal property. and where personal property is subject to a trust for sale in order that the trustees may acquire land, the personal property is not to be regarded as land.”9Section three, therefore, provides the legislative justification for courts to take into account the modern domestic view of the property. It is consistent with the approach taken by the courts over the years.
Concrete Island forms the second book in the JG Ballard’s thematic trilogy novels based on the urban disaster in England. This novel is followed by “High-Rise” and preceded by “Crash”. As the name implies, the book is about a Concrete island that is not a natural island but a manmade one formed by the intersection of three speeding motorways. This manmade island is a triangular section of land and is as isolated as a geographical island. The concrete island virtually traps the protagonist, the wealthy architect Maitland and stops every means of escape. The island is compared to a living thing that changes its form like a chameleon. It first gets hold of his car wrecking it up so that his one escape means gets destroyed and later grasps him, claws at him and forbids him to leave it until he himself has an upper hand on the island and thaw all its moves with the help of his intelligence and instinct. Maitland finds himself trapped in this triangular piece of land while life goes on as usual in that metro city. People even see him from their passing cars but mistake him for a bummer and refuses to stop. But, as the protagonist becomes more and more acquainted with the forgotten piece of landscape, he feels more comfortable living there, until he finds that the island is the mirror image of his self, “I am the island” (pg. 10-11) and he decides to continue to stay. There are various factors that made Maitland stay on on the concrete island. Let’s explore some of them.Maitland is a thirty-plus modern-day Robinson Crusoe who is stuck in an island of concrete with no means of escape. He is a rich architect living a fast and furious life who has a wife along with a mistress, a high profile job and all the luxuries that life can give him but no time for himself.He is basically running off from one appointment to the other with little time for a break, speeding up his vehicle, until destiny puts a comma on his life and he gets a chance to evaluate his inner self and take destiny in his own hands by deciding to stay on in the void created by humans even when the chance to escape is presented to him.